Skip to main content
Internet Archive's 25th Anniversary Logo

Full text of "History of the 121st regiment Pennsylvania volunteers. "An account from the ranks.""

See other formats


m)mitii» it m m(immtmiinmmmn im"mrrrrr"^rrtfrr-fKr" — 'r — — --'——■-■----— -^ — fT--'TririrTiiiirrT<rrnifiiirfiiirirmirriiiiiiiiiiiriiii iiiii..iii,j.,iliji.ij.,j.i)i.i 



'an^ 




(;'5S85?«S5'^% 




Class 



" "i 



Book 



oiri'^ieiAr, IJONAXION. 




COI.O.NKI, (IIAI'.MAX r.IDDF.K. 



HISTORY 



OF THE 



I2l$t Regiment 
Pennsvlvdtiia Volunteers 



AN ACCOUNT FROM THE RANKS" 




BY THE 



SURVIVORS' ASSOCIATION, 



Revised Edition. 



Press of 

catholic standard and times, 

philadelphia, pa. 

1906. 



(Copyright, 1905, by Wm. W. Strong, Villanova, Delaware County, Pa.) 



Di (f ''< 



This \\^lume is Dedicated 
• TO THE Memory 

OF 

Our Fallen Comrades. 

"By Their Services 

They Shed an Undying Lustre 

Upon Their Country's History ; 

AND Dying, 

Won for Themselves 

A Renown as Imperishable 

As the Holy Cause for which They Fought." 




GROUP OF COMMITTKE OX REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 




Principal Engagements 

in which the 

One Hundred and Twenty-first Regiment Penna. Vols. 

Bore a Part. 



Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862 

Chancellorsville, Va May 3-5, 1863 

Gettysburg, Pa., July 1-3, 1863 

Wilderness, Va., May 5-7, 1864 

Spottsylvania, Va., May 8-20, 1864 

North Anna, Va., May 23-27, 1864 

Totopotomay, Va., May 28-31, 1864 

Bethesda Church, Va. June 1-5, 1864 

Cold Harbor, Va June 6-12, 1864 

Petersburg, Va., June, 1864, to March, 1865 

Weldon Railroad, Va., August 21, 1864 

Poplar Grove Church, or Peeble's Farm, Va., October i, 1864 

Dabney's Mill, or Hatcher's Run, Va.. . . February 6-7, 1865 

Boydton Plank Road, Va March 31, 1865 

Five Forks, Va., April i, 1865 

Appomattox Court House, Va., .... April 9, 1865 



PREFACE. 



No structure can be erected until the various parts composing it 
are furnished and jiroperly prepared, and no history of our Civil War 
will be complete until the histories of the various organizations which 
took part in it are furnished. The wise enactment of a law by the 
Pennsylvania Legislature during the present administration has furn- 
ished an incentive to the publication of such histories. 

In response to the invitation held out by this act, a meeting of the 
survivors of the I2ist Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers was held in 
Philadelphia July 6, 1905, at which meeting it was — 

"Resolved, That a committee of five members of the Association, 
together with the Regimental Historian, be appointed to prepare and 
publish a history of the regiment, in accordance with the recent act of 
the Legislature." 

Li accordance with this resolution. Comrades 
John B. Wilson, 
William D. Baldwin, 
Charles Barlow, 
Charles M. Wills, 
John Galbraith, 
W. \\ . Strong, Historian, 
were appointed as members of a committee authorized to publish a 
history of the regiment. 

As early as September, 1886, measures were taken by the Regi- 
mental Association to prepare data for a history of the regiment, and 
in June, 1887, the following members were appointed on a committee 
to carry out this jmrpose: 

Company "A," George E. Ridgway. 

Company "B," B. V. Markward. 

Company "C," George S. Dedier. 

Company "D," John Galbraith. 

Company "E," Wm. W. Strong. 

Company "F," J. M. Clapp. 

Company "G," Robert Johnson. 

Company "H," Richard S. Shute. 

Company "I," Joseph Gregson. 

Company "K," Samuel Arrlsox. 

W. W. Strong, Chairman; John Galbraith, Secretary. 



PREFACE. 7 

September 5, 1887, this committee was still further augmented by 
the addition of — 

Company "C," Joshua L. Childs. 

Company "E," Thomas Foley. 

Company "G," James H. Watson. 

Company "H," Charles M. Wills. 

Company "I," Thomas Simrson. 

Company "I," Wm. D. Baldwin. 

Company "K," Joshua Garsed. 

The work has been accomplished in great part through the valuable 
assistance of Mrs. Chapman Biddle, who kindly loaned the letters 
written by Colonel Biddle during his connection with the regiment, and 
from which many extracts are mcorporated. Among the survivors of 
the regiment who have given valuable assistance are notably Joseph G. 
Rosengarten, Captain J. M. Clapp, John Galbraith, Frank H. Evans, 
Edward D. Knight and Richard A. Dempsey. 

We are also greatly indebted to Comrade John L. Smith, pub- 
lisher of the History of the ii8th Penna. Vols., and to J. H. Stine, 
the historian of the First Army Corps, for information. 

Some apparent discrepancies may be noticed between the losses 
as given in various engagements and the losses noted as having been 
officially reported to the War Department. While the records of the 
War Department should, and in most cases do, furnish reliable informa- 
tion, the fact is, so far as casualties are concerned, they cannot be 
implicitly relied on. This may be accounted for by the manner in 
which, and the circumstances under which, the reports were made. 
After an engagement, one of the first duties of the regimental com- 
mander was to ascertain and report the number of men present for duty 
and the number of casualties, the latter being classified as killed, 
wounded and missing in action. This information was made up from 
the reports of company commanders present, who had. of course, to 
depend, to a great extent, on their own observations and those of their 
subordinates. It is easy to understand how mistakes should occur 
after a prolonged engagement during which the troops made rapid 
movements either in advance or retreat, and particularly so where an 
engagement terminated with a hasty retrograde movement during 
which the fallen comrades fell into the hands of the advancing 
adversaries. 

In such cases many who were reported killed were but disabled, 
and afterward reported for duty. Some who were killed were reported 
wounded, while many who were killed or wounded were merely 
reported as missing in action. 



8 PREFACE. 

We have striven in this work to report such information correctly 
and to record all the facts as we now know them to have occurred. 

The experience of those who have taken part in our wars should 
furnish subject for thought which, if properly considered, might suggest 
some improvement in our capacity to take proper care of ourselves in 
the event of future trouble of this character. No matter how much 
we dread war or abhor the idea of its possibility, we cannot close our 
eyes to the fact that the world has witnessed it from the beginning, and 
in all probability will until the end. 

To know just how well prepared we may be, should our land be 
again visited by this scourge, is a question worthy of serious considera- 
tion. Law-abidding, peacefully disposed citizens are not inclined to 
discuss any proposition leading to the building up of an army ; and the 
more patriotic our people are, the less will they believe their country 
in danger of attack. However, the experience of the past and ordinary 
prudence demand that some precautions should be provided, and no 
better argument to sustain such a proposition is needed than an insight 
into the formation of the various organizations that went forth to battle 
during the years of our Civil War. 

While patriotism, fearlessness and good physical condition — usual 
characteristics of American young men — count for much, and will at 
the call of proper authority produce a mighty army within a few hours, 
it is a fact that without military knowledge or training of any kind, 
without the ability to handle intelligently the weapons furnished, such 
an army, at least for a time, is helpless, and if called on to meet a 
trained foe is doomed to serious damage if not entire destruction. 

Many of our volunteers had never even discharged a gim until a 
very few days before being marched to the battlefield. The conse- 
quence was that not a few of our new regiments met their heaviest 
losses in their first engagements for no other reason than that the men 
were not familiar with the musket nor the manner of handling it. It 
is easy to understand how men will become confused and demoralized 
under such circumstances, and also what ready victims they furnish a 
skillful foe. It would be a happy solution if some acceptable plan 
could be adopted that would provide cool, careful, practical soldiers 
capable not only of defending themselves, but of inflicting punishment 
on their adversaries, should a crisis demand the formation of an army 
at short notice. 



Companies "I" and "A," First Pennsyl- 
vania Artillery. 



The events leading up to the formation of the I2ist Regt. Penna. 
Vols, may be traced to a company of citizen soldiers organized as early 
as 1844, when Philadelphia was overrun by disorderly mobs engaged 
in the destruction of life and property, and against whom the mayor 
and city councils were compelled to call on the citizens for protection. 
We find it recorded that — 

"At a meeting of gentlemen assembled at Evans' Hotel, George 
street, on Friday afternoon, July 12, 1844, for the purpose of forming 
a volunteer company under the recent ordinance of councils, Mr. J. H. 
Markland was called to the chair and John W. Field was appointed 
secretary. 

"The proceedings of councils with reference to the raising of 
further volunteer corps for the defense of the city were read — and the 
subject for consideration was a call for those 'ready and willing to act 
within the limits of the city and county of Philadelphia on any emerg- 
ency in which their services may be required by the mayor or sheriff 
to assist in maintaining the public peace.' " 

The organization thus formed was designated as Company "I," 
First Regiment Pennsylvania Artillery, and on July 17, 1844, elected 
John Cadwallader captain. 

Within a few weeks of organization the following officers were 
elected : — 

First Lieutenant. J. W. Markland ; First Second Lieutenant, John 
W. Field; Second Second Lieutenant, Bernard Henry, Jr.; Third 
Lieutenant, William P. Foulke. 

August 9, 1844, the following members of Company "I" ist 
Penna. Artillery were appointed Acting Sergeants until an election of 
non-commissioned officers was held : — 

Acting First Sergeant Chapman Biddle. 

Acting Second Sergeant Thomas C. Rockhill, Jr. 

Acting Third Sergeant Stewart. 

Acting Fourth Sergeant Ducachet. 

Acting Fifth Sergeant William E. Evans. 

The following officers were elected on the dates noted : — 

First Sergeant Chapman Biddle, August 26, 1844, and First Lieu- 
tenant November 10, 1846. 

Second Sergeant Lewis S. Ware, August 26, 1844. 



lO COMPANIES I AND A, FIRST PExNNSYLVANIA ARTILLERY. 

Third Sergeant Thomas C. Rockhill, Jr., August 26, 1844. 

Fourtli Sergeant H. W. Ducaehet, Jr., August 26, 1844, and Third 
Sergeant March 4, 1845. 

Fifth Sergeant C. I. Biddle, August 26, 1844, Third Sergeant 
July 8, 1845, 'I'ld Second Lieutenant December i, 1846. 

First Corporal Edward Bacon, August 26, 1844. 

Second Corporal A. G. M. Bowen, August 26, 1844. 

Third Corporal J. B. Beers, August 26, 1844. 

Fourth Corporal F. W. Hemsley, August 26, 1844, First Corporal 
March 4, 1845, Fourth Sergeant July 8, 1845, Second Sergeant Decem- 
ber II, 1846. 

Henry D. Landis elected Second Corporal September 2, 1845, ^"^ 
First Sergeant November 10, 1846. 

John T. Kille elected Third Corporal March 2, 1847, ^"<^ Second 
Sergeant June i, 1847. 

Thomas C. Rockhill, Jr., elected Second Sergeant March 4, 1845. 

Samuel Wilcox elected Second Corporal March 4, 1845, First 
Corporal September 2, 1845, ^"<^ Third Sergeant December 11, 1846. 

Richard B. Duane elected Fourth Sergeant March 4, 1845. 

R. C. McMurtrie elected Third Corporal March 4, 1845, and Fifth 
Sergeant September 2, 1845. 

Geo. W. Biddle elected Fourth Corporal September 2, 1845, ^^^'^ 
First Corporal March 3, 1846. 

J. H. Wheeler elected Third Corporal March 3, 1846, and First 
Corporal March 2, 1847. 

M. P. Henry elected Third Corporal March 3, 1846. 

Henry Thouron elected Fourth Corporal March 3, 1846, and Sec- 
ond Corporal March 2, 1847. 

W. T. Wilcox elected Fourth Corporal March 2, 1847. 

H. S. Hagert elected Corporal June i, 1847. 

Henry M. White elected Corporal June i, 1847. 

Hugh Nisbet elected Corporal June 14, 1847. 

Captain John Cadwallader resigned September 8, 1846, and First 
Lieutenant J. H. Markland was elected Captain of the company Octo- 
ber 22, 1846. 

The following are extracts from the minutes of Company "F' ist 
Penna. Artillery: — 

"At a meeting held on Tuesday, May 12, 1846, at 8 p. m., it was 
announced that at a stated meeting of the Board of Officers of the 
regiment, held on the nth inst., two resolutions were submitted for 
consideration, one of which was passed unanimously, and which was 
in the following terms, viz. : — 



COMPANIES I AND A, FIRST PENNSYLVANIA ARTILLERY. II 

'' 'Resolved, That the companies composing this regiment be 
requested to hold themselves in readiness to march at a moment's 
warning.' 

"The consideration of the other resolution was postponed until 
Friday evening next at 8 o'clock, in order to receive the reports of the 
Captains of the several companies. This resolution was in these 
terms : — 

" 'Resolved, That the Colonel be requested to tender the services 
of the regiment to the President of the United States whenever or 
wherever they may be needed.' 

"Whereupon it was unanimousl}' 

" 'Resolved. That we cordially respond to the recommendation of 
the Board of Officers and hold ourselves in readiness to follow any 
requisition that may be made upon us for duty — the nature and occa- 
sion of which we leave to be determined by the proper military 
authoritv.' " 



"At a special meeting of the company, held at the office of Chap- 
man Biddle, Esq., on the evening of Monday, May 12, 1848, J. H. 
Markland, Esq., was called to the chair, and H. D. Landis appointed 
Secretary. It was 

" 'Resolved, That the company be and is hereby finally dissolved, 
and that the Secretary be requested to notify Brigade Inspector Firth 
of the same.' 

"On motion adjourned." 

COMPANY "A," TST REGT. PENNA. ARTILLERY. 

A meeting, called by Chapman Biddle, was held in his office, 
April 19, 1 861, at which a company of artillery was organized, and 
afterwards designated as Company "A," ist Regt. Penna. Artillery. 

On May 2g, 1861, at an election, held at the armory of the company, 
the following officers were duly elected : — 

Captain, Chapman Biddle ; Lieutenant, Henry D. Landis ; Lieu- 
tenant, Alexander Biddle ; Lieutenant, Samuel Wilcox ; and commis- 
sions, bearing that date, were issued to each of the above officers by 
Governor Curtin. 

On July 16, 1861, the company, by order of Captain Biddle, went 
into camp at Chadd's Ford, Delaware county, for purposes of instruc- 
tion, where they remained some ten days, all the above-named officers 
being present. 

In August, 1862, on the organization of the 121st Regt. of Penna. 



12 COMPANIES 1 AND A, FIRST PENNSYLVANIA ARTILLERY. 

Vols., Captain Chapman Biddle and Lieutenant Alexander Biddle 
resigned their respective positions as officers of Company "A," when 
an election was held at the armory to fill the vacancies occasioned by 
said resignations, and the following officers were elected : — 

Captain, Henry D. Landis ; First Lieutenant, Samuel C. Perkins ; 
Second Lieutenant, Samuel Wilcox. 

In September, 1862, the Governor issued a call for volunteers to 
aid in preventing the then threatened invasion of Pennsylvania by the 
rebels. This call was almost unanimously responded to by the mem- 
bers of Company "A," who proceeded to Harrisburg on the 14th of 
that month, where they were mustered into service, under the following 
officers, viz. : — 

Captain, Henry D. Landis ; First Lieutenant, Samuel C. Perkins ; 
Second Lieutenant, Samuel Wilcox ; w-hen new commissions, bearing 
that date, were issued to each of the above officers. 

The company proceeded, on the 17th of September, by rail to 
Chambersburg, Pa., when they went into camp some three miles out- 
side of the town, and, in company with some three or four thousand 
other volunteers, went through a severe course of drill and discipline 
for two weeks, when they were ordered back to Philadelphia. 

In June, i86j, a second call was issued by the Governor for volun- 
teers to assist in the defense of Pennsylvania against rebel invasion, 
which was responded to by a large number of members of the old 
company, the balance being made up by new men. 

On June 2p, 186^ (Sunday), the news published in the morning 
papers that the rebels were marching on Gettysburg, where doubtless 
a great battle would be fought, and, if successful, the}' would proceed 
to Philadelphia, caused the greatest excitement in the city. 

After a hurried consultation with some of the old members of 
Company "A," who were not able to go out with it on this campaign, 
it was concluded that a company should be at once raised, and placed 
under the command of the United States general officer then stationed 
at Philadelphia. 

By that night fifty' men had signed the roll, and, in response to 
notice given in the papers on Monday, forty more joined the company. 

The armory was kept open day and night for a week, and drills 
were going on several times each day during that period. 

On July 28th the company of Minute Alen paraded as an escort to 
Company "A," who on that day returned home. 
The officers of this company were, viz. : — 

Captain, Samuel Wilcox ; First Lieutenant, Charles Vezin ; Second 
Lieutenant, Clement B. Penrose. 



COMPANIES "l" AND "a," FIRST PENNSYLVANIA ARTILLERY. I3 

Company "A" was a capital school in which many who subse- 
quently became good officers in both the regular and the volunteer 
forces, were first trained. Both in the armory and in camp at Chadd's 
Ford, as well as in drill and exercises in the Park, the members of 
Company "A" were thoroughly instructed, and of its members who 
afterwards served in the field were Captain F. H. Furness, of the Sixth 
Penna. Cavalry ; Captain T. C. Williams, of the regular army ; Captain 
James M. Linnard, Jr.; Dr. S. Weir Mitchell, of the medical corps 
organized for the military hospitals in and near Philadelphia; Major 
Harry C. Egbert, of the regular army, in which he served for a long 
time with great distinction ; Colonel John M. Cries, who died of wounds 
received in command of a volunteer regiment; Major A. G. Rosen- 
garten, who fell at the head of his regiment, the 15th Pennsylvania 
(Anderson) Cavalry, at the battle of Stone River, Tenn. ; Captain 
William Eliot Furness, who served through the war in a Massachusetts 
regiment; Dr. William. F. Norris, who was on duty as medical officer 
in Washington; Captain Charles Chauncey; Joseph B. Blakiston, who 
died in the service, a member of the 15th Penna. Cavalry; Captain 
Charles E. Cadwallader, of the 6th Penna. Cavalry, and a distinguished 
member of General Meade's staff ; General Isaac J. Wistar, who com- 
manded a regiment and a brigade with great credit. Besides those 
of its members who became officers of the 121st Penna., a large number 
under Captain H. D. Landis took part in the two short, but severe, 
summer campaigns of 1862 and 1863, in the defense of Pennsylvania 
against rebel invasions, and showed soldierly qualities of the highest 
order, winning for themselves the praise of their commanding officers 
for conduct largely the result of the traditions of Company "I" and 
the training of Company "A" under their able captains. Of the mem- 
bers of Company "I," Colonel Charles J. Biddle distinguished himself 
both in the Mexican War and in the War of the Rebellion ; Colonel R. 
A. Tilghman served with great credit; Colonel (afterward Judge) 
Craig Biddle was on the staff of General Patterson ; I. Spencer Miller 
organized a battery, which he took to the front during the call for help 
to resist the invasions of the State in 1862 and 1863 \ General Thomas 
L. Kane was a general officer of volunteers, and gained great credit 
during the Rebellion by his distinguished gallantry ; Captain Henry D. 
Landis twice took his artillery company to the front, in 1862 and again 
in 1863, with Lieutenant Perkins, Sergeant William Henry Rawle, and 
many of his old comrades of Company "I" and Company "A ;" Major 
Henry J. Biddle fell in front of Richmond, serving with great distinc- 
tion on General McCall's staff; Colonel Tschudy, too, was killed in 
action at the head of his regiment of volunteers. 



14 COMl'AMKS 1 AND A, FIRST PENNSYLVANIA ARTILLERY. 

The following list of members of Company "I," First Penna. 
Artillery, organized in 1844. and of Company "A," a reorganization 
of the original company in 1861, in which will be recognized the 
names of some of the most prominent citizens of Philadelphia, provided 
the nucleus around w'hich, in 1862, was formed the 121st Regt. Penna. 
Vols. :— 

Company "/."— H. M. Smith, A. H. Smith, J. S. Serrill, A. C. 
Rockhill, Lewis Carr, Theodore Cuyler, George Helmuth, Joseph H. 
Roach, Francis Sims, C. E. Smith, T. G. Van Buren, Thos. Webster, Jr., 
A. Biddle, N. B. Brown, W. K. Conrad, H. Hopkins, M. P. Henry, 
J. Maitland, A. R. McHenry, E. C. x\ndrews, Jas. H. Castle, St. G. 
Croghan, Wm. tl. Stewart, J. West Nevins, R. A. Tilgman, J. T. 
Thomas, Dr. Chas. Kuhn, R. C. McMurtne, W. M. Tilghman, G. W. 
Biddle, J. B. England, W. E. Evans, A. Henry, Jr., J. M. Hollings- 
head, T. A. Newhall, J. C. Perry, S. W. Reynolds, B. C. Tilghman, 
Craig Biddle, C. C. Clark, Jno. Fallon, E. S. Aliller, W. A. Porter, 
W. H. Rawle, L. A. Scott, L. Turnbull, Clement Biddle, B. Henry, 
P. P. Morris, Thomas L. Kane, Samuel Wilcox, Tlieo. Heermann, 
Henry D. Landis, Chas. S. Pancoast, Henry Thouron, Henry M. 
White, Saml. B. Hoppin, Jno. T. Kille, Robt. P. Kane, Hugh Nisbet, 
J. F. Throckmorton, Henry S. Hagert, Gerardus Clarkson, Chas. F. 
Desmond, Francis Hook, George Griscom, B. F. Vandyke, Geo. A. 
Pinchin, C. Wheeler, Jr., G. Richards, J. A. McHenry, H. J. Biddle, 
Alex. Henry, S. Reynolds, G. H. Roset, Richard Nevins, C. M. Jack- 
son, Jos. Jones, Jr., Jno. Lambert, Geo. R. Smith, L M. Sanderson, 
Richard Duane, J. P. Hutchinson, Chas. M. Siter, W. S. Toland, J. H. 
Wheeler, J. B. Barry, L R. Tunis, J. H. Creighton, E. T. Ash, J. S. 
Robbins, O. Montgomery, M. Tschudy, W. S. Stewart, C. T. Myers, 
H. St. C. Ash, S. B. Hoppin, Wm. A. Swaby, W. McQuinn, W. J. 
Carter, J. McKibbin, J. G. Brinkle, E. C. Andrews, W. T. Wilcox, 
H. Nisbet, L Prince, Jr., AL Lewis, F. Sarmiento, David Webster, Jno. 
Workman. 

Company "A." — Chas. E. Smith, Clement Biddle, Wm. Henry 
Rawle, E. Spencer Miller, Clement B. Penrose, Aubrey H. Smith, Z. 
Poulson Dobson, Frank M. Etting, Franklin Shippen, R. C. McMurtrie, 
John Lambert, Horace Howard Furness, F. H. Furness, Henry 
Wharton, C. H. Hutchinson, Henry S. Lowber, T. Cobb Williams, 
James M. Linnard, Jr., James Parsons, Jas. H. Castle, Alex. Biddle, 
Edw. Pennington, Jr., John Givinn, R. Egglesfield Griffith, James S. 
Cox, Wm. F. Judson, W. Parker Foulke, Wm. S. Stewart, J. Ledyard 
Hodge, James T. Mitchell, James W. Paul, Victor Guillou, Atherton 
Blight, A. L Fish, Wm. T. Wilcox, John Samuel, Saml. Lewis, M. D., 



COMPANIES "l" AND "A," FIRST PENNSYLVANIA ARTILLERY. I5 

Wm. L. Mactier, Lewis Stover, J. M. Etting, Horace M. Guillou, 
Edw. S. Buckley, John T. Kille, S. Weir Mitchell, M. D., Thos. M. 
Hall, Wm. Meredith, William A. Ingham, Cadwallader Biddle, A. 
Chas. Barclay, F. F. Westcott, C. J. Stille, J. D. Sergeant, Caldwell K. 
Biddle, Samuel C. Perkins, C. W. Littell, Geo. W. Wollaston, Geo. C. 
Morris, Wm. R. Ramberger, Robt. P. Kane, Geo. H. Biddle, P. P. 
Morris, S. Emlen Meigs, Benj. W. Richards, John Wyeth, J. H. 
Wheeler, J. T. Thomas, Harry C. Egbert, F. W. Hemsley, Simon 
Gratz, W. G. Thomas, W. R. Buck, W. Russell West, John B. 
Austin, Oliver A. Judson, M. D., Howard Richards, S. Henry Norris, 
Ed. R. Robinson, Geo. K. Ziegler, A. S. Letchworth, Thos. R. Tunis, 
Geo. Griscom, Edmund Lewis, Samuel Dickson, Robt. Burton, Wm. 
S. Price, John M. Gries, John G. Watmough, Jr., Horace Fassitt, 
Henry B. Coxe, Jos. J. Wheeler, E. T. Potter, Jos. G. Rosengarten, 
A. G. Rosengarten, Alfred Devereau, W. Z. Florence, F. H. Florence, 
Edw. C. Pechin, H. Armitt Brown, Wm. Elliott Furness, Dr. Wm. H. 
Gobrecht, Frank Moss, Jos. Lea, Wm. F. Norris, Joshua Spering, 
Al. A. Outerbridge, Chas. C. Jackson, A. B. McKee, Stephen B. Irwin, 
Wm. B. Hanna, W. C. Atwood, Fred. Brown, Jr., Richard L. Ashhurst, 
Jas. W. Hazlehurst, Robt. Eden Brown, W. T. Meredith, Jno. L. 
Powell, T. Ellwood Zell, H. B. Rosengarten, H. C. Thompson, Thad- 
deus Webb, Jas. M. Longacre, John M. Clarkson, Thomas Hart, Jr., 
R. Stuart Hill, William Hill, Wm. S. Vaux, Eugene Devereaux, 
Thomas Stillman, G. Craig Heberton, Geo. M. Conarroe, Jos. G. Berg, 
Saml. H. Paul, Edwin A. Woodward, Wm. R. Brown, Charles 
Chauncey, Clifford P. MacCalla, John Horn, Jr., W. Harrison Eisen- 
brey, Harry Harper, Theo. Wernwag, R. Heber Alter, Harry Peale, 
Jos. B. Blakiston, Jas. L. Claghorn, Chas. B. Durborow, Saml. Bunting, 
Washington L. Atlee, Jr., Samuel L. Taylor, Chas. E. Cadwallader, 
Fred Graff, J. Alfred Kay, Wm. M. Burgin, Simon Stern, J. Howard 
Wurts, C. B. Showell, John F. Keene, Nathan Meyers, John B. Meyers, 
John H. Atwood, Chas. McCrea, John A. Lewis, S. Parkman Blake, Jr., 
John Chapman, Frank Rosengarten, Isaac Gerhart, J. A. Marshall, 
David Boyer Brown, Wm. Robson, Benj. Johnson, Edw. M. Paxson, 
Robt. E. Griffith, Jno. Steel Twells, Chas. L. Atlee, William Reed, John 
H. Budd, L. R. Koecket, Isaac J. Wister, Lewis Lewis, Jas. H. Peabody. 



BRIEF HISTORY 

Of the Enlistment and Organization of what is known as the Western Part of 
the 121st Regt. Penna. Vols. 

Early in the suninier of 1862, George E. Ridgway, George W. 
Brickley, George W. Plumer, Alex. McDowell, Moore Bridges, N. H. 
Riddle and others, commenced recruiting at Franklin, Venango County, 
Pa., a company to assist in the war for the preservation of the Union. 

Public meetings were held at various places in the county, and 
enlistments were made with the understanding that the company would 
be organized v.ith George E. Ridgway as Captain, G. W. Brickley as 
First Lieutenant and G. W. Plumer as Second Lieutenant. About this 
time Elisha W. Davis received authority from the War Department 
to enlist a regiment, to be designated as the 145th Penna. Vols., and it 
was arranged that this company should go to Philadelphia and become 
a part of said regiment. After the news came of disasters to the Union 
army before Richmond, and of the great and immediate need of the 
Government for more men, patriotism was aroused and enlistments 
were easily and rapidly made. 

Soon after the middle of August the company was "more than 
full," and with high hopes of usefulness, and amid the plaudits of 
friends at home the company started for "the front." They left 
Franklin on a large flat-boat on the Allegheny River, and as the water 
was low they frequently had to get into the river and pull the boat over 
shallow places. This made their progress rather slow. At Emlenton 
a number of the company joined them, making in all over a hundred 
men. At Kittanning they left the boat and went by railroad to Pitts- 
burgh, and from there to Philadelphia, where they were mustered into 
service August 23d, and went into camp "John C. Knox," near Mana- 
yunk. As there were more men than could under the regulations be 
accepted as one company, ninety-five remained as Company "A," and 
the rest went into another company. 

An election was then held, and the original understanding carried 
out, except that James S. Warner was elected Second Lieutenant in 
place of Mr. Plumer, who had gone with the extra men into another 
company. When this other company was fully organized it became 
Company "E" of the same regiment, with George W. Plumer as Second 
Lieutenant, the \'^enango County men being in number about one-fifth 
of the company. 

About the same time that these enlistments were started at Frank- 
lin, John M. Clapp, who then resided about twenty miles up the Alle- 

16 



COMPANIES "'a" and ''F," I21ST PENNSYLVANIA VOLUNTEERS. I7 

gheny River from Franklin, at a little village called President, com- 
menced recruiting a company for the service. 

At first no public meetings were held, and enlistments were slow, 
but when the news came of the defeat and retreat of the Army of the 
Potomac, and public apathy changed to enthusiasm, with a firm resolve 
of the people that the "Union must and shall be preserved," the man- 
ner of enlistment was changed — public meetings w^ere held at various 
places, and the company filled up rapidly. The enlistments were made 
with the understanding that J- ^T- Clapp should be Captain, and that 
the Lieutenants and Orderly Sergeant were to be elected by the 
company after its departure from Venango Count}'. It was also 
arranged that this company should join Captain Ridgway's company 
at Philadelphia, and go with it into the regiment to be commanded by 
Colonel E. W. Davis. 

Charles H. Raymond, then of Utica, Venango County, had com- 
menced a little later to raise a company for the service, but found the 
county had already been pretty thoroughly canvassed for recruits, and 
that it would be very difficult to then fill up another company ; and 
when the urgent call came for "more troops immediately," he concluded 
to take his seventeen men and join Captain Clapp's company. 

This filled the company to over the required number, and on the 
26th of August Clapp's men started in wagons from President across 
the country for Kittanning, taking dinner at the "Stone House" on 
the Franklin and Clarion Turnpike, where they were joined by the men 
from the lower part of the county. They reached Callensburg the 
first evening. That night they were joined by Raymond and his men 
from Utica, and at 2 p. m. the next day they reached Kittanning, where 
they took the cars and arrived at Pittsburgh the same evening. Here 
they were received and entertained by the Citizens' Committee at 
Wilkins' Hall, where they held an election for officers. John M. Clapp 
was unanimously awarded the captaincy, Joseph K. Byers was elected 
First Lieutenant, Charles H. Raymond, Second Lieutenant, and 
Nathaniel Lang, Orderly Sergeant. 

Leaving Pittsburgh at 3 a. m. the next morning, they arrived in 
Philadelphia die next evening, and were entertained at the Cooper Shop 
Refreshment Saloon. 

The men were mustered into the service August 29th and 30th, 
and went into Camp "John C. Knox," where Company "A" was already 
stationed. A day or two later the regiment was consolidated with 
that of Colonel Chapman Biddle. and went into active service as the 
12 1st Resft. Penna. Vols. 



HISTORY. 



The I2ist Regt. Penna. Vols., organized in August, 1862, and 
consisting of 730 officers and enlisted men, was completed by the con- 
solidation of portions of two regiments, then in process of formation, 
one of which was the 121st, recruited in Philadelphia by Colonel Chap- 
man Biddle, and the other the 145th, recruited in Venango County, 
by Colonel Elisha W. Davis. Under this consolidation, some of the 
original officers were thrown out, but Chapman Biddle was retained 
as Colonel, and Elisha W. Davis as Lieutenant-Colonel, while Alexander 
Biddle was made Major of the regiment, known thereafter as the 121st 
Regt. Penna. Vols. Adjutant Thomas M. Hall, Quartermaster Wm. 
C. Atwood, Sergeant-Major West Funk, Surgeon H. P. Hottenstein 
and Assistant Surgeon John J. Comfort, with Chaplain Wm. C. Ferri- 
day, completed the staff. The line officers were as follows : — 

Company "A," Captain, George E. Ridgway ; First Lieutenant, 
George W. Brickley ; Second Lieutenant, James S. Warner. 

Company "B," Captain, Alexander Laurie ; First Lieutenant, 
Charles F. Hulse ; Second Lieutenant, John lungerich. 

Company "C," Captain, J. Frank Sterling; First Lieutenant, 
Benjamin H. Pippet ; Second Lieutenant, George W. Powell. 

Company "D," Captain, T. Elwood Zell ; First Lieutenant, Joseph 
G. Rosengarten ; Second Lieutenant, Charles E. Etting. 

Company "E." Captain, Samuel T. Lloyd ; First Lieutenant. 
Charles F. Robertson ; Second Lieutenant, George W. Plumer. 

Company "F," Captain, John M. Clapp ; First Lieutenant, Joseph 
K. Byers ; Second Lieutenant, Charles H. Raymond. 

Company "G," Captain, William M. Wooldridge ; First Lieutenant, 
James A. Kay; Second Lieutenant, M. W. C. Barclay. 

Company "H," Captain, Samuel Wrigley ; First Lieutenant, Ed- 
ward Gratz, Jr. ; Second Lieutenant, Harrison Lambdin. 

Company "I," Captain, James Ashworth ; First Lieutenant, James 
Ruth ; Second Lieutenant, John Durborrow. 

Company "K," Captain, Samuel Arrison ; I'^irst Lieutenant, 
William W. Dorr ; Second Lieutenant, Joshua Garsed. 

Out of the \"enango County contingent were formed Companies 
"A" and "F" and a part of Company "E." The letters by which 
companies were designated did not indicate the positions they held in 




LII-UTENANT-COLONI-L Er.ISIIA W. DAVIS. 



ORGANIZATION. I9 

line, as is usually the case. Company "I" was first company, and 
occupied the right of the regiment ; "A" was second, and held the left, 
while "D," the color company, was third. Running from the right of 
the line to the left, the order of companies was as follows : — 

"I," First Company; "C," Sixth Company; "E," Fourth Company; 
"G," Ninth Company; "D," Third Company; "B," Eighth Company; 
"F," Fifth Company; "H," Tenth Company; "K," Seventh Company; 
"A," Second Company. 

During the few days allowed to recruit the ranks, the regiment 
encamped near Chestnut Hill, in the northern outskirts of Philadelphia, 
and the time was spent in educating the men in the various duties of 
camp life, the major who was in command there, appearing to be par- 
ticularly proficient in such matters, and taking an active part in bring- 
ing his men up to a high standard of discipline. 

Not a trade nor profession was without its representative in the 
camp, but in making up the contingent there had been gathered 
together, indiscriminately, lawyers, doctors, artisans, mechanics, clerks 
and farmers. The agricultural districts were largely represented. The 
ages of the men varied from about eighteen to forty-five years. 

As to nationalities, while the native-born greatly predominated, 
there was a fair sprinkling of the hardy sons of Erin, and Company 
"B" was composed almost entirely of Germans, many of whom had 
been trained soldiers prior to enlisting in defense of the Union, whose 
soldierly bearing and strict observance of discipline had an excellent 
effect on the entire regiment. 

As one immense family assembled for a common purpose, all 
seemed disposed to regulate their natural differences so as to reach a 
level from which they could work together in order to accomplish the 
greatest good. The city-bred soldiers vied with their comrades from 
the interior in all the duties pertaining to camp and field, but it was 
soon apparent that the farmers possessed many advantages over their 
city brothers which told in their favor. The men from Venango and 
adjacent counties were the beaux-ideal of soldiers, not, perhaps, of the 
French chivalry pattern, but of the model that fought at Bunker Hill 
and at New Orleans, for they could shoot. They were born with 
rifles in their hands and shot squirrels from their cradles. One of these, 
telling no soldier's yarn (he was complimented in general orders for 
his conduct in battle), claims he hit an enemy every time he pulled the 
trigger. Then, too, the axe came to the hands of these woodsmen 
naturally, and before it the tall pine bit the dust, brought down by no 
uncertain stroke. The city-bred soldier looked on with amazement, 
and could not understand why his axe made a fresh start with everv 



20 ORGANIZATION. 

cut. And tlicir fires ! Two bits of green wood under their care would 
lie side by side and burn away most satisfactorily. A touch from an 
inexperienced hand would result in cold and gloom. Their winter 
quarters were the result of experience ; their log huts, although of 
unique and various designs, were warm and comfortable. 

The sea, too, gave up its veterans. "Big Jim" was our one old 
sailor. If he sailed as well as he marched, his ship must have made 
good time. He was a tall Englishman, and a jolly one at that. Dur- 
ing his first year's cruise he put a studding-sail on to the end of his 
tent to protect his feet in cold weather, but, finding his improvement 
took up too much room in his knapsack, he soon dispensed with it and 
came down to regulation length. 

Mr. Geo. M. AIcMahon, a relative of Lieutenant Chas. F. Robert- 
son, of Company "E," presented each member of that company with 
an elegant gum blanket. This was an almost indispensable article, not 
to be had at that time from the quartermaster, and one of the numerous 
ai)pliances and supposed conveniences with which loving friends sup- 
plemented the government foresight in supplying its soldiers, w^hich 
were not almost or entirely useless. 

The regiment left Philadelphia on the 5th of September, 1862, 
marching from camp to the depot of the Philadelphia, Wilmington and 
Baltimore Railroad, at Broad and Prime streets, w^here it boarded a 
train of freight cars for Washington. Here the men had their first 
disappointment, for they fully expected the privilege of taking a lunch 
at the Cooper Shop Refreshment Saloon. All troops leaving or passing 
through Philadelphia, as a rule, were magnanimously provided for at 
the refreshment saloon, and it was a matter of pride that Philadelphia 
had furnished this unmistakable evidence of the patriotism of her 
citizens in sending our soldiers on their way with light hearts and full 
stomachs. This kindness on the part of Philadelphia was never for- 
gotten, and her Cooper Shop and Volunteer Refreshment Saloons were 
ever after subjects of grateful remembrance among the soldiers 
throughout the Union army ; and even to this day, old veterans are 
frequently heard lauding Philadelphia for her magnificent treatment of 
our soldiers. 

After many annoying delays, the regiment arrived in \A'^ashington 
at daylight, September 6th, and, after partaking of refreshments, 
started on its march for Camp Chase, on Arlington Heights, opposite 
Washington. About half-way across Long Bridge it met the advance 
of a portion of the Army of the Potomac on its way to confront 
General Lee in Maryland, and rested on the bridge from 8 o'clock in 
the evening of the 6th until i o'clock on the morning of the 7tli to 



CAMP CHASE. 21 

allow the veterans to pass. Many of the old soldiers wanted to know 
"what brigade" that was, and well they might mistake the regiment 
for a brigade. Their regiments seemed more like companies ; their 
regimental colors, torn, faded and bullet-ridden, passed with what 
seemed every two or three companies and gave the new troops some 
insight into the meaning and effect of a year's active service. 

Arriving at Camp "Chase," near Fort Albany, early on the morn- 
ing of September 7th, the regiment remained there until the 29th, doing 
all kinds of camp duties, and without guns, standing guard with clubs, 
which were replaced on the nth of the month by shining new Spring- 
field rifles, destined soon to lose their freshness. It was assigned to 
Brigadier-General Pratt's brigade, September 17th. The few weeks' 
grace allowed here was, in every way imaginable, utilized to bring the 
men to understand, thoroughly, the various duties of the soldier. Drills 
and reviews, practice in marching, picket and guard duty, inspections, 
etc., were all made familiar, notwithstanding the fact that during this 
month the heat of the sun was at times almost unbearable. Camp 
cooking and camp housekeeping took up much of the time, and all the 
new-fangled utensils introduced for the accommodation of new recruits, 
such as patent combination knives, forks and spoons, etc., were brought 
into requisition. Armor was having a little run. One of the 
sergeants had breastplates in a vest: they proved useful for a little 
while as frying-pans. He also had a revolver, and some fellows had 
bowie knives, but before long they found they could do with a musket 
alone all the fighting they had time to do. Camp "Chase" was from 
one and a half to two miles from the Long Bridge, on elevated ground, 
contiguous to the Arlington estate, owned by General Robt. E. Lee, 
of the Confederate army, and was on the northerly side of the 
Columbia Turnpike leading to Bailey's Cross-roads, some two or three 
miles beyond. 

The following were the first marching orders received by the regi- 
ment : — 

Headquarters Third Brigade, 
Casey's Division. 
Camp Chase, Va:, September 29, 1862. 
General Orders A^o. 14. 

1. The regiments of this brigade will form in line in front of their 
respective camps, canteens filled, the rations ordered cooked, not less 
than two days' rations in their haversacks. Call company rolls, stack 
arms, rest behind stacks, and await further orders from the Brigadier- 
General. 

2. The order of march for the day will be that in which the regi- 



22 FIRST r-RIGADE, THIRD DIVISION, FIRST CORl'S. 

ments of the brigade have been assigned to General Kane's command, 
viz.: I. i2ist Pcnna. Vols.; 2. 140th New York Vols.; 3. loth New 
Hampshire Vols.; 4. Battery "C," ist Penna. Artillery. 

3. Captain Ridgway, Company "A," 121st Penna. Vols., is ap- 
pointed to command the rear guard. He will report at headquarters 
immediately for particular instructions. 

4. By General Order No. 11, Division Headquarters, knapsacks 
\vill be left for storage by the Quartermaster's Department. Regi- 
mental Quartermasters will be instructed on this head by their com- 
manders. 

By order of Brigadier General Thos. L. Kane. 

(Signed) John P. Green, 

Capt. and A. A. G. 
Official: Thos. M. Hall, First Lieut, and Adj. 121st P. V. 

Leaving Camp "Chase," September 29th, the regiment presented 
a magnificent appearance — the finest ever shown by it before or after. 
The few weeks of camp life had given the men somewhat the appear- 
ance of veterans; their faces were bronzed; life in the open air had 
had its invigorating effect. In complete marching order, drawn up in 
line, fully equipped, they were truly ideal soldiers. But, alas ! how 
soon was all this to be changed, both as to appearance and as to num- 
bers. Marching to Washington the men lay in the streets until the 
morning of the 30th, when they started for Frederick, Md., to join 
McClellan, taking the cars at Washington and arriving at Frederick at 
12.30 Wednesday morning, October ist, when they were assigned to 
the First Brigade of the Third Division of the First Army Corps. 
This division was composed of the famous Pennsylvania Reserves, 
under Major-General George G. Meade, Brigadier-General T. Seymour 
commanding the First Brigade. Had it been the determination of 
those having charge of the fate of the regiment that it should receive 
in the shortest space of time all the qualifications for which experience 
was necessary, the object could not have been more effectually accom- 
plished than by placing it with the Reserves, for here was a school 
unsurpassed in excellence. No better, no braver troops, no hardier, 
no more determined or more reliable set of men could be found in the 
army. The Reserves had already made for themselves a most enviable 
reputation. This division was at the time by long odds the finest in 
the army — the admiration of friends, the terror of the enemy, and the 
pride of our State; and the men of the 121st w-ere highly elated upon 
being placed wdth such a body of troops to complete their military 
training. But one other new regiment, the I42d Penna. \"ols., was 



PENNSYLVANIA RESERVES. 23 

added to the Reserves, and the two new regiments shared jointly their 
hospitaUty ( ?), which was more or less varied, up to the day the army 
crossed the Rappahannock at Fredericksburg; and although heartily 
welcomed, were the objects at which the veterans flung their superflu- 
ous epithets when venting their anger or enjoying their fun. If the 
troops were tired and hungry, the new regiments were reviled ; if rested 
and happy, or in idleness, the new regiments were reviled, and so it 
was during the entire novitiate. Of course, the new regiments, with 
their other lessons, soon learned how to retaliate, and so many a 
vacuum was filled and made to aflrord an amusing, if not edifying, 
entertainment. 

It required some months to teach the Reserves that the 121st 
Regiment was worthy of their companionship. Very naturally they 
looked upon the new-comers — as old soldiers invariably did upon 
recruits — with envy, if not distrust. They had fought many battles, 
had served through a number of campaigns, had been a year in the 
service, and had earned their well-deserved reputation through the 
hardest service, under many disadvantages. They were now suffering 
for want of clothing, many being shoeless, presenting a marked con- 
trast to the condition of their new friends ; and they felt that the men 
who had already served such a severe apprenticeship should be the first 
to have their wants supplied. 

The first death in the regiment, that of private Edward Farley, of 
Company "G," occurred October ist. 

At 9.30 p. M. on the 8th of October, the men fell in, and com- 
menced their march from Frederick to Sharpsburg, passing through 
Jefferson and Birkettsville, crossing the Catoctin Creek and Mountain, 
and the South Mountain, bivouacking the first night at Jefferson, the 
men suffering from overloaded knapsacks and sore feet. As the regi- 
ment left Frederick the moon was shining brightly, and as it passed 
through the town it was met with a greeting which was a little surpris- 
ing as well as greatly gratifying. Frederick was a strong Union town, 
and took pains on all particular occasions to display in a decided man- 
ner its loyal sentiments, and of course, the I2ist came in for a share 
of the manifestations on its departure. After the twenty minutes or 
half hour consumed in passing through the town, the business of the 
night commenced, and the men found their first experience in marching 
a severe one. The bright moonlight enabled them to make their way 
along the dusty roads, and the march was kept up through a beautiful 
country until 2 o'clock in the morning, wdien a halt was called, and 
they bivouacked in a large field near Jefferson. At 9 a. m. on the 9th, 
thev started for Catoctin Creek, about one and one-half miles, to rest 



24 SFIARl'SBURG. 

for the (lay. This first march made a lasting impression on the men^ 
and, although severe, was an excellent lesson well remembered. The 
temperature was roasting hot, the roads dusty — and such dust ! Great 
clouds at every step rose over and around the men, blinding and 
choking them as they proceeded, penetrating their shoes and clothing 
and chafing them terribly ; and before they were far on the road they 
began to unload their knapsacks, and all suddenly discovered that many 
of the articles they had been lugging along were superfluous. Over- 
coats, dress-coats, extra underclothing, and even blankets, were thrown 
away, and everything that could possibly be spared was dispensed with. 
What a wonderful change in the appearance of the regiment when 
the end of that first march was reached ! Scarcely a man retained any 
luggage more than his blanket, in addition to arms and accoutrements ; 
and, in fact, afterward seldom found use for anything more than these 
on an active campaign, as it was an easy matter to call on the quarter- 
master for new supplies, when camp was reached. On reaching 
Catoctin Creek, where they remained most of the day, the men indulged 
in bathing, thus getting rid of the dust gathered on the march, and 
refreshing themselves for another tramp. 

At 5.30 p. M., of the Qtli, the regiment resumed its march for 
Sharpsburg, and, after crossing the creek, commenced the ascent of 
the Catoctin Mountains, which it completed just as the sun went down. 
The view presented from the summit was glorious. The roads were 
excessively dusty, as on the previous march, and, being very hilly, 
sorely tried the new soldiers. Many fell behind, overcome with fatigue 
and with blistered feet, but still all tried to do their best and not to be 
in the rear of their comrades. Birkettsville was reached in time for 
a late supper, after which the regiment resumed its journey, and halted 
a little after midnight, and again bivouacked. On the morning of the 
next day, about 10 o'clock, it took up its line of march and pushed on, 
with the customary halts, until it finally arrived at Sharpsburg, there 
joining the brigade. Just before entering the town, the regiment 
crossed the Antietam Creek over the celebrated stone bridge known 
as Burnside's Bridge, so well carried and defended by Burnside in 
the recent battle of Antietam. While here, on the i6th of October, a 
set of colors was received from the Governor of Pennsylvania, and 
here the men had their first experience in genuine picket duty, being 
posted along the Potomac River on the 23d of October, with the rebel 
pickets strung along the opposite bank. 

Leaving Sharpsburg. October 26th, the march down through 
Virginia was commenced, the ist Brigade being composed of the ist. 
2d, 5th and 6th Penna. Reserves, and the I2ist Penna. Vols. The 



ACROSS THE POTOMAC. 2^ 

rain poured in torrents during the entire day and following night. On 
the 27th, with mud ankle-deep, the brigade reached Berlin, near the 
ruins of a fine bridge, destroyed by the rebels, and crossed the Potomac 
on pontoon bridges on the 30th, encamping near Lovettsville in the 
afternoon of same day, in a most lovely region of country. "The 
hills which surrounded and almost enclosed the camp, at sunset, pre- 
sented as fine a picture as one could wish to look upon. In front, 
towards the west, was a small valley through which the road over the 
Catoctin Alountains passed, and further on towards the setting sun 
were undulations on which the trees in their autumnal foliage stood 
out in bold relief, warm and light with the lingering rays of the depart- 
ing luminary." 

Resuming the march, November ist and continuing until the 7th, 
brought up the line at Warrenton. The way was through Loudon 
and Fauquier counties, through Hamilton to Philomont, then bearing 
to the east and south, avoiding Ashby's Gap, through Middleburg to 
White Plains. The brigade was ordered to pass through Middleburg 
with drums beating and colors flying. Here, as in every other village 
and small town through which the regiment had passed since crossing 
the Potomac, everything appeared deserted, most of the people dis- 
appearing on the approach of the Union troops, yet scarcely a thing 
was molested by the soldiers. A small force of Confederate cavalry 
had been driven out of this town by General Reynolds' troops, Novem- 
ber 6th, an hour or so before the brigade reached it, and here an 
attack from the enemy had been anticipated and preparations made to 
meet it. This anticipation had a w^onderful effect on the men, many 
of whom were suffering a good deal from the constant marching, but 
every one immediately straightened himself up for the work that was 
believed to be on hand. 

An incident occurred on this march that was both strange and 
amusing. A night march through the woods towards a point known 
as White Plains was very tedious, the night being dark and the men, 
who had been marching all day, were fagged out ; but as the night went 
on, instead of being in camp resting their weary limbs, they were 
still hunting their destination, changing the course several times, which 
gave them the impression that they were lost, and finally halting about 
midnight. After their year of joint service, no doubt General Meade 
and his Pennsylvania Reserves understood each other pretty thoroughly, 
but to the men of the 121st who had not been used to such things, it 
appeared that the opinions expressed by the Reserves of their General — 
not in whispers, but in stentorian tones, easily heard by the General 
and those considerably farther away — were anything but polite, not 



26 m'clellan's farewell. 

to say in violation of military discipline and etiquette. On all sides 
they swore at and censured him for getting lost and going the wrong 
road, using such adjectives in the expression of their indignation as 
would scarcely bear repetition. It was asserted by some one that 
the General promised to get square with his men the first battle that 
took place ; but that was nothing to men who would at any time rather 
fight than march. 

November loth, while in the vicinity of Warrenton, "we witnessed, 
upon General Burnside taking the command, the farewell of General 
McClellan to his army. He was, to the exclusion of every one else, 
the idol of the army. He it was who shared their privations, who 
had been with his soldiers in victory and defeat. He it was who had 
been unremittingly solicitous for their comfort and welfare, and 
between him and them had consequently been created and cemented 
a bond of friendship not to be easily destroyed. Long before he made 
his appearance, regiment after regiment marched to the field where 
the corps of Reynolds was assembled for the purpose of the leave- 
taking — artillery, cavalry, infantry. Towards 4 o'clock in the after- 
noon, after having bade good-bye to Franklin's and Sumner's corps, 
McClellan with his staff was announced by the customary salute from 
the artillery, and as he reached the right of the line, cheer after cheer 
broke forth from the men, and this was continued along the entire front, 
varied only by excited huzzas and tossing of caps in the air and other 
wild demonstrations of respect, mingled with the sincerest grief. As 
he rode by, it was evident that he was deeply overcome by these 
demonstrations. The tone of his farewell was indicative of the depth 
of his feeling."^ 

For the time, the General seemed to have complete possession of 
the thousands of hearts before him, and the sight was certainly one 
that can never be forgotten by those who witnessed it. 

It is stated that on the 9th of November the strength of the Union 
army, at and about Warrenton, was 125,000; while that of the 
Confederates was 75,000, of whom the First Corps, under Longstreet, 
was at or near Culpeper, and the Second, under Stonewall Jackson, 
was at Milford, twenty-five miles west of Warrenton, and on the far 
side of the Blue Ridge. 



1 Letter Chapman Blddle. 



Fredericksburg. 



November nth the march was resumed, Colonel William Sinclair 
taking command of the brigade November 14th, halting near Fayette- 
ville until the i6th, when the regiment again moved on through 
Bealeton and IVIorrisville, Fauquier County, to Stafford Court-house, 
Stafford County, which place was reached on the evening of the i8th. 
The greater part of the way was through fields and woods, in a 
direction parallel to the highway, the artillery and supply trains using 
the road in order to be abreast and under the protection of the infantry. 
The brigade encamped at the edge of a little stream called Accaceek 
Creek, near i\cquia Creek. November 22d, the camp was shifted to the 
vicinity of Brooks' Station. On this march the line passed through 
Staff'ord Court-house, the court-house and offices of record, etc., being 
occupied by the cavalry, and the records themselves scattered to the 
four winds of heaven, or lying loose for the hands of the first person 
who might care to possess them. At the end of the march, the regi- 
ment went on picket, the line extending from the camp to the river, 
about one and a half miles. 

By a recent order the Army of the Potomac had been reorganized 
into three grand divisions : the Second and Ninth Corps forming the 
Right Grand Division under General Sumner ; the First and Sixth 
Corps the Left Grand Division under General Franklin; and the Third 
and Fifth Corps the Centre Grand Division under General Hooker; 
the Eleventh Corps under General Sigel constituting a reserve. The 
First Corps continued under the command of General Reynolds, Gen- 
eral Meade commanding the Third Division, made up of the various 
regiments of Pennsylvania Reserves. 

The entire First Brigade remained near Brooks' Station until 
December 8th, spending the time in building bridges, repairing roads, 
and doing picket duty on alternate days. The camp was in a pine 
thicket. Snow and rain fell constantly, making it almost impossible 
to build fires ; and then, when the men succeeded in getting their fires 
going, the smoke hung over and around the camp until all were nearly 
blinded. 

The second death in the regiment, that of John W. Lees, nineteen 
years of age, occurred here, December 6th. 

27 



28 



l^KEDERICKSBURG. 



December 8tli was a clear and cold day, one of the coldest experi- 
enced in the ami}- up to this time, the sun shining brightly, and the 
roads being frozen hard. The brigade again pulled up stakes at 8 
A. M., and marched to White Oak Church, which was reached about i 
o'clock the same afternoon, the new camp being in a small pine wood 
about four miles below Fredericksburg, and three miles from the Rap- 
pahannock River. 

By the loth of December matters began to assume a serious aspect. 
On this day the pontoons were going forward in the direction of 
Fredericksburg. On this day, also, every man was furnished with 
sixty rounds of ammunition, and orders concerning the coming battle 
were read to the regiment on parade. These orders were full and 
precise ; every man capable of carrying a musket was ordered to be 
present in the ranks, even the musicians ; it was also ordered that no 
assistance should be given the wounded during the engagement, a 
precaution to prevent the men from leaving the ranks until the fight 
was over. On the nth the men were aroused at 3 o'clock in the 
morning, cooked their cofifee, hard-tack and pork, and between 5 and 6 
o'clock, after receiving twenty additional rounds of cartridges and three 
days' rations, started off on a "double-quick" towards the Rappa- 
hannock, in which direction heavy firing was heard, and halted in a 
wood a short distance from the river. 

Here everything looked like business. The mancEuvring of 
immense bodies of troops in the immediate vicinity, the shifting of 
numerous batteries of artillery and the great roar of the heavy guns 
used during the day in the bombardment of Fredericksburg, were 
certainly very assuring to men who had never before beheld the 
handling of troops on the eve of a great battle, and, naturally, their 
belief in the impossibility of a successful opposition to such an army 
was considerably strengthened. It is stated that 143 guns posted along 
Stafford Heights were engaged in shelling the town and heights 
beyond. The reality of what was to take place, however, could not be 
conceived, although the appearance of long trains of ambulances ami 
stretcher-bearers bringing up the rear of the troops and passing along 
to convenient locations for ready service was sufficiently convincing 
that a fearful slaughter was being provided for. Early on the morning 
of the 1 2th the regiment moved closer to the river and witnessed the 
preparations for crossing. From its elevated position, the long, wide 
flats along the river bank below were visible in both directions, and 
presented a magnificent sight, being filled with troops moving some in 
one direction, some in another, many resting with their arms stacked 
awaiting their turns to fall in, officers hurrving to and fro, batteries of 




MAJOR-GENKRAL GEORGE G. MEADE. 



ON THE RAPPAHANNOCK. 29 

artillery and regiments of cavalry mingling with the infantry, all mak- 
ing up an immense mass of humanity that it would seem impossible 
to prevent being hopelessly mixed and blended together. Finally, the 
various lines began to take shape, leading off in the direction of the 
different crossings, no confusion whatever being apparent. 

At the town of Fredericksburg the river is about 200 yards wide. 
The left bank is skirted for a long distance by a broad strip of flats, 
beyond which rises a line of bluffs some 150 feet above the stream. 
The town itself is located on the southwest bank, on the edge of a 
plain wdiich extends some three miles along the river, and which, in 
its widest part below the town, is about a mile and a quarter wide. 
The hills rising beyond this plain are covered with timber. The rail- 
road, running nearly south from the town, through the plain, with an 
embankment four or five feet high, afforded quite a stronghold for the 
rebel skirmishers, while the main line of the enemy was posted on the 
heights, within the edge of the woods. The old stage road to Rich- 
mond, sometimes called the Bowling Green Road, ran parallel with the 
river, between it and the railroad, and was lined with high hedge 
fences, which partially shielded from view the movements of the Union 
troops. 

The following extract, commenting on the situation as found by 
the commander of the Union army, is taken from "Fredericksburg 
Campaign, by a Line Officer:" — 

"Before him lay an open plain, narrow to the north, expanding to 
a greater breadth to the south, and dominated by a double tier of hills. 
Along the bare surface of the lower ridge, between Hazel Run and the 
river, earthworks were plainly visible, and below to the left the high- 
lands were covered with dense woods which his observation could not 
penetrate. Upon the grassy uplands beyond Fredericksburg, working 
parties were busily turning up the yellow clay ; sentries and pickets 
watched the river bank, and across the plain gray-coated vedettes 
passed to and fro ; no large body of men nor encampment was visible, 
yet who could say how large a force might not be screened by that 
dark line of forest, or concealed in the deep depressions of the hills? 
He had little information as to the number or disposition of the enemy, 
and it must have been obvious that before he could advance against 
the heights confronting him, it would be necessary to pass over the 
river every available man. The Federal sentries upon the edge of the 
Stafford plateau looked down into the streets of the little town ; and 
there, if heavy batteries were brought forward to cover the operation, 
it would be no hazardous or prolonged task to bridge the stream. But 
so contracted is the space between the river and the ridge, and so 



2,0 FRKDKRICKSBURG. 

exposed was it in every quarter to the fire of the Confederate guns, 
that the deployment of the attacking force would be difficult and costly, 
and unless those guns were disabled or driven from the hills, the 
town itself would prove a mere 'shell-trap' to the troops in possession. 
Away to the left, however, where the highlands stand back at a 
distance of 4,500 yards from the river bank, and the wider strand 
below the cliffs form a spacious landing-place, there was room to 
bridge and to manreuvre unmolested ; then, too, the old stage road, 
with its double embankment, presented a strong place d'arnis and base 
of attack." 

The I2ist Regiment crossed the river at 10 a. m. on one of the 
lower pontoons, and after crossing, proceeded up a hill by the house of 
a Mr. Burnet, a member of the Confederate Congress, and formed line 
of battle on a beautiful level tract of land, resting for further orders. 
The Bucktails were sent out on picket, and the men, after capturing 
and butchering an old cow, built fires and cooked their rations. While 
thus engaged. General Burnside and aids came riding along the line, 
and were enthusiastically received with hearty cheers. During the 
night the men rested on their arms. The morning of Saturday, the 
13th, opened very foggy, it being impossible for several hours to see 
more than a few yards distant. A rabbit was sufficiently indiscreet to 
make its appearance, and the consequent scrambling and tumbling and 
hooting among the soldiers in their efforts to capture the spry little 
fellow were enough to drive away all serious thoughts of the coming 
conflict. Finally the line moved further down along the bank of the 
river, and then turned inland, and formed in line of battle opposite the 
tall, thick hedge lining the Bowling Green Road, beyond which noth- 
ing could be seen, and which, of course, shielded the line from the view 
of the enemy. 

The regiment was now about to receive its ba])tism of fire ; was 
about to enter its maiden engagement, and its grit was to be tested for 
the first time on the battle-field, in the presence of veterans, than whom 
no better soldiers ever existed, and in the face of an enemy on whom 
victory had repeatedly smiled on hotly-contested fields. 

The order was given to unsling knapsacks and tear away the 
hedge in front. This being accomplished, the line was advanced some 
two or three hundred yards, leaving the old stage road in the rear, and 
halted in an open field, where Ransom's battery ("B," First United 
States Artillery) also took position and at once opened fire. The men 
were here ordered to lie down abreast of and supporting the battery, 
in full view of the enemy, whose guns fired shot and shell from every 
direction, one battery in particular causing much annoyance, firing 



BAPTISM OF FIRE. 3 1 

from a point to the left and somewhat to the rear. One of its shots 
struck down seven men, and another killed a horse just in front of the 
colors. This battery (Pelham's) had range, and its round shot bounded 
along the regiment from the left to the right flank until our artillery 
opened on it, when its fire passed farther and farther to the rear, and 
its shot could be seen breaking through the trees a quarter of a mile 
away. Other batteries in front, and still more to the right, kept up a 
continual cross-fire from all directions on the infantrymen lying on 
their faces, and the artillerymen who were faithfully serving their guns 
at so great a disadvantage, for it must be understood that while the 
enemy were mostly concealed within the woods on the heights beyond, 
Aleade's division occupied the plain in full view, with no shelter, no 
works of any kind whatever. While in this position the regiment 
suffered severely. The first man killed in the regiment was John B. 
Manson, private of Company "A." He was cut in two by a cannon 
ball. The shot and shell were continually for two long hours flying 
over and around the men, making deep furrows in the ground and 
bounding like rubber balls. The annoying and appalling noise of the 
flying shells was altogether new and unexpected, difl:'ering according to 
the kind or size, and the elevation from and at which they came. One 
gun sent shells whose noise resembled the sudden flight of a great 
flock of pigeons. A solid shot would land with a heavy thud and 
rebound to the rear, or come right at the line with the sound of a huge 
circular saw ripping a log, or pass shrieking through the air in quest 
of a victim. There is certainly something very terrifying in such 
accompaniments that has not a great tendency to strengthen the nerves ; 
nevertheless, many of the men slept soundly during this fearful 
cannonading. Nature demanded her measure of rest even under such 
novel circumstances. 

The troops directly opposed to Meade's division were those of 
A. P. Hill's division, Stonewall Jackson's corps. Covered by a heavy 
line of skirmishers along the railroad, the first line within tlie edge of 
the woods was held by the brigades of Archer on the right, then 
Lane, and then Pender. Gregg's brigade, some four or five hundred 
yards in rear of Archer and Lane, and Thomas' brigade, about the 
same distance in rear of Lane and Pender, made up the second line; 
the combined strength of the five brigades making up this division 
being about ii,ooo. 

Fourteen guns posted on the right of Archer and thirty guns on 
the left of Pender had complete range of the intervening space across 
which the advance had to be made. It is also stated that at the time 
of the attack, Early's division of three brigades and Taliaferro's divi- 



32 FREDERICKSBURG. 

sion of four brigades, as well as D. H. Hill's division and a number of 
batteries of artillery were within supporting distance of A. P. Hill's 
division. The full strength of Meade's division was 4,600 men. 

Finally, about i p. m., a shell was landed in a rebel caisson, almost 
directly in front of the regiment, causing a great explosion, and creat- 
ing, evidently, much confusion in the enemy's lines, and a correspond- 
ing amount of elation among the men of Meade's division, who gave 
free vent to their joy in one of those rousing Yankee cheers that never 
failed to inspire courage or dismay wherever heard. No doubt General 
Meade concluded that this was the opportune moment, for within a 
few minutes thereafter came the order to charge with fixed bayonets. 
As if suddenly let loose from a tiresome confinement in which they 
were compelled to submit to the galling and destructive fire of their 
enemy and from a position where retaliation was impossible, the division 
sprang forward almost on a run, checking its speed only so much as 
was necessary to preserve its alignment. 

With one grand rush across the plain towards the works in front, 
without returning a shot, while the musketry of the enemy was rapidly 
cutting down our men as they advanced, the division soon covered the 
intervening space, crossing fences, ditches and a railroad in doing so, 
and driving the enemy from their position. A fence crossing the line 
of the regiment diagonally as it advanced, proved for a few moments 
quite a serious impediment. As the men reached the fence, instead 
of immediately crossing, they allowed themselves to be crowded toward 
the left, the fence acting as a wedge to force the men in that direction, 
presenting an excellent opportunity to the enemy to punish them 
effectually. This lasted but a few moments, however, and the men 
after mounting the fence regained their alignment and proceeded on 
toward the wood. After entering the woods progress was impeded 
by the tangled undergrowth of bushes ; nevertheless the enemy was 
kept on the run, our men following up their advantage closely, having 
everything their own way and punishing their adversaries severely. 
Meade's Division ^\ as at this time not only far in advance of any other 
portion of the Union line, but had penetcrated through and far beyond 
the Confederate line of works on either side, and, for the want of sup- 
port, was completely isolated. "i"he dreadful slaughter in front of 
Marye's Hill at no time approached success, but, however brave, the 
efforts of the troops at that point were from the first utterly hopeless. 
Meade's were the only troops that broke through the enemy's lines, 
and saw victory, for a short time, perched upon their banners. That it 
was not taken advantage of was no fault of theirs ; and, without 
seeking to locate the blame, they want it put on record that they are 




U- 



MEUTKXANT M. W. C. BARCLAY. 



meade's charge. 33 

proud of that day's work, believing, as do all their critics, that they 
did their whole duty. 

Halting for a short time, as if to take breath, the regiments on the 
left soon raised the cry "they're gaining the rear." Up to this stage, 
of the engagement everything had gone on as well as could be wished, 
although the loss had been considerable; but the operation of falling 
back in the face of the enemy, always a disastrous experiment, was 
particularly so in this instance. Before the line got back to the edge 
of the wood, two separate lines (one following the other) of the enemy 
appeared in its tracks, taking advantage of the situation (no supports 
coming to Meade's relief), and followed closely with volleys of 
musketry, capturing many of the men and killing and wounding many 
more. Colonel Biddle, in his letters, writes, "a support which had been 
ordered for us failed to come. Had it come the result probably would 
have been different." 

Colonel Sinclair having been wounded in the charge, the command 
of the First Brigade devolved on Colonel Wm. McCandless. On 
resuming its original position, General Meade, who seemed consider- 
abiv vexed at not having been properly supported, found occasion to 



From "The Antietam and Fredericksburg," by F. W. Palfrey, 
Brevet Brigadier-General, U. S. V., New York, Chas. Scribner's Sons, 
1882 :— 

"At last the Confederate guns were silenced, or silent, and Meade 
advanced. The First Brigade succeeded in penetrating the woods, 
driving the enemy from the railroad beyond, and finally crossed the 
crest of the hill beyond, and reached the open ground on the other 
side. With great gallantry and ardor they pressed back the troops in 
front of them, and made or found an interval between the brigades of 
Archer and Lane, of A. P. Hill's division, and forced two regiments 
of the former and the whole of the latter to give way. The Second 
Brigade divided as it followed the First up the hill, to meet a sharp 
fire which assailed it on both flanks, but only a small portion of it 
reached the same point as the First Brigade. One of its regiments 
took prisoners and a color. The Third Brigade was checked by a 
destructive fire from a battery on the left, its commander was killed, 
and it accomplished little. Meade's division fared as Pickett's division 
fared at Gettysburg. Having made a most brilliant advance, and 
penetrated the hostile line more deeply than Pickett's did, it was 
enveloped by fire closing in upon it from every direction, and compelled 
to withdraw. But it seems to have been better commanded and better 
supported than Pickett's division was, and instead of losing seventy- 
five per cent., as Pickett's division did, it lost only forty per cent, and 
it captured several standards and over 300 prisoners. A brigade from 
Birney's division on the left, and one from Gibbon's division on the 
right, aided materially in the withdrawal of Meade's line." 



34 FREDERICKSBURG. 

compliment the regiment for its part of the work by exclaiming in 
the presence of the division: "Well clone, I2ist; good enough for 
one day." 

Out of 576 ofiliccrs and men who went into this action, the regi- 
ment lost 24 killed, 115 wounded and 10 missing. Of the wounded,. 
19 were mortally wounded, making the loss in killed and mortally 
wounded 43. 

In many cases the wounded fell into the hands of the enemy and 
became prisoners, but are accounted for above among the wounded. 
There were 29 cases of this kind, bringing the number of prisoners 
up to 35. 

The following description of Meade's charge is given by "A Line 
Officer" in "Fredericksburg Campaign" — an authority which cannot 
be suspected of partiality towards the Union troops — but whose sym- 
path}' is evidently with the Confederates : — 

"i p. M. Preceded by clouds of skirmishers and covered by a tre- 
mendous artillery fire, Meade and Gibbons advanced from the Old 
Stage Road in the usual formation, column of brigade at 300 paces 
distance, the whole covering a front of 1,000 yards, whilst Birney 
replaced Meade along the road. 

"When the Federals reached the scene of their former repulse,. 
Jackson's guns again opened, but without the same effect, for they 
were now exposed to the fire of the enemy's more powerful artillery. 
Even Pelham could do but little, and the batteries which had been 
advanced beyond the railroad on Hill's left front were quickly driven 
in ; Meade's rearmost brigade was now brought up, and deployed to- 
the left of the first, thus further extending the front. The leading 
brigade made straight for that tongue of woodland which, projecting 
beyond the railroad, interposed between Lane and Archer. As they 
approached, the battalions found that, masked by the timber, they were 
no longer exposed to the fire of the enemy's artillery, and that the wood 
before them was unoccupied. 

"Quickly crossing the border, through swamp and undergrowth 
deemed impenetrable by the Confederates, an ever-increasing stream 

[As Meade's division met with no repulse until later in the day,, 
when it was finally driven from the works it had taken from the 
Confederates, the reference to "their former repulse" is an error. This 
officer calls the first halt under the artillery fire a repulse. Other 
authorities do so also, but, as Meade's men well know, there had been 
no going back up to this time and the old stage road was left in the 
rear by Meade almost before a shot was fired on that part of the line] 



meade's charge. 35 

of men pressed on, and bursting from the covert to the right hand, 
attempted to roll up the exposed tiank of Lane's brigade. The ground 
between the northern skirt of the wood, however, and Lane's right was 
an open field, 200 yards in width, and over this space the Federals 
made no immediate progress. At length, their ammunition giving out, 
the Southerners retired, but slowly and in good order. Neither Gregg 
nor Archer were able to lend assistance, for they themselves were fully 
occupied with Meade's Second Brigade ; which, though following close 
on the heels of the First, and met at the entrance to the coppice by the 
oblique fire of Lane's regiments, had, instead of conforming to the 
change of direction, rushed forward through the wood. 

"Two hundred paces from the embankment it came in contact with 
Archer's left, which was resting on the very edge of the coppice. The 
Confederates were completely taken by surprise ; relying on the reported 
inaccessibility of the thicket beyond their flank, neither scouts nor 
pickets had been thrown out to watch the approaches, and the men 
were lying about with arms piled. Two regiments attempting to form 
up and change front to the left, were assailed in the act, broken by a 
determined charge, and routed in confusion. The remainder, however, 
stood firm, without changing front; for the Federals, instead of follow- 
ing up their successs in this direction, left Archer to be dealt with by 
the Third Brigade of the division (which had now reached the railroad 
and was threatening him in front), and swept on towards the military 
road, where Gregg's brigade was drawn up in line. So thick was the 
covert, and so limited the view, that General Gregg, taking the advanc- 
ing mass for part of Hill's line retiring, restrained the fire of his men. 
The Federal crush broke upon his right. He himself fell mortally 
wounded ; his flank regiment, a battalion of conscripts, fled, except one 
company, without firing a shot. The two regiments of the opposite 
flank, however, were with great readiness turned about, and changing 
front inwards, effectually obstructed any movement of the enemy along 
the rear. But the Federals, though now joined by part of the First 
Brigade, had already reached the limit of their success. The 
Pennsylvania regiments found themselves in the heart of the enemy's 
position ; but from the very nature of their advance, and the ground 
over which they had passed, they had become a confused and disor- 
ganized mass. 

"Let us now look at the progress and position of the different 
bodies from which the much-needed aid was expected. To the right 
rear, opposite Pender, Gibbons' division, which had moved to the 
attack almost simultaneously with Meade, had been checked by the 
fire of the thirty odd Confederate guns posted en masse 300 yards 



36 FREDERICKSBURG. 

behind the railroad. Two of his brigades had been driven back ; the 
third had with difficulty gained the shelter of the embankment. To 
the left rear, Meade's Third Brigade was held in check by Walker's 
batteries and the staunch infantry of Archer, who, notwithstanding 
that a strong force had passed beyond his flank, resolutely held his 
ground, and prevented his immediate opponents from reinforcing the 
intruding column. 

"Not a single field battery had followed in support of the infantry ; 
between the railway, therefore, and the Old Stage Road, a distance of 
950 yards, there was no body of formed troops. Meade, with less 
than 3,000 men, was alone and unsupported within the hostile lines, 
swallowed up by the forest and surrounded by an overwhelming throng 
of foes. At this crisis of the fight, when every available battalion 
should have been hurried to the front and poured through the still 
open gap, w^hen a determined rush of the whole fighting line and sup- 
ports w^ould have probably driven Hill and Early back upon the 
reserves, Franklin, incapable of a bold offensive, made no effort to 
assist his lieutenant, and, despite three urgent appeals for succor, left 
the gallant Pennsylvanians to their fate. Franklin, holding in his hand 
40,000 infantry at least, saw those daring troops, who, though num- 
bering scarce 3,000, had so successfully cleared the way, destroyed 
piecemeal by his own violation of the first principles of war. 

"The Confederates, in sharp contrast, and prompted perhaps by the 
urgency of the case, were not slow to come to the assistance of their 
comrades. Early, anticipating Jackson's orders, hurled the brigades 
of Atkinson and Walker against the flank of the hostile column, and 
dispatched Hoke, with Hays in support, to reinforce Archer. At the 
same time Thomas, supported by Paxton, charged forward to the relief 
of Lane; and the combined brigades bore back the Federals, outnum- 
bered, but fighting stubbornly, down the slope, and after a brief yet 
desperate struggle, thrust them from the woods. Though compelled 
by sheer force of numbers to retreat, Meade's men still showed a bold 
front, and, on gaining the railway embankment, turned fiercely at bay. 
But in the thick covert they had been thrust from, all order and cohesion 
had been lost, and ere they could make good their grip upon that line 
of vantage the Confederates rushed down upon them with the bayonet, 
and drove them far across the plain (2.15 p. M.). Walker, Thomas 
and Archer halted at the embankment, for four regiments, sent too 
tardily by Birney to Meade's aid, were attempting to enter the project- 
ing coppice ; but Atkinson and Hoke, carried away by success, pursued 
the fugitives beyond the railroad. In killed, w'ounded and prisoners 
Meade lost more than 2,000 officers and men." 



OFFICIAL REPORT OF COLONEL BIDDLE. 37 

Colonel Biddle rendered his official report as follows : — 

Camp near Fredericksburg, Va. 

December i8, 1862. 

Lieutenant:- — In obedience to brigade circular of this date, 
requesting a statement of the operations of the several regiments of 
the brigade in the engagement of Saturday last, the 13th inst., I have 
the honor to submit the following respecting the 121st Penna. 
Volunteers : — 

Early on the morning of the 13th, the brigade was moved from 
its camping-ground near Bernard's house to the left and front to the 
support of Ranson's battery, where it remained a considerable time 
in position. The ground occupied by the brigade w-as a portion of 
the extensive plain reaching about Fredericksburg, probably three miles 
in length by one mile or a mile and a quarter in width. From one- 
third to one-half mile in front of us was the Richmond Railroad, and 
just behind, the wooded heights which enclose the plain. Between 
I and 2 p. M., ATeade's division was ordered to move forward to clear 
the wood, which was occupied by the enemy in force, the First Brigade 
leading. The advance was made promptly, and, after crossing three 
ditches and the railroad, the brigade entered the wood. The 121st, 
continuing in line, reached the crest of the hill, passing on the way 
a number of the enemy's musket stacks. From the time the regiment 
entered the wood, its advance was kept up steadily, until the greatly 
superior force of the enemy, who were flanking us on both sides, com- 
pelled us to retire. 

In withdrawing from the wood, the regiment retired with steadi- 
ness, though sufifering severely from the enemy's fire. On reaching 
the plain, and a short distance from the railroad, such of the regiment 
as came out together were formed in line and then halted for a time. 
The regiment was then moved a short distance to the rear, where it 
remained until ordered back to the position it occupied on the night of 
the I 2th. 

While in the wood, the 121st advanced to the extreme front, and 
it is believed that if the brigade had been supported, the object con- 
templated by the general would have been accomplished. 

In closing this sketch, I take great pleasure in referring to the 
good conduct of the officers and men. I may mention that the order 
of the regiment was in a great measure due to the coolness and efficiency 
of Lieutenant-Colonel Davis and Major Biddle. If desired, it would 
afford me sincere satisfaction to furnish a list of the officers and men 
who distinguished themselves in the engagement. 



38 FREDERICKSBURG. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

(Signed) Chapman Biddle, 

Colonel One Hundred and Tzventy-Hrst 

Pennsylvania Volunteers. 
Lieutenant Caldwell, 
Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, 

First Brigade, Meade's Division. 

The regimental order quoted below will prove of great interest 
to the survivors of the 121st Regt. Penna. Vols., and is a valuable 
addition to the history of the regiment : — 

War Department, Record and Pension Office, 

Washington City, December 28, 1893. 
W. W. Strong, 

Chairman of the Historical Committee 

of the 1 2 1st Regt. Penna. Vols., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sir: — In reply to your communication of the 26th instant, in 
which you request to be furnished with a copy of the regimental order 
complimenting certain men of the 121st Penna. Vols, for their efforts 
in saving the colors at the battle of Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 
1862, T am directed by the Secretary of War to transmit herewith the 
desired cop}-. 

Very respectfully, 

F. C. AlXSWORTH. 

Colonel, U. S. Army, Chief, Record and Pension Office. 

Meadouarters 121 ST Regt. Penna. Vols., First Brigade, 

Camp near White Oak Church, December 30, 1862. 

General Order, jVo. 16: — 

The Colonel commanding the regiment takes very great pleasure 
in acknowledging the bravery and discipline of the officers and men 
under his command at the battle of Fredericksburg on Saturday, 
December 13, 1862. It is also a peculiar gratification to him that the 
valor of these officers and men has been recognized by others out of 
the command. 

The commanding officer has requested and obtained from the 
field officers of the regiment and from company commanders in many 
instances a list of those who have particularly distinguished themselves 
in that action. He regrets that from the vague returns of some of the 



OFFICIAL REPORT OF COLONEL BIDDLE. 39 

company commanders he is unable to do special justice to the men of 
those commands. The following is a list of the distinguished : — 

BY COLONEL BIDDLE. 

Lieutenant Rosengarten, for gallantry in carrying off safely the 
national colors of the regiment after the fall of the color sergeant. 

BY LIEUTENANT-COLONEL DAVIS. 

Lieutenant Ruth, of Company "I;" Lieutenant Pippet, of Com- 
pany "C," for distinguished bearing; Lieutenant Powell, of Company 
"C," for good conduct; Lieutenant Plumer, of Company ''E," for good 
conduct; Sergeant Cowpland, of Company "I," and Sergeant Bastian, 
of Company "G," for good conduct. 

BY MAJOR BIDDLE. 

Captain Ridgway, for resolute and skillful conduct in command 
of his company ; Captain Laurie and Lieutenants Raymond and Hulse, 
as deserving of special notice; Private Bolton, of Company "K," 
wounded in both legs and a prisoner, for gallant conduct. 

BY CAPTAIN RIDGWAY, OF COMPANY "a." 

Second Lieutenant James S. Warner, for coolness and bravery in 
discharge of his duty ; First Sergeant Philander R. Gray, for self- 
possession and bravery in aiding to reform the broken lines, under the 
hottest fire of the enemy ; Sergeant Henry H. Herpst, for coolness in 
discharge of his duty; Sergeant i\lexander McDowell, for bravery; 
Corporal John M. Bingham, for bravery; Corporal Francis H. Hilliard, 
for braverv. 



Lieutenant Etting, for coolness and promptness throughout the 
action ; Acting Orderly Sergeant William W. Horner, for aiding in 
saving the colors as the line was retiring; Privates Auguste F. Claus 
and Henry D. Ranch, for good conduct; Private John Galbraith, for 
good conduct. 

BY LIEUTENANT ROBERTSON, COMMANDING COMPANY "e." 

.Sergeant John W. Chittick, for good conduct ; Sergeant William 
G. JNfeigs, for good conduct; Corporal AA'illiam C. Ryall (wounded), 



40 FREDERICKSBURG. 

for good conduct : Corporal Dempsey, for good conduct ; Corporal 
AlcConnell. for good conduct; Private M. Adams, for good conduct; 
Private I-'rancis P. Doherty, for good conduct ; Private Thomas Foley, 
for good conduct ; Private James Higgins, for good conduct ; Private 
John Schaffer, Jr., for good conduct (since died) ; Private Washington 
Tarr, for good conduct ; Private John W. Terrill, for good conduct 
(wounded); Private Daniel H. Weikel, for good conduct; Private 
George W. Aliley, for good conduct. 

EY CAPTAIN CLAPP, OF COMPANY "f." 

Lieutenant J. K. Byers, Sergeant Kahl, Corporal Wise, Privates 
R. Swab and L. L. Say, for bravery and good conduct. 

BY CAPTAIN LAURIE, OF COMPANY "b." 

Sergeant G. Keen, Sergeant Wheeler, for good conduct; Sergeant 
Zimmel, for good conduct; Corporal Wheeler, for good conduct; 
Corporl Stefifan, for good conduct ; Corporal Rylands, for good con- 
duct ; Corporal Slyoff, for good conduct ; Corporal Whaland, for good 
conduct ; Corporal Cummings, for good conduct ; Corporal Hardy, for 
good conduct ; Private Thos. B. Cave, for soldierly conduct. 

BY CAPTAIN WRIGLEY, OF COMPANY "h." 

Second Lieutenant Harrison Lambdin, for gallant conduct ; Private 
Robert Cui:imings, who, after being severely wounded and ordered to 
the rear, declined to go and continued fighting until compelled to leave 
the field ; Private A. Clay Matthews, for distinguished conduct. 

The commanding officers of Companies "I," "C," "G," "K," report 
the general bravery and good conduct of their respective commands 
as well as the captains of all other companies. The Colonel regrets, 
however, that he has no means of acknowledging any distinguished 
service in the four companies referred to other than has been done, 
which he would have been most happy to have done had he been 
supplied with the means of particularizing those worthy of distinction. 

The Colonel desires to acknowledge the valuable services of the 
field officers who so materially aided him, as also those of the Adjutant. 
He refers with great satisfaction to the services of Surgeon Ramsey 
on the field. 

The memory of the gallant dead who perished on the field will 
ever be held in grateful recollection by their officers and fellow-soldiers. 
The success which thev endeavored to earn in common with their 




LIEUTEXANT |()Slll'.\ CARSED AND IlIS \Vi:i.l.- K NOW N IIORSF. I'.H.L. 



burnside's mud march. 41 

companions was denied them, but their heroic conduct will not the less 
leave honorable names to their families and friends. 

By order of 

Col. Chapman Biddle. 
Thos. M. Hall, 

/idj. I2ist Pcnna. Vols. 

The regiment resumed the position it occupied on the night of the 
1 2th, and there remained — the men resting on their arms, neither tents 
nor fires being- allowed — during Saturday night, Sunday and Monday 
until dark, when it was ordered to get ready to move and recross the 
river in silence. The object of the order was kept secret. The whole 
army was returned safely, and had a deliverance, for its position on the 
plain was entirely commanded by the enemy's batteries. December 
19th, the regiment marched to White Oak Church and went into camp, 
spending the balance of the month arranging winter quarters, building 
cabins, doing guard, picket and police duty, and getting the men in 
good form for another campaign. Here it remained until January 20, 
1863, when it started for Bank's Ford on what was known in the army 
as "Burnside's Mud March," under command of Lieutenant- Colonel 
Davis, Colonel Biddle having received a leave of absence. Rain began 
falling at the start and continued day in and day out until the roads 
were so muddy that it was almost impossible to travel. Many of the 
men left their shoes sticking in the mud, and often they themselves 
had to be hauled out of the mud by their comrades. The artillery 
stuck fast, and so did the pontoon trains, which had finally to be pulled 
out of the mud by the infantry. The army was, in fact, stuck in the 
mud, and could not budge one way or the other. Finally, on the 25th, 
the men managed to get back to the camp at White Oak Church, com- 
pletely fagged out and more dead than alive — the worst looking set 
of "Yanks'' possible to imagine. Here they remained until February 
14th, when they moved over to Belle Plains to the camp that had been 
vacated by the nth Regt. Penna. Reserves. During the stay at White 
Oak Church, Company "B" (Captain Laurie, sixty-four muskets) was 
detailed, February ist, for duty at the headquarters of General John 
F. Reynolds, and was not returned to the regiment until after the battle 
of Gettysburg. 

On the 2 1st of February, the regiment was brigaded with the 
135th, I42d and 151st Regts. Penna. Vols., still forming the First 
Brigade, Third Division, of the First Corps, and commanded by Colonel 
James R. Porter, thus bidding farewell to their old companions, the 



42 PORT ROYAL. 

Penna. Reserves, who were ordered to Washington. Colonel Davis 
having resigned, the command of the regiment devolved on Major 
Biddle, who continued in command until the return of Colonel Chapman 
Biddle, on the 29th of March. The regiment remained in camp at 
Belle Plains until April 20th, when it marched to Port Conway, and on 
the 2 1 St made a reconnoisance to Port Tobacco, the brigade at this 
time being under Brigadier-General Thomas A. Rowley, who took 
command, March 28th. Colonel Chapman Biddle, in a letter of April 
22, 1863, describes this miniature campaign as follows: — 

"On Monday, April 20th, we had a good hard rain, with a raw 
air, and no prospect of an advance. In short, the weather was such 
as to invite in-door employment and recreation exclusively, and accord- 
ingly a fine fire was built, benches tilted and legs outstretched with a 
view to comfort, and books got ready for an agreeable morning, when, 
to our utter discomfiture, an orderly made his appearance at the tent 
with directions for an immediate move with three days' rations. 
Imagine the consternation at such a command, at such a time. Books, 
reveries and comfortable quarters to be surrendered on the instant for 
a march in the storm. To saddle up and get ready was the work of 
but a short time. Thus commenced the march : rain, mud and day- 
light; a long- halt, apparently objectless; and then a renewal of the 
march, with rain, more mud and twilight; and then rain, the most 
possible mud and darkness. Onward the gallant Third Division of 
the First Army Corps advanced. Stout men floundered in the mire, 
and weaker ones fairly toppled over. Wearers of high boots — the 
pride and glory and protection of their owners — abandoned them 
incontinently and sought permanent refuge in the liquid soil. Bare 
feet measured many weary miles of toil, yet onward the living mass 
went, buoyed up in the midst of their trials by the seeming importance 
of the undertaking. At length, long after midnight, exhausted nature 
obtained temporary relief from its sufi-'erings ; and here and there, 
scattered about the camp-fire were little groups of soldiers, lying hud- 
dled together, sleeping without, in most cases, a blanket to cover them. 
At daylight, up and at it again, this time, however, without rain to 
pelt them as they move. At length, by 9 o'clock, their journey ends, 
and they are in a position to meet the enemy. From our camp trace 
a southeasterly coiu'se, passing through the little village of King 
George Court-house, until you reach Port Conway, directly opposite 
Port Royal, on the Rappahannock River, and you will perceive our 
route and its terminals ; sixteen miles is the measured distance, but 
weary ones as they were to the men. they ought, in justice, be computed 
more than double. 



PORT ROYAL. 43 

"Portions of pontoons are laid in the river preparatory to crossing, 
and the general resorts to the old service of wagon-gears, and wheels 
and logs to represent field-pieces. Some of the troops were ordered 
to prepare to cross, but the attempt to capture Port Royal was 
abandoned, and foot-sore and weary during last night and to-day, the 
men were returned to their camps." 



Chancellorsville. 



April 28th the regiment returned, via White Oak Church, to its 
former camping-ground near Pollock's Mills, and between 2 and 3 
o'clock on the morning of the 29th started toward the Rappahannock 
River below LVedericksburg, when it halted and prepared to cross. By 
1 o'clock some of the troops had crossed, the rebel pickets having been 
driven off or captured. It remained opposite the old crossing-place 
below the town until about 7 o'clock on the morning of the 2d of May, 
patiently waiting for orders to cross. 

Evidently for the purpose of creating confidence and stimulating 
the men to extra exertion, on the morning of April 30th an order was 
read informing them that "we are succeeding handsomely on the 
extreme right," where the Fifth, Eleventh and Twelfth Corps were 
operating", and that "the enemy must come out of his intrenchments 
and give us battle or ingloriously fly." Unfortunately the enemy did 
not choose the latter alternative, but insisted on coming out of his 
intrenchments and giving us all the battle we had use for at the time. 

During the evening the rebel batteries opened on the line, con- 
vincing the men that the most comfortable place to get was as close 
to the ground as possible. 

On the morning of May 2d the march was commenced from the 
position on the extreme left of the Union line toward the right, cross- 
ing on a pontoon bridge at United States Ford, and following a road 
through "the Wilderness," which was on fire; the rattle and roar of 
battle in the immediate vicinity being most appalling, while wounded 
men were passing along the road to the rear in great numbers. Con- 
tinuing on until i o'clock on the morning of the 3d, the brigade reached 
a point on the Orange and Gordonville turnpike, near Ely's Ford, 
and was placed in reserve. The day was very oppressive and the 
men greatly wearied, but, notwithstanding, there was little or no 
straggling, the men being in good spirits during the entire march, 
which was enlivened more or less by occasional vigorous fire from 
rebel batteries to which they were exposed, and by the prospects of a 
march "on to Richmond," for which march ten days' rations had been 
issued. After sleeping on their arms imtil 5 o'clock, the men were 

44 




COLONEL ALEXANDER BIDDLE. 



CHANCELLORSVILLE. 45 

aroused and ordered to be in readiness for an attack that was expected 
but did not come. 'Proceeding to Chancellorsville, still in reserve, the 
time was employed in building breastworks, which were strengthened 
during the following night and day, but were abandoned on the morn- 
ing of the 6th, when at i o'clock the brigade marched to United States 
Ford and recrossed the river during a heavy rain-storm, and returned 
to Falmouth. 

Although not actually engaged during the battle of Chancellors- 
ville, the men suffered severely from the fatigue of the long and heavy 
marches, and the building of works almost the entire time, and were 
under artillery fire much of the time ; and fatigued as they had been 
with constant marching and alarms, both night and day, while on the 
right, they were not in the best condition for so speedy a counter- 
march. But even this would have been comparatively trifling had the 
weather been at all propitious ; but as if to add the little feather that 
should break the back of the grand national camel, the heavens sent 
torrents, and earth, yes, that sacred soil of Virginia, condescended to 
liquefy to a degree and to stick to invading Yankees that they might 
thereby be overcome and destroyed. 

The following incident may be given as an indication of the high 
degree in which "prohibition" was held about that time in the vicinity 
of Chancellorsville : The able regimental quartermaster, Joshua 
Garsed, in the goodness of his enormous and patriotic heart, nearly 
annihilated a stout mule-team in his efiforts to bring up through the 
mire from the wagon trains, several miles away, a barrel of whiskey 
for the use of the men who were toiling in the cold rain, and were 
soaked through and through and shaking and shivering, and longing 
for the very article which the appreciative Garsed well knew would be 
best for them. No time was lost in dumping the barrel and knocking 
out the bung, and the men, who had gathered around in large numbers, 
promptly manifested an eagerness to get Uncle Sam in better trim 
and recuperate the spirits of his nephews by confiscating the spirits 
contained in the barrel. Lest their thirst should get the better of their 
discretion one of the field officers rolled the barrel over so as to allow 
the contents to run in the mud, but the men fell to and righted it, when 
the officer again succeeded in rolling it over ; and so the contest waged, 
success favoring first one side and then the other, until, in the scrim- 
mage, most of the valuable liquid was lost in the mire. Many of the 
men, however, succeeded in getting their canteens and tin-cups filled, 
and were not long in filling themselves. 

May 7th the brigade moved off to Fitzhugh Woods, four miles 
below Falmouth, and went into camp next day at Pollock's Mills, where 



46 WHITE OAK CHURCH. 

it rcniainctl until May i8th, performing the various duties of camp life 
and liickcting along the river bank. * 

Colonel JJiddlc, in a letter of JMay 15, 1863, gives the following 
specimen of picket repartee between some of his men and those of a 
Georgia regiment: "Both sides in this vicinity have pickets along 
the river, and the men tish or bathe or converse across the stream as 
the humor inclines them, and generally conduct themselves in a friendly 
manner. This morning one of our side inquired of a Georgia soldier 
who was fishing, 'How do the fish bite?' 'Why,' replied Sesesh, 'as 
they always do, with their mouths.' A little while after Sesesh asked, 
'What has become of Hooker?' 'Oh,' retorted one of ours, 'he has 
gone to Stonewal Jackson's funeral.' " 

On the 17th of May, a number of those captured by the rebels at 
the battle of Fredericksburg rejoined the regiment. On the iSth, as 
a sanitary measure, the regiment moved over to White Oak Church 
and encamped in an open field. The weather being excessively hot, 
the men of both armies indulged in bathing in the river, conversing 
freely with each other ; some of the men on various occasions crossing 
the river and remaining with the rebels for an hour or so, bartering 
coffee, etc., for tobacco, and making inquiries — a singular phase of 
warfare that must not be lost sight of when forming a conception of 
the disposition of the American soldiers, who, when the hour of con- 
flict arrived, were ready to sacrifice their lives in defense of their 
convictions, but appeared to harbor no hatred for those of their coun- 
trymen who entertained a different belief and were ready to die in its 
defense. No history of any war, since the beginning of warfare, 
presents such a spectacle. Invariably, hatred between the contestants 
is a prominent feature which leads to pillage and useless infliction of 
suffering when opportunities occur. But unless in actual conflict, the 
men comprising the fighting elements of the opposing armies during 
the War of the Rebellion seemed ready to extend manifestations of 
friendship for each other. 

There was one man in the regiment who was neither useful nor 
ornamental, and who would have served his country with far better 
results had he never entered the army. This man could not be per- 
suaded nor induced, by any means within the scope of the ingenuity 
of the colonel to adopt, to perform his duty, and nothing short of a 
bayonet at his back could compel him to perform the penalties of his 
shortcomings. He would desert the regiment on every opportunity ; 
but some enterprising provost guard would soon return him to camp, 
much to the disgust of his comrades. No matter how often a gun was 
furnished him, he would not carry it, but would throw it away on the 



WHITE OAK CHURCH. 47 

first march. When selected for work of any kind he would refuse, 
and was nearly always under guard for disobedience of orders or for 
skulking from the regiment, and was never known to be within range 
of the rebel guns. At Pollock's Mills he was detailed to walk the 
camp from one end to the other, a flour barrel with the heads out shoved 
over his shoulders and marked "skulker." But in order to make him 
comply with the orders to walk, a guard with fixed bayonets was 
appointed to march in his rear and probe him up occasionally. That 
he was a "walker," however, he proved to the satisfaction of his com- 
rades, for he left the regiment on its way to Gettysburg and was never 
heard from afterward. 



Gettysburg. 



June 12th, conuncnccd tlie various marches that led up to the great 
crash at Gettysburg. The pickets were withdrawn, and at 6 a. m. the 
regiment crossed the Fahiiouth Railroad at Stoneman's Switch, and 
marchetl until nearly 8 o'clock at night, with occasional short rests. 
Owing to the intense heat, the men suffered very much, and were 
hardly able, many of them, to drag their weary limbs to camp, which 
was pitched at Deep Run, four miles from Hartwood Court-house. 
(3n the 13th they fell in at 6.30 A. M. and marched twelve miles to a 
place known as Bealeton Station; and on the 14th (Sunday) started 
again, between 8 and 9 a. m., and marched a severe day's journey as 
far as Manassas Junction, reaching camp about two hours after mid- 
night. The men were on foot for upwards of fifteen hours, and 
accomplished upwards of twenty-seven miles. At the Junction they 
slept in the rear of one of the many earthworks with which that part 
of Prince William County was supplied. At this time General 
Reynolds had been assigned to the command of the First, Third and 
Eleventh Corps, constituting now the left wing of the army. At 6 
next morning (Monday, the 15th) the men were aroused, and at 7 set 
in motion for Centerville, which was reached about noon. On the 
17th they started early from Centerville and marched until 6 a. m., 
when the regiment was detailed as a rear guard to the trains, reaching 
Broad Run on the i8th, where it rested until June 25th, when it started 
again in pursuit of the rebels, striking the Leesburg Turnpike where 
the road crosses the stream, continued some distance on that road, 
then, bearing to the right, marched for and reached the Potomac at 
Edward's Ferrv, at the mouth of Goose Creek. Over the pontoons 
it again returned to Maryland, and pushed on until evening, when it 
halted and rested at Barnesville. The latter part of the march was 
in the rain, which made it disagreeable for the men. At 3 o'clock, 
June 26tli, commenced preparation for a continuation of the move, and 
started soon after, marching to Poolesville, thence to Greenville, then 
crossed the Monocacy Creek, then to Adamstown, on the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad, and at a mile or so beyond crossed the Catoctin 
Mountains, thence to a point less than a mile from Jefiferson, when a 
halt was made. The enemy at this time was fortifying the South 
Mountain passes twelve or fifteen miles further west. The march was 

48 



n 
? 

en 

X 




FIRST day's fight. 49 

resumed on the morning of the 27th towards South Mountain, and 
after two or three hours haUed again near Middletown, on the 
Meyerstown road, within eight miles of Boonsboro. At this time all 
kinds of rumors were rmming through the army about the doings of 
the rebels in Pennsylvania, one of which was that Harrisburg had been 
taken ; and the excitement reached such a pitch that no amount of 
marching or suffering on the part of the men appeared to affect the 
desire to move on and get within striking distance as soon as possible. 
It was quite common to see the sore-footed and shoeless men marching 
over the stones barefooted, and submitting without complaining while 
climbing the stony mountain roads, trudging away, contented that at 
least they were after the "rebs." 

On the 28tli the word was passed that General Meade was in 
command of the army and that the First, Third and Eleventh Corps, 
under Reynolds, were to push on rapidly to Gettysburg, through 
Emmittsburg, Md. Leaving camp about 5 p. m.. the division passed 
through a most charming country, and fields heavy with grain or 
bright with grass ; mountains surrounding the valleys and affording 
beautiful views almost in every direction, the moon shining brightly 
during a portion of the march, and the men, in fine spirits, reaching 
camp near Frederick shortly before 10 p. m. 

Leaving Frederick early on Monday morning, June 29th. the line 
pushed on to near Emmittsburg, a distance of something over twenty- 
five miles, arriving at destination about 8 p. m. The route lay through 
Lewistown, Catoctin Furnace, Mechanicsville and Franklinville, and 
through a splendid region of country. The day being more or less 
rainy made the walking hard on the men, but in other respects they 
managed to get on very well. The villages through which they passed 
were strong! v Union, and the soldiers were w^elcomed by the inhabitants 
with flags and waving of handkerchiefs and with water, etc., for the 
men. Many of the people of Emmittsburg handed cakes and bread to 
the soldiers as they went by. 

The commissary trains were unable to keep anywhere near the 
troops on this march, and. as a consequence t!ie want of food induced 
many of the men to leave the ranks and raid on the products of the 
farms of this rich country. Two or three corps of the Army of the 
Potomac were now congregated in the neighborhood of Emmittsburg, 
the First Corps being on the extreme left, and on the advance of the line 
facing north, the Third Division being on the left of the First Corps, 
and the First Brigade on the left of the Third Division, the men all 
in fine spirits and anxious to go forward. 

Commenting on the march up to Emmittsburg, Comrade Frank 



50 



GETTYSBURG. 




''often the case. 



H. Evans, who was a sergeant in Company "E," and very severely 
wounded at Gettysburg, shot through the neck, writes as follows : — 

"W'liat were their thoughts, coming back to the home side of the 
Potomac? The men were singing 'Maryland, My Maryland.' \\'hat 
had they seen in \'irginia? Desolation! No fences, no cultivation, 
almost no inhabitants, and the roads lost in the fields. Nothing but 
roads ! Roads and mud everywhere. Was this to be the fate of their 
own native State? Was there the slightest chance that the 'rebel 
horde' would desolate the North? Not a man of them thought so. 
Wliat was the cause of this confidence? Did they feel it in their bones? 
Was it not instinct? The Army of the Potomac, that had been so 
often whipped and baffled, felt that it had not had a fair chance in the 
open field, but, on tlie contrary, was always on the ofifensive, and 
attacking earthworks, which would not be the case this time. A like 
confidence in their success, no doubt, pervaded the Army of Northern 
Virginia. 

"The marcli through Maryland, up towards Gettysburg, was over 
mountains and through a rich country in a high state of cultivation — 
a pleasant change from desolated and endless lowlands. Field after 
field, mile after mile, in the blue curtain of haze, stretch the fertile 



UP THROUGH MARYLAND. 5 1 

valleys. Houses, barns, grain and fruit, all in order. Was there any 
war? The men might have looked at their guns, their dirt, their tents 
and at their comrades to convince themselves of it. From the mountain 
top the march was delightful. The dusty roads, the scorching heat, 
the warm, vapid water from the canteens which had been the late 
experience in \irginia, gave way to clear, cool wells and to a day of 
clouds and showers, and the mud of the road was soon tramped and 
dried so that it became as spongy as a carpet ; and such fields of wheat, 
and such wheat! It seemed almost barbarous that in filing through 
the fields it was necessary to destroy such bountiful results of the 
kindness of Providence and of the labor and skill of man." 

Early on the morning of Tuesday. June 30th, with ranks well 
closed up and no stragglers, leaving Emmittsburg in the rear, the 
march was continued until within about six miles from Gettysburg and 
three from Fairfield, where the regiment was sent out on picket, the 
right of its line resting at L and I. Bigham's. on Marsh Creek, and 
running in a westerly direction to C. Topper's, on Middle Creek. The 
western half of the line, under the command of the major, running 
due west from the cross-roads by W. Ross White's (where the Bullfrog 
Road runs northwest towards Fairfield, and a road runs northeast to 
strike the Gettysburg Turnpike), down a rocky hill, passing through 
a worm fence and some very lovely country — occasionally open, but 
generally very rocky — through a wood, and on through a wheat field 
and potato patch to Middle Creek. From the cross-roads east to Marsh 
Creek the line was directed by the colonel. Here information was 
received that the rebels had retired from Fairfield and were at Cash- 
town, under either Hill or Ewell. about 15.000 strong, and that Lee 
was at Chambersburg. Before night. Colonel Chapman Biddle was 
ordered to take command of the brigade, leaving the regiment under 
the command of Major Alexander Biddle. Early on the morning of 
Wednesday. July Tst. the column was set in motion while the regiment 
Avas yet on picket, but orders were hurriedly given to withdraw and fall 
in, and with two companies deployed as flankers the regiment was 
marched through the fields toward the front reaching one of the 
branches of Marsh Creek, turning to the left, the sound of artillery being 
heard ahead, and passing the brow of a hill on a pretty broad road 
leading into Gettysburg, when it became evident that the conflict w^as 
near at hand. Finally, when orders were given to unsling knapsacks 
and advance in line of battle, the men abandoned their former hilarity, 
and. becoming more seriously disposed, mechanically set themselves to 
work with the seeming determination of annihilating any obstacle that 
should present itself. A little before 11 a. m. the regiment was sta- 



:)^ 



GETTYSUURG. 



tioned on the extreme left of the Union Hne, the First Brigade, consist- 
ing of the 20th New York State miUtia, the 151st, 1426. and 121st 
Pennsylvania regiments, and Cooper's battery ("B," First Pennsylvania 
Artillery), occupying the left of the Third Division of the First Corps. 
Cooper's battery was flanked on each side by portions of the brigade. 

This position was subjected to a concentrated fire from a line of 
rebel infantry that far overlapped the Union line, and the rebel artillery 
seemed to particularly favor this point as a conspicuous target. No 
infantry support whatever was on the left of the regiment, and no 
obstacle in the way of the passage of any portion of the enemy to its 
left and rear. 

After considerable manoeuvring, the men were ordered to lie down 
in the tall grass just behind the knoll of the hill and await the approach 
of the rebels, who, towards 3 p. m., were seen advancing in two heavy 
lines, composed of troops of Heth's division. Hill's corps. Cooper's 
battery i)r()mptly oi)cncd fire, and throughout the engagement did 
splendid work, the men serving their guns with a degree of alacrity 
that plainly manifested they were then in their element. 

It seems like folly to undertake an adequate description of the 
contest that followed on this portion of the line. The various 
manoeuvres on the field in the beginning of the action, in full view and 
under the fire of the rebel batteries, had wrought the men up to that 
stage of excitement that invites the culmination of the combat. None 
can imagine, without witnessing, the resolution of the men, their reck- 
less daring and evident determination to stay and vanquish, even 
though it must have been manifest to them that unless their line should 
be extended further to the left, they must soon succumb to superior 
numbers, for the lines of the enemy as they advanced extended far 
beyond the Union left flank. The left of the line was on a slight 
elevation, a portion of Seminary Ridge, and before becoming engaged 
with the cncm\"s infantry the men had an opportunil}- of viewing the 
contest as it lingered on other portions of the field on the right. The 
movements of the enemy and the struggles of the Union troops to 
secure and retain advantage were plainly visible. Finally, as the enemy 
kept e.xtending to the south, the regiment was moved and faced west 
and south at various times in order to meet them with the best 
advantage. The troops immediately in frc^nt of Riddle ]')r(n-e(l to be 
Pettigrew's Confederate brigade in the first line, followed by Perrin's 
(then McGowan's) brigade in the second line. 

As soon as the Confederates had reached within a few yards of 
the top of the ridge, the men arose and delivered their fire directly in 
their faces, staggering them and bringing them to a stand, and from 



r'«^js 



-I 



^ I 



"1^ 



as.i- .^,-;S». 



FIRST DAY S FIGHT. 53 

that moment the musketry rattle and artillery fire kept up such a con- 
stant roar as would bewilder men under any other circumstances. 
Pettigrew's brigade, failing to make any impression on the Union line, 
Perrin's came to its relief, and took the front and continued the 
advance. 

The contest waxed warm, yes, as the boys had it, "red hot," the 
men falling fast in the face of the leaden storm that howled around 
them. Still they maintained their ground, delivering their fire with 
precision and rapidity, keeping nobly to their work and never flinching 
or wavering. I'he regimental flag, borne by Color Sergeant William 
Hardy, was perforated with bullets and the staft' shot into three pieces. 
The coolness of Colonel Chapman Biddle, commanding the brigade, 
was remarkable. Throughout this tornado of fire he rode back and 
forth along the line of his brigade, and by his daring, by his apparent 
forgetfulness of his own danger, accomplished wonders with his four 
small regiments — cheering his men and urging them through that 
fiery ordeal, his words unheard in the roaring tempest, but, as well 
by gesture and the magnificent light of his countenance, speaking 
encouragement to the men on whom he well knew he could place every 
reliance. A modest, unassuming gentleman in the ordinary walks of 
life, suddenly transformed into an illustrious hero, the admiration of 
friend and foe. Even his devoted horse seemed to partake of the 
heroism of the rider, as he dashed along the line between the two fires, 
daring the storm of death-dealing messengers that filled the atmosphere. 
Finally a wound caused the horse to rear badly and fall to the ground, 
but the colonel fortunately was unhurt, excepting a slight scalp-wound 
from a rifle-ball. Major Alexander Biddle also seemed to be every- 
where at once, and displayed that degree of coolness and command 
that instills courage into the men. In fact, all officers and men were 
at home, apparently imbued with the determination to maintain that 
line at all hazards. 

As an indication of the severity of the fighting on the ist of July, 
General Heth, the commander of the division of rebel troops in front 
of the 1st Brigade of the 3d Division reports: "My division numbered 
some 7.000 muskets. My loss was severe. In twenty-five minutes I 
lost 2,700 men killed and wounded." Over 100 men per minute killed 
and wounded out of a body of 7,000. There must have been lively 
work to accomplish such a feat. No wonder General Hill in his official 
report finds occasion to justify himself for not following up his advan- 
tage by stating: "My own two divisions exhausted by some six hours' 
hard fighting, prudence led me to be content with what we had gained 
and not push forward troops exhausted and necessarily disordered."' 



54 GETTYSBURG. 

General Hill also states in his official report that "Pettigrew's brigade, 
under its gallant leader, fought most admirably and sustained heavy 
loss." Some of our officers left wounded on the field reported subse- 
quently that only scattered troops of Pettigrew's brigade passed them 
to the first position abandoned by Biddle's brigade. 

The groimd was thus held against vastly superior numbers for a 
considerable time during which the losses inflicted on the enemy were 
greater in actual numbers than our own, so much so, that so far as the 
force in front was concerned, there was no reason to give up the posi- 
tion. As the contest continued, however, the enemy could be plainly 
seen developing their lines further to the south, and as there were no 
troops there to receive them, it became painfully evident that the line 
would be forced to fall back. The stand was maintained until the very 
last moment, thus giving the battery that had worked so faithfully, 
and had done such excellent service, an opportunity to limber up and 
get safely out of reach. 

"The wave of battle as it rolled southward reached every part in 
turn, and the extreme Union left, where Colonel Chapman Biddle's 
brigade was posted, at length felt its power. A body of troops, appar- 
ently an entire division, drawn out in heavy lines, came down from 
the west and south, and, overlapping both of Biddle's flanks, moved 
defiantly on. Only three small regiments, I2ist Penna. V^ols., I42d 
Penna. and 20th New York, were in position to receive them ; but, 
ordering up the 151st Pennsylvania and throwing it into the gap 
between Meredith's and his own, and wheeling the battery into position, 
Biddle awaited the approach. As the enemy appeared beyond the 
wood, under cover of which they formed, a torrent of death-dealing 
missiles leaped from the guns. Terrible rents were made, but, closing 
up, they came on undaunted. Never were guns better served, and 
though the ground was strewn with the slain, their line seemed instantly 



Werts, in his "Hand-Book on Gettysburg," says : "Again and 
again, through bloody hours of battle, these two divisions (Heth's and 
Pender's), consisting of the brigades of Archer, Davis, Brockenbrough 
and Pettigrew, of Heth's command, and the brigades of McGowan, 
Scales, Thomas and Lane, of Pender's, beat upon the Iron Brigade — ■ 
upon Stone's brave Bucktail Brigade, of Doubleday's division, that had 
now come to their support; upon Biddle to their left, upon Cutler to 
their right. These four weakened brigades were fighting eight well- 
filled brigades of the rebel army. For hours it was one continuous 
clash and roar of battle, now backward, now forward. Biddle, Mor- 
row. Stone, Cutler — it is impossible to decide which was the hardest 
pressed, which fought the most bravely and recklessly, which lost the 
most heavilv." 




SERGKAXT SAMUEL C. MILLER. 



FIRST DAY S FIGHT. 55 

to grow together, as a stone thrown into the waves disappears and the 
waves flow together again. The infantry fire was terrific on both 
sides, but the enemy outflanking Biddle, sent a direct and doubly- 
destructive obhque fire, before which it seemed impossible to stand. 
But though the dead fell until the living could fight from behind them 
as from a bulwark, the living stood fast as if rooted to the ground." — 
"The Valley of the Shadoiv of Death." 

The order was given to fall back about 4 p. m. The distance across 
the country to the Lutheran Seminary was nearly a quarter of a mile, 
partly over open fields, and the time made by the 121st getting to the 
cover of the wood beyond was remarkable, probably the best on record. 
Once inside the wood and abreast of the seminary, where a frail 
breastwork had been erected along a rail fence, the next stand was 
made. Although the regiment had sufi^ered considerably in the begin- 
ning of the retrograde movement, the Confederates appeared to be too 
much staggered to closely follow up their advantage. They failed 
to advance further than the point that had been occupied by the brigade, 
and were content from that position to peg away at the boys as they 
skedaddled toward the seminary, just within the edge of the wood. 
There the men awaited the advance that was expected. They were 
disappointed, so far as their late antagonists were concerned, and were 
given a few moments to take breath, while the rebs were either resting 
or, under cover of the hills, shifting off to the left and rear of the 
Union line. It was not to be, however, that the regiment should 
remain idle and unmolested very long in its new position. Troops 
moving in a direction parallel with its own line from a point on the 
right, and not over one hundred and fifty yards in front, were seen 
marching, as if on parade, toward the left flank. The regiment opened 
on them without ceremony, but failed to draw their fire, and the officers 
gave the order to "stop firing on our own men." For a short interval, 
during which the men had an opportunity to take a good look at their 
new friends, the enemy, everything was quiet, but, suspecting, they 
were on the alert, with every piece loaded and ready for use. Sud- 
denly their new adversaries halted, and, facing the regiment, 
deliberately opened their fire, which was returned with promptness, 
and for quite a while the contest raged in the wood alongside the 
seminary, with determination on both sides. The enemy being in full 
view and our men having had somewhat of a rest during the lull and 
partly protected by a slight barricade of rails and boards from fences, 
felt fully competent to contest the ground, and the thinning out of 
the rebel ranks soon gave evidence that the calculation was correct. 
The Confederates, facing the fire without flinching, fell fast, the 



56 GKTTYSBURG. 

Union musketry being one continuous rattle, under which no line of 
troops could long endure. To the dismay of the men holding this 
position, however, it was ascertained that the rebel forces were 
marching at this time far beyond and in rear of their flank, and to 
save themselves from capture they were compelled to "get up and 
get" in the most approved fashion, hastening on, without semblance 
of order, through and beyond the town of Gettysburg, and halting 
on Cemetery Ridge. The records of the War Department give the 
losses of the regiment in this battle as twelve killed, one hundred and 
six wounded, and sixty-one missing — total, 179; but the actual number 
of the killed was twenty-one, and of the wounded, six were mortally 
woimded. Out of seven officers and two hundred and fifty-six men 
Avho entered the engagement, July ist, there were left but two officers- 
and eighty-two men, showing" a loss of one hundred and seventy-nine, 
or 68 per cent, of its force. 



The following extract from a letter written January 27, 1892,. 
by Colonel N. Brown, formerly of the 14th South Carolina Volun- 
teers (McGowan's brigade), to Captain Clapp, of Company "F," 
I2ist Regt. Penna. \^ols., would indicate a diiTerence of opinion as to^ 
what Confederate troops finally drove Rowley's brigade, commanded 
on the 1st of July, 1863, by Colonel Chapman Biddle, from the 
Lutheran Seminary : — 

"Anderson, S. C, January 27, 1892. 
"Captain J. M. Clapp, Washington, D. C. 

"Dear Sir : — Yours of 25th received. General Rowley's brigade 
fought General Pettigrew's North Carolina brigade on the morning of 
the ist of July, 1863, and AIcGowan's, commanded by Colonel Perrin,. 
in the afternoon, so that you fought us both. General Pettigrew's 
brigade was repulsed and withdrawn, and ours went in to his relief, 
passed over his troops, and made the final charge on the works in front 
of the Lutheran Seminary. There was some considerable interval, 
however, between Pettigrew's advance and ours, though he might have 
been engaged as late as the early afternoon." 

Relative to the contest on the left of the line, Werts' "Hand-Book" 
gives the following: — 

"Passing out the Hagerstown Road we find, a short distance 
west of Seminary Ridge, a second or lower ridge, which is the 
commencement of Reynolds Avenue. The first monument on the 
avenue is that of the gallant 121st Pennsylvania. During the weary 
and bloody hours of July ist. the brigade (Biddle's) was frequently 
compelled to change front, as the attacks of the enemy came at various 
times from the north or w^est. Sometimes they were compelled 
to take a position at right angles with the balance of the line. About 
2.30 p. M. the final attack was made in tremendous force, and, as the 
deep overlapping lines advanced simultaneously from both north and 
south, the little brigade was arranged as judiciously as possible to^ 



FIRST DAY S FIGHT. 57 

receive the onslaught. The 121st was on the extreme left of the line; 
to their right was the 20th New York, then a battery, then the I42d 
Pennsylvania, the 151st having been previously detached for temporary 
assistance in the support of the position occupied by Stone's Second 
Brigade. The 121st received the enemy, advancing directly on their 
front with so withering a fire that they were driven back in confusion ; 
but their bravery was of no practical value, as the dense masses of the 
foe, overlapping and enfolding their extreme left, and getting far in 
their rear compelled them to fall back. Their wounded men left on 
the field report that so destructive was the fire the regiment delivered 
to the front that none but scattered squads of the enemy ever crossed 
that portion of the field during the retreat of the Union troops and 
the Confederate pursuit. Completely outflanked on the left, the 
regiment withdrew to the high ground immediately in rear of the 
seminary, and nearer the Chambersburg Pike than their present 
position. Here, protected by a rail barricade which had been thrown 
up earlier in the day, the shattered remnants of this and other regi- 
ments made a most gallant resistance against many times their own 
number, until most of the artillery had been withdrawn and the line 
on Cemetery Hill was securely established. When the brigade reached 
Cemetery Hill, fresh cartridges were issued and they prepared to resist 
the expected onslaught. The enemy, however, had suffered too 
severely in almost seven hours of desperate fighting to make the 
hazardous attempt. The 121st entered the engagement of the ist with 
seven officers and two hundred and fifty-six men, of whom at night 
there remained two officers and eighty-two men, being a loss for 
the day of 179, or more than 65 per cent, of all engaged (this is 68 
per cent, of loss). These figures tell the terrific nature of the opening 
encounter of the great battle." 

Fox, in his "Regimental Losses in the Civil War," says : — 
"A noteworthy feature of that day (July i, 1863), was that the 
First Corps, although finally driven from the field by a superior force, 
succeeded in capturing, at different times and at different points on the 
field, parts of three brigades of the enemy, Archer's, Davis' and 
Iverson's, taking them in open field fighting, where there were none of 
the usual accessories of breastworks, intrenchments or protection of 
any kind other than that which the field afforded. The First Corps 
fought that day with no other protection than the flannel blouses that 
covered their stout hearts." From the same authority it appears that 
the First Corps went into the engagement July ist, with an infantry 
force of 9,403, and its loss for the three days in killed and mortally 
wounded was 1,098, say, 11.8 per cent., a higher percentage than in 
any others corps engaged during these three fearful days, and a higher 
actual loss than in any other corps except one, the Second Corps having 
in killed and mortally wounded 1,238; but the corps went into the 
battle with 12,363 men, making its percentage of loss only 10 per cent. 
The conclusion is fairly warranted that "to the stubborn resistance of 
the First Corps of the Army of the Potomac, on the first day of July, 
1863, the ultimate defeat of Lee's invading army is in a very large 
measure to be attributed." 



58 gettysburg. 

Bivouac in the Field, 
Thursday, July 2, 1863. 
Colonel. — The 121st Pennsylvania X'oluntecr Regiment, under my 
command, marched from W. R. White's house, in Freedom Township, 
yesterday morning, Wednesday, July ist. On arriving at the top of 
the hill bordering the valley in which Gettysburg lies, we were marched 
into a field on the left of a wood, through which we saw the First 
Division driving the enemy. We remained in this field, exposed at ah 
times to an enfilading or direct fire, sometimes facing northwardly and 
sometimes wcstwardly, as the attack of the enemy varied. A large 
body of the enemy's troops had been seen to the west of our position 
throughout the day. While we were taking up a position facing to 
the north, to support a battery at the corner of a wood, these troops 
were seen advancing. We were ordered to form to meet them, and 
changed front to effect it. As the proper position assigned to the 
121 st Regiment was immediately in front of the battery, we were 
moved to the extreme left, with the 20th New York on our right. I 
saw the line of the enemy slowly approaching up the hill, extending 
far beyond our left flank, for which we had no defense. As the 
enemy's faces appeared over the crest of the hill, we fired effectually 
into them, and soon after received a crushing fire from their right, 
under which our ranks were broken and became massed together as 
we endeavored to change front to the left to meet them. The imme- 
diate attack on our front was destroyed by our first fire. The officers 
made every possible effort, and Captains Ashworth and Sterling, and 
Lieutenants Ruth and Funk were all wounded. The regiment, broken 
and scattered, retreated to the wood around the hospital, and main- 
tained a scattering fire. Here, with the broken remnants of other regi- 
ments, they defended the fence of the hospital grounds with great 
determination. Finding the enemy were moving out on our left flank 
with the intention of closing in on the only opening into the barricade, 
I reported the fact to the division commander, and by his directions 
returned to the fence barricade. The rebels advancing on our left flank 
soon turned the position, and our regimental colors, and the few men 
left with them, moved out of the hospital ground, through the town, 
to our present position,^ where we now have exactly one-fourth of our 
force, and one commissioned officer beside myself. I beg particularly 
to call attention to the meritorious conduct of Sergeant William Hardy, 
color-bearer, who carried off the regimental colors, the staff shot to 
pieces in his hands ; also, to the gallantry of Captain Ashworth and 
Ficutenanth Ruth, both wounded ; also, to Lieutenants Funk and Dorr 

1 Cemetery Hill. 



FIRST day's fight. 59 

and Captain Sterling. Acting Sergeant- j\Iaj or Henry M. Cowpland, 
Sergeant Henry H. Herpst, in command of Company "A," and Sergeant 
Charles Winkworth, are all deserving of high commendation; also, 
Corporal John M. Bingham, of Company "A." 

The constant changes of position which the regiment was ordered 
to make, and the seeming uncertainty of which way we were to expect 
an attack, or what position we were to defend, was exceedingly trying 
to the discipline of the regiment. Its conduct was, in my opinion, 
far beyond praise. I also wish to call attention to those whom the 
men speak of as deserving of high commendation : Sergeants Robt. F. 
Bates, Wm. A. McCoy, Joshua L. Childs (wounded, who insisted on 
remaining with his company), John M. Taggart, James Allen and Chas. 
Barlow ; Corporals Daniel H. Weikel and Edward D. Knight, and 
Privates T. B. H. McPherson and Wm. Branson. 

Respectfully submitted, 

A. BiDDLE, 

Major I2ist Pennsylvania Volunteer Regiment. 
Colonel Chapman Biddle, 

Commanding First Brigade, Third Division, First Army Corps. 

From the evening of Wednesday, July ist, until about ii o'clock 
on the morning of Friday, the 3d, the regiment occupied a position 
east of the Taneytown Road, and in rear of the hill now occupied by 
the National Cemetery. 

On the morning of the 3d, under the command of Major 
Alexander Biddle, it was moved southw^ardly on the Taneytown Road 
about a half mile, and, with the other troops of Doubleday's division, 
took up a position in rear of the batteries and about 100 yards from 
the front line of battle, on what is now known as the Himmelbach 
Farm ; although at the time it was impossible to distinguish one farm 
from another, as all the fences were down and the rails taken for 
breastworks or fuel. A ravine extending in an oblique direction from 
our left and rear, and passing about 100 yards to the right of the regi- 
ment, terminating at about the position of Cushing's battery, was used 
by the artillery in moving to and from the front, and in this ravine a 
number of artillery horses were killed and wounded. Shortly after 
getting into position the great artillery duel commenced, and for two 



Gen. Rowley commanded the brigade on the 2d of July, but on 
the 3d Col. Biddle again took command and continued brigade com- 
mander until September 24th ; the regiment during this time being 
under the command of Major Alex. Biddle, except for a portion of the 
month of August, when Adjutant Hall had command. 



6o GETTYSBURG. 

hours fairly nuulc the earth tremble; but, singularly enough, although 
the solid shot llew over and around the men, and the shell burst over 
theni continually, tilling the air with a constant roar and making a 
pandemonium for the time being, but three men in the regiment were 
wounded, while others passing to and fro every few minutes were 
blown to fragments. A caisson, filled with ammunition, driving rapidly 
to its position, exploded directly in rear of the regiment, no vestige of 
the driver being seen afterward. 

The grotmd was plowed up by cannon balls and the clay thrown 
over the men, but they knew how to keep close to Mother Earth in 
times like this, and all except the three above mentioned escaped 
injury. 

Having received no rations since before leaving Emmittsburg on 
the mornnig of June 30th, there was scarcely a mouthful of anything 
to eat in the entire regiment, and no prospect of any within the next 
twenty-four hours, and the men were almost famished; when, by a 
streak of good fortune the regiment of Berdan Sharpshooters halting 
for a short time alongside, on finding that the men were without rations, 
generously opened their haversacks and shared their contents with the 
hungry 121st — a gracious act of kindness fully appreciated. 

The view from the point occupied was grand. To the right the 
batteries on the hill now occupied by the cemetery, as well as to the 
left the two Round Tops and the batteries on Little Round Top belch- 
ing forth their showers of shot and shell on the rebel lines, were all in 

Referring to this battle between the opposing artillery, J. Howard 
Werts makes the following observation in his "Hand-Book on the 
Gettysburg Battlefield:" "On the afternoon of July 3d, 1863, it (the 
house where General Meade had his headquarters) was riddled with 
shot and shell. At one time the shells burst here at the rate of six in a 
second. Oh, the terrible artillery of Ciettysburg! No one that heard 
it can forget it while life lasts. Old soldiers bexond its range, as they 
listened, glared at each other with blanched and ghastly faces, wonder- 
ing what would come next. H the artillery of the third day was terrific 
to men beyond its range, what was it to the heroes into whose shattered 
ranks it was falling in one continued sweeping, howling tempest of 
destruction? l^^or nearly three hours it burst with all its concentrated 
fury on Webb and Hall and Harrow and Doubleday. For their brave 
men there was no shelter, no refuge. Of this fire Webb says : 'Every 
conceivable bolt of destruction was striking in our midst — that dreadful 
thud everywhere ; horse and carriage and dismounted gun lying where 
a little before stood the Union battery; the wounded suft'ering and the 
dying still and quiet in their midst. When will it cease? Can you 
not, brave comrades, whose bonds were then cemented in blood, feel 
even yet the heat of that exploding caisson, the stones and sand from 
that bursting shell ?' " 




CAPTAIN T. M. CLAPP. 



THIRD DAY S FIGHT. 



6i 



full view. There was also a good view of Pickett's charge, later on, 
and the hand-to-hand encounter with the Philadelphia Brigade a short 
distance to the right, and the capture of many of those who participated 
in the desperate charge. Although the same men, the same flesh and 
the same blood had so desperately fought but a few moments before, 
now that the game was up, all seemed to be changed. Rebels in con- 
flict and rebels in captivity were as difl'erent as is possible for enemies 
and friends to be. The captives were treated with the utmost courtesy 
by our men, who gladly shared their scanty rations with those with 
whom but a short time previously they were contending for their 
lives and for victory. The artillery fire and skirmishing kept up during 
the remainder of the day, gradually died away, and the great fight 
was over. 

Headquarters I2ist Regt. Penna. Vols. 

Near Gettysburg, Pa., July 4, 1863. 
Lieutenant:—! have the honor to report that the command of 
the First Brigade, which had devolved upon me on the night of June 
30th and during July ist, was resumed on the 2d instant by General 
Rowley. The report of the operations of the brigade on the first day's 
fight has already been furnished, including that of the 121st Regt. 
Penna. Vols. I have now to add a few words in reference to the part 
taken by the regiment on the 2d and 3d instants. On the mornmg 
of the 2d, the regiment Avas moved into a field to the south of and 
near the cemetery, and placed under cover of a stone wall by the road- 
side, where it remained during the forenoon. Toward 12 m. it was 
exposed to a severe shelling, which reached it both from the front and 
rear during a sharp attack made by the enemy on our extreme right. 
The peculiar shape of the general line of battle, resembling somewhat 
a flattened horseshoe, will account for the effect. In the afternoon 
the fire slackened, when the regiment was moved behind a wall on the 
other side of the road, in which position its defenses were reached by 
the enemy's musketry. The attack on this part of our line ceased 
toward evening, when the regiment changed its position to a field in 
front, and subsequently to the road, where the night was passed. 

On tlie morning of the 3d the regiment was moved to the left, to a 
field nearly opposite to our left centre, where it remained during the 
morning, exposed somewhat to the enemy's fire. Toward i p. m. a 
violent cannonading, from a very large number of pieces of artillery, 
was concentrated on our position, which continued for upward of two 
hours and a half, without intermission, destroying much of the breast- 
work sheltering the men, and wounding three of them. During the 



^2 JULY 4TH i6tII. 

hottest part of this fire the regiment was moved in good order to an 
adjoining jfield to the left, and placed behind a breastwork of rails, 
near the crest of a hill, where it remained throughout the attack on 
the centre. This attack, of a most determined character, was finally 
and successfully repulsed towards sundown by the troops in the first 
line, supported by our artillery. The steadiness of the men during 
the fury of the unparalleled artillery fire of the enemy cannot be too 
highly commended, and to it in some measure may be attributed the 
brilliant results of this day's operations. I have the honor to be, very 
respectfully. 

Your obedient servant, 

Chapman Biddle, 
Colonel I2ist Regt. Penna. Vols 

LlEUTEN'ANT WiLSON, 

Acting Assistant Adjutant-General. 

On the 4th (Saturday) the rain fell in torrents, drenching the men 
to the skin. On this day the first opportunity for many weeks occurred 
for sending letters home, and on this day, also, was received the first 
regular issue of rations for about five days ; and as the number of men 
had been considerably reduced since the last muster, June 30th, there 
was a decided surplus of hard-tack, coffee, etc. On the 5th, the regi- 
ment encamped on a slight elevation, so as to avoid as much as possible 
the ground that had been soaked by the heavy rain; and on the 6th 
joined in the pursuit of the beaten rebels, going as far as Emmittsburg 
and halting northeast of the town ; on the 7th, continued on toward 
Middletown; on the 8th, marched through South Mountain Pass and 
bivouacked on its western side. July 9th, marched to near Boons- 
borough, on Beaver Dam Creek, constructing, July loth, a slight breast- 
work to cover the right flank of the army, and remaining in position 
until July 12th, when the march was continued through Funkstown, 
crossing the Antietam and coming under the fire of the enemy's skirm- 
ishers ; formed line of battle and threw up timber and earth defenses. 
The regiment continued here until the 14th, when it moved toward 
Williamsport, keeping up a lively skirmish and looking for a general 
engagement. July 15th, retraced the march to foot of South Mountain, 
near Crampton's Gap and Farm. July i6th, crossed the mountain and 
marched through Burkittsville to a point near Petersville and Berlin, 
and encamped. The following letter was written by Col. Biddle, 
from T'ctersville, July T7th, commenting on the movements around 
Gettysburg : — 



GETTYSBURG. 



63 




SKIRMISHING AMONG THE WHEAT STACKS. 



Near Petersville, Md., July 17, 1863. 
Friday Night, 10 p. m. 

Meade, aided probably by the judgment of Reynolds, penetrated 
immediately into the purpose of his adversary, and bringing together, 
as rapidly as possible, the scattered fragments of his army, prepared 
himself to oppose the execution of Lee's plan, and so brief was the 
time allowed Meade that he w^as actually compelled to bring on the 
engagement with only one corps and part of a second — I refer to the 
First and Eleventh Corps- — in order that he might avail himself of the 
position near Gettysburg, which, for several reasons, was deemed 
advantageous to us. On the first of the present month, then, the 
greatest battle on this continent in every sense of the term was com- 
m.enced between the opposing forces, the enemy at that time having a 
greatly preponderating strength. The issue of such a contest was not 
expected to be favorable to us in the enjoyment of victory, but, 
evidently, the contest of that day was to be most valuable. It was to 



64 WILLIAMSPORT. 

assure us of a position where we could meet the enemy when our rein- 
forcements should arrive with something like equality of advantage. 
The rebels were puzzled by the attack, and we gained thereby our 
position and the men with whom to hold it. The second and third 
days were the development of the plan, and at the end of them, after 
desperate fighting on both sides, Lee, with his army greatly impaired, 
was necessitated to escape before further reverse overtook him. To 
the victorious Army of the Potomac was constantly being added new 
troops, which in a short time would have given us an advantage in 
point of numbers, when the superiority of our force might have 
changed the retreat of the enemy into a rout. Lee has, therefore, 
utterly failed in this object of his campaign, for the plunder of a few 
farmers and millers is of comparative unimportance, and has weakened 
his army to the extent of one-third. Our immediate operations were an 
active share in the first day's fight and in supporting batteries during 
the last two. It would be difficult, if not impossible, to give an adequate 
impression of the fierce cannonading of the second and third. Officers 
who have been accustomed to war declare that in their experience they 
have never heard anything to equal it. Its fury beggars description. 
With the repulse of the enemy came the order for his pursuit, and 
then were renewed the tedious marches w^hich wear down and wear 
out the foot-soldiers. To Emmittsburg we returned, and thence to 
Middletown over the pass of the South Mountain to Boonsboro, to 
Funkstown, to within a short distance both of Hagerstown and of 
Williamsport, always tracking the enemy, and at last, when beyond the 
Antietam, imagining ourselves certain of him. Here for the second 
and third times during the pursuit, were preparations made for giving 
him battle ; breastworks thrown up and skirmishers sent forward to feel 
the strength and position of the rebels. At last the fire of the skirm- 
ishers became unusually heavy, and the impression general, that another 
great battle was about to be fought. The enemy's skirmishers were 
driven almost to the woods, where the main force was supposed to be, 
when the firing entirely ceased. Night came on and wore away, and 
in the early morning scouts reported that the enemy had retired for 
some distance: then, that they had retreated. An advance on our part 
soon showed the truth of these reports. Our adversary had been a 
division or so of General Hill's corps, and had slipped away during the 
night to recross to ^^irginia once more. But a trifling interval then 
elapsed between the departure of their last regiments from Williams- 
port and our approach, and now, to manoeuvre to keep the enemy from 
attempting any dash towards Washington, we march again to the 
South "Mountain and cross it through Crampton's Gap. ])ass by 



POTOMAC TO RAPPAHANNOCK. 65 

Eurkittsville, and finally reach our present camp, between Berlin and 
Harper's Ferry, two or three miles from the river. 

July 1 8th, the march was continued through Berlin, across the 
Potomac and on to near Water ford, and on the 19th through Hamilton, 
the regiment reaching Middleburg on the 20th, and remaining there 
until the 22d, when, taking charge of the trains, it started at 5.30 p. m. 
for White Plains, reaching Warrenton on the 23d. 

As a retaliatory measure for Ewell's treatment of the citizens of 
York, Pa., the inhabitants of Middleburg, one of the worst secession 
places in Virginia, were required to furnish the brigade with fresh 
bread, and they managed to have their quota ready at the hour named. 
July 26th, Lieutenants Dorr, Etting and Powell, with a half dozen men, 
were sent to Philadelphia for recruits. In one of Colonel Biddle's 
letters of this date, he writes : "One of the saddest spectacles, to my 
mind, is to see the regiments which, a little less than a year ago were 
full, now dragging along, hardly as large as former companies. Noth- 
ing, certainly, can be more suggestive of the desolation which accom- 
panies war than these mutilated regiments ; and yet those of the men 
who remain retain great elasticity of spirits, and have more or less of 
the dare-devil spirit in them. Within a couple of days, after a very 
fatiguing march, which only ended about half-past one in the morning, 
our men came in singing, to the astonishment of some, and the annoy- 
ance of others who were then quietly sleeping after their weary toils." 
At this time General Newton, a native of Norfolk, Va., commanded 
the First Corps, and General Kenley, a native of Baltimore, Md., the 
Third Division. Colonel Chapman Biddle commanded the brigade 
(First), composed of T2ist and I42d Penna. Vols., numbering some- 
thing over two hundred men. Major Alexander Biddle, commanding 
the 12 1 St Regiment, received his commission as Lieutenant-Colonel, 
to date from April 20, 1863. 

The regiment remained encamped at Warrenton Junction (in the 
angle made by the Orange and Alexandria Railroad, and the Warren- 
ton Junction Railroad), until July 30th, during which time nearly the 
whole Army of the Potomac concentrated in that vicinity, while the 
main body of the Confederates was at or near Culpeper. The troops 
were engaged a large portion of the time in repairing the railroad to 
Rappahannock Station, some nine miles below. On the 31st July, 
the camp was shifted some three miles further down the Orange and 
Alexandria Railroad, to guard the railroad, covering that portion from 
Warrenton Junction to Rappahannock Station. Near the most im- 
portant points block-houses were erected, there being four in all. These 
were built of logs, and were twenty to twenty-five feet square, one 



66 "all quiet along the Rappahannock." 

story high, and pierced or looped for musketry. These defenses^ 
located near bridges, were intended to require about thirty or forty 
men for defense, but would maintain a tolerable force for occasional 
small offensive operations. The guarding of nine or ten miles of rail- 
roatl by two small regiments was quite a large contract, nevertheless 
the responsibility did not weigh sufficiently heavy on the men to 
deprive them of the faculty of enjoying the comparative rest while 
guarding the various posts, indulging in pleasant contemplations for 
some time to come, there being no danger of interference of any 
moment from any strong force of the enemy breaking in on the line 
of guards. In fact, during the very hot weather of that period it was 
quite comfortable to be so nicely sheltered in the cool shades of the 
wood along the road. 

All hopes of a good easy time were wrecked, however, by the 
receipt of orders to move to Rappahannock Station on the 2d of 
August, the hottest day of the year up to that time ; and during the 
march "men and animals hung their tongues out of their heads tO' 
catch a breath of air, and all creation, inanimate as well as animate, 
seemed to suffer from the least motion." The regiment encamped 
near the river bank, and the men were given an opportunity to bathe,, 
of which they were not long taking advantage. 

Under date of August 7th, a field officer writes : "The stereotyped 
phrase 'All quiet along the Rappahannock,' from its amusing applica- 
tion, the other evening by one of the soldiers, produced a good deal 
of merriment when it was heard. Towards dusk a mounted man was 
riding through camp, which is in a wood, and, passing between two 
trees where a clothes-line was stretched, was caught by the rope and 
emptied out of his saddle on to the ground. A soldier near by, seeing 
what had occurred, called out to his comrades 'All quiet on the 
Rappahannock,' which seeming so ridiculous to every one, a general 
laugh was the consequence, at the rider's discomfiture. You can 
hardly imagine the rage which the cavalier exhibited at the situation 
as he gained his feet. With a volley of oaths, rising above the 
laughter, he got on his horse and departed from the unfeeling 
camp." 

September 5th. the colonel writes: "This night, one year ago, 
my regiment left TMiiladelphia for the seat of war, and since that time 
it has had a tolerable share of the vicissitudes that usually befall 
soldiers in active campaign. Out of the number who started with us, 
we have only a handful left in camp, not much over one hundred 
privates, some non-commissioned officers, and three or four commis- 
sioned officers ; the rest are cither in the hospitals, dead or performing- 




COLOR-SERGEANT WILLIAM GILLESPIE GRAHAM. 



RAPPAHANNOCK TO RAPIDAN. 6/ 

duty not strictly military. In the time specified, the regiment has been 
in three of the severest battles fought upon this continent, and has 
actively participated in two of them. So far it has performed its work 
well. It is undoubtedly true that other regiments have done quite as 
much and suffered to as great an extent, but this does not in any wise 
detract from the value of the service rendered by the I2ist. You see 
that I cannot allow the anniversary to pass without a word or two 
of commendation of the good old regiment, to which I feel just now 
especially attached." 

The regiment remained in camp at Rappahannock Station until 
September i6th, when it marched to Culpeper Court-house, skirmish- 
ing being heard in the direction of the Rapidan River. Leaving 
Culpeper, September 24th, it moved about five miles in a southeasterly 
direction to a point some four miles from Raccoon Ford, the division 
being under the command of Colonel Biddle ; Lieutenant-Colonel A. 
B. AlcCalmont taking command of the brigade. Colonel Biddle writes, 
September 25, 1863 : "One of my first duties as division commander, 
after reaching here, was to prepare ' for the execution of a deserter 
from the Third Brigade, appointed to take place to-day, between the 
hours of 12 M. and 4 p. M. Early this a. m. I rode out and selected 
a field, on which the troops, at 2.30 p. m., were drawn up and formed 
three sides of a square, the fourth side being open, in the centre of 
which was the prisoner's grave. After the troops were drawn up, 
the procession of the prisoner, guards, etc., entered on the right and 
marching close to the soldiers passed in front of them along the three 
sides to the left, w^hen it turned off to the grave. There, in front of 
it, the coffin was placed, and the prisoner, a pace or two in advance, 
and near, in front, the execution party. After the sentence was read 
to hiin, the chaplain who accompanied him engaged in prayers with 
him for some time, and, indeed, until the bugle sounded for every- 
thing to be got ready for the final act. During the minute which 
remained, the poor creature had his eyes bandaged by the provost- 
marshal, and at 3V2 o'clock the notes of the bugle sounded for the 
firing to take place. Of the twelve men selected for the purpose, 
eight were directed to fire and four to remain in reserve in case the 
first discharge should prove inefficient. After the last note had died 
away, the volley was heard and the life of an unfortunate had passed 
away. Thus ended the career of a man somewhat less than twenty- 
five years of age. I never witnessed anything so solemn or impres- 
sive. Everything passed off as it had been ordered. No confusion. 
no hurry. 

September 27th, having moved two miles nearer to Raccoon Ford^ 



68 BACK TO CENTERVILLE. 

the regiment \\as detailed to guard the posts and picket along the 
Rapidan River until the loth of October, the rebels picketing along 
the opposite bank. Picketing was not done at this time as it had been 
on former occasions, for the rebels, feeling very secure in their strong 
intrenched positions on the hills on their side of the Rapidan, occa- 
sionally fired at the officers and men when they presumed to go out 
too far or too near the river, where there was no cover for them. 
Near Fredericksburg, where the regiment picketed for so long a time, 
the truce existed completely and was not disturbed ; but here a different 
state of things prevailed. Picket-firing occurred just frequently 
enough on the part of the rebels to make the men circumspect. The 
Union soldiers were prohibited from returning the fire, and properly, 
for, situated as they were, they would have been greatly the losers in 
such a contest. 

Colonel Biddle returned to the command of the brigade Octo- 
ber 2d. 

October loth brought one of those disagreeable experiences 
known as night marches, the line leaving camp, near Raccoon Ford, 
about 1.30 A. M. for Morton's Ford, only some two miles below Rac- 
coon Ford, required the balance of the night to accomplish the distance. 
After marching about one mile, the guide missed the road, and led the 
line for a mile or more in the wrong direction, when the column was 
halted until an investigation was made and the right course was 
regained, the division reaching the ford at daylight, in support of 
Buford's cavalry, and remaining at this point the balance of the day. 

October iith, the regiment moved to a point on a ridge between 
Culpeper and Stevensburg, where it remained resting in rifle-pits, 
picketing, until 4 a. m. Sunday, October 12th, when the men were 
ordered to be ready to resume the march, but did not get started until 
about 10.30 a. m., for the Rappahannock River, which was reached, at 
Kelley's Ford, at 3.30 p. u. At i o'clock the following morning, 
October 13th, the march was continued in the direction of Warrenton 
Junction, and until nearly 8 p. m., when Bristoe Station was reached, 
bivouacking in the vicinity of Manassas Junction, after marching about 
thirty miles. Starting again early on the morning of the 14th, this 
severe march was kept up until Centerville was reached in the after- 
noon of same day. The move from the Rapidan across the Rappa- 
hannock to Centerville was an excellent test of the marching qualities 
of the men — more so than might otherwise appear — from the fact that 
they were continually hampered by the moving trains that had to be 
protected from rebel cavalry following closely on the flanks and in the 
rear. In connection with the movement of wagon trains, Colonel 



THOROUr.HFARE GAP. 69 

Bicldle writes : "Here let me digress a moment to inform you what a 
wagon train in the army, such as this, really is, and what the passage 
of a river consequently means. Imagine to yourself a body of large 
six-horse or mule wagons, which, if stretched out in the most compact 
traveling order, will cover a length of twenty-five miles, and imagine 
after, that any obstacle which affects the head of such a column is 
necessarily propagated its whole length, and you can then understand 
what tedious progress such a train will make under the most favorable 
circumstances of good weather, hard roads and freedom from attack. 
The absence of any one of these favorable conditions will, of course, 
impede the motion of such a train more or less seriously, Now, behind 
portions of this immense train the troops were obliged to march to 
cover or protect, sometimes in successive, and sometimes in parallel 
columns. We passed the little village of Stevensburg, and reached 
within four or five miles of Kelly's Ford, on the Rappahannock, when, 
just after we halted for a few minutes' rest, about i p. m., we heard 
heavy reports of firing in our rear. The enemy were following us, 
and had then engaged the cavalry, under Buford, protecting our rear. 
When we resumed our march the firing was still sharp, and continued 
with intermissions until after 5 o'clock in the afternoon, towards which 
hour we had crossed the river." 

In connection with this march to Centerville, there was a vague 
idea among the men that it was the result of a movement on the part 
of the enemy to outflank the Union army, and that it was a race for 
Centerville, and that point once gained, in advance of the rebels, the 
victory was already won. On arriving at Centerville, there was more 
or less bewilderment on finding no enemy in the vicinity, although 
skirmishes of more or less importance were continuall}^ being enacted 
between the cavalry forces within hearing; and, in fact, during the 
night previous to reaching Centerville it was confidently believed that 
somewhere in the midst of the Union infantry troops a small force of 
rebel cavalry w'as encamped ; but no trace of the rebel infantry could 
be found. 

At 7.30 A. M., October 19th, left Centerville to reconnoitre, reach- 
ing a point eleven to twelve miles west of Centerville and two miles 
east of Thoroughfare Gap. 

October 20th, about 4 p. m., the troops w^ere set in motion, having 
a cavalry skirmish just after sundown within three or four hundred 
yards of the camp. Some of the Union pickets were captured, three 
were killed and some five or six wounded. The surgeon of the I42d 
Regiment was captured within a few feet of the right of the 121st 
Regiment. 



70 WARRKNTON JUNCTION TO WALNUT RIVER BRIDGE. 

October 24th, the column halted near Bristoe Station, after a long 
and tedious march, which was unusually hard on the men. They had 
to encounter not only miserable roads and rain, but were obliged to 
ford two or three streams, one of which was Broad Run, in fording 
which the men were in water up to their middle. 

November 15th, went into camp at Cedar Run Bridge, one-half 
mile from Catlett's Station and one and one-half miles from Warrenton 
Junction, protecting the railroad. Finding they were likely to remain 
some time at this point, the men soon set about erecting comfortable 
quarters — log huts, with chimneys, large fire-places, cots, etc. While 
here, news came of the death, in Philadelphia, of Lieutenant George 
W. Powell, of Company "C," and that Lieutenant Benjamin Pippet, 
wounded at Fredericksburg, was transferred to the Invalid Corps, 
leaving Company "C," as well as Comi^anies "D," "I," "G," "H" and 
"E," without commissioned offtcers. 

Colonel P)i(l<lle writes from this camp. November 18. 1863: "This 
morning I had a visit from an impudent secession woman, who told 
me, in the most apj^roved Southern style, that she was a secessionist 
from the top of her head to the sole of her foot. I\Iy answer seemed 
to discomfort her, as I merely said I did not care in the least what she 
was. She then apologized and hoped I was not offended. To this I 
answered, "Not at all. as I did not regard her opinion as of any conse- 
quence whatever.' The \oung spitfire (for she was young) was greatly 
nettled to find that T considered her and her views as of no importance, 
which induced her to assail me for my want of gallantry. To see 
what she was capable of. 1 remarked that she ought to be sent to the 
Old Capitol at Washington. At this she expressed a perfect willing- 
ness to go ; but as it was no part of my purpose to make a martyr of 
her, especially as she seemed to covet this sort of martyrdom, I added 
that if she would call to-morrow and surrender herself I might perhaps 
send her to Washington. Her wounded vanity, at this, received a new 
shock, and she cried out with feline ferocity, 'So, sir, I see you do not 
consider me of any importance, and T must say you possess less gal- 
lantry than any one I have ever met.' Only think of it, my character 
almost impeached at my own quarters !" 

While guarding the road at Cedar Run, the camps were con- 
siderably annoyed by guerillas. On the 19th of November some ten 
or twelve chased two herdsmen belonging to army headquarters into 
camp. They had lost three or four cattle from their pen and had gone 
to look them up, when they were discovered by the guerillas. 

A new disposition of the troops of the First Corps was announced 
November 22d, which placed the Third Division to guard the line of 



GUERILLA WARFARE. ~\ 

railway from Rappahannock Station to Bull Run Bridge, extending the 
brigade from Warrenton Junction to Walnut River Bridge, and the 
brigade was increased by the addition of the 150th Regt. Penna. Vols., 
of about 200 men. The main portion of the Army of the Potomac was 
at this time advancing across the Rapidan River at Germania, Mitchell's 
and Ely's Fords, engaging the enemy, and cannonading could be heard 
in that direction continually until the last of the month. 

On the night of November 28th, the colonel commanding the 
brigade sent out a scouting party of cavalry to look up some of the 
guerillas in the vicinity of the camp. The party, with the aid of a 
guerilla deserter as a guide, was fortunate enough to pick up eight of 
these worthies, all of whom were sent to Alexandria for detention. 
The officer in charge of the party reported that at one or two of the 
houses where the arrests were made, the women were not only very 
abusive, but that they seized clubs, etc., and belabored some of our 
men soundly. In one instance, one of the guerillas, being in bed, 
refused to get up, whereupon a cavalryman seized him by the legs and 
pulled him out. To the surprise of the Union soldier, when the rebel 
was out of bed, he saw a roll of "greenbacks'" where his prisoner had 
been lying. In an instant both captor and prisoner made a dash for 
the roll, but in this "Johnny" came off victorious and was allowed to 
retain his money. 

As had always been customary, commanding officers had for some 
time been furnishing guards for the protection of the property of 
civilians in the neighborhood of the camp ; but the depredations of 
guerillas Rnally became so frequent and so outrageous that the colonel 
withdrew these guards, and after several of his men had been found 
murdered arrested a number of the most prominent citizens, and gave 
them to understand that unless these depredations were discontinued 
he would be compelled to send them to Washington. As a result, the 
citizens framed and sent to General Lee a petition, of which the follow- 
ing is a copy, and the men were seldom annoyed afterward by guerillas 
while in this locality : — 

"Cedar Run, N k., December 2, 1863. 
"We, the undersigned citizens of the county of Fauquier, living 
along the line of the Orange and Alexandria Railroad, find it impos- 
sible to remain longer at our homes unless something can be done to 
immediately prevent the murdering of Union soldiers after surrendering 
as prisoners of war to soldiers of the Southern Confederacy ; and as 
the citizens are held responsible, we earnestly beg that General Lee 
will protect us by preventing a repetition of such horrible deeds. The 



"JZ DISCIPLINE FOR GAMBLERS. 

occasion which brint;s forth this appeal, and the last act for which we 
are responsible, is the robbing, stripping and brutal murder of a young 
soldier who was cutting wood near his own camp. Eight citizens were 
arrested to suffer for the guilty act, but were finally released on condi- 
tion that we should acquaint you with the facts and to know if such 
vices are permitted by the commander-in-chief of the Southern army. 
The officers of the United States army, while fully cognizant of our 
Southern sentiments, have ahvays kindly protected us with safeguards 
when necessary, besides often showing us kindness and favors which 
we had no right to expect from enemies. Under the circumstances it 
is very hard that our own soldiers should cause them to withdraw that 
protection, and leave us to destruction and our country to desolation. 
This is not the first, by many instances, in which the deeds of your 
scouts have been visited on us. We cannot believe the commander- 
in-chief of the Southern army, of whom even his bitter enemies speak 
with the highest respect, is cognizant of this injustice, which falls so 
heavily on our innocent and imoffending families. 

"Yours, very respectfully, 

"(Signed) S. G. Catlett, 
W. S. Edmond, 
A. S. McLearon, 
E. C. Taylor 

(A wounded, discharged soldier of the Company) 

John W. Nichols, 
Capt. James McLearon 

(A soldier of 1812) 

Gamblers had a poor show when once in the clutches of the 
commanding officer. An up-Jersey jury could not be more severe or 
exact in carrying out the decree of a court than the colonel of the 
121 st Regiment in executing his usually correct decisions in cases 
where demoralizing characters were detected carrying on their 
nefarious work among the soldiers. About the ist of December, 1863, 
a man in the brigade, who was a low professional gambler, was 
detected at gambling and cheating his comrades. After being placed 
under guard, he was ordered to strip and give up his money. This he 
refused to do, alleging that his money was dearer to him than anything 
else excci)t his life. The officer in charge pointed his pistol at him 
and gave him one minute to comply. The result was the man did as 
he was directed, gave up a greasy pack of cards, false dice, and his 
money. His comrades were then called together and some dozen of 
them made to take hold of a canvas tent cover at its sides and corners. 




CAPTAIN WILLIAM WHITE DORR. 



PAOLI MILLS. 73 

The man was next placed on the cover and his comrades ordered to toss 
him up in the air. His efforts to keep his place .were useless, and he 
went flying- high up in the air, over and over again. After one set of 
men had become fatigued with tossing, another set was called, and in 
this way the culprit received a thorough tossing and shaking, amidst 
the laughter of the whole camp. 

The regiment broke camp on the afternoon of December 5th, and 
following the road parallel with the railroad, marched to within a short 
distance of Bealeton, where, in company with the balance of the brigade, 
it camped for the night, forming in two lines, with the ambulances 
and wagon trains between them, so as to protect them from the attack 
of any enterprising band of guerillas that might be in the vicinity. 
On the morning of the 6th the march was resumed, and on reaching 
Rappahannock Station the men were supplied with rations, which, by 
the way, had been rather scarce. Crossing the river on a pontoon 
bridge, in full view of the Blue Ridge, they passed over a road almost 
every feature of which was familiar to them, until about five miles 
further on they reached the camp at Paoli Mills, near Mountain Run. 
The camp was already laid out, with an abundance of huts prepared 
for winter use, built by a North Carolina regiment, and from which 
the rebels were recently driven. 

On the loth of December, 1863, Colonel Biddle received the 
papers in response to his resignation. The regiment was now, and 
had for a long time been, about the size of a full-fledged company, not 
many more than one hundred men being on hand at all times for active 
duty after the sick were counted off and details for various services 
provided for, and both Colonel Chapman Biddle and Lieutenant- 
Colonel Alexander Biddle had for a long time felt that the handful of 
men now composing the skeleton regiment would not warrant their 
remaining in the field as officers supposed to be in command of a full 
regiment : and then there seemed to be no prospect for recruits, 
although efforts had been made to secure them, in addition to which 
the health of Chapman Biddle was such that he should not have been 
permitted to remain in the field as long as he had. So long as there 
were prospects of active campaigning, however, he refrained from send- 
ing in his resignation ; and when he finally sent it in, the customary 
army red tape required the customary time to unravel. It came, how- 
ever, in course of time; and on the 12th of December, while the regi- 
ment was on dress parade, the colonel took a formal farewell, passing 
along the line and shaking the brawny hand of every man present. 
Never up to that time did the men know what a hold he had on their 
affection, and never had thev realized how hard it would be to part 



74 CULPEPER. 

with the one man who governed with a discipUnc that was a model 
of exactness ; who required every one to fulfill the law, but who, behind 
the outward appearance of a rigid disciplinarian, cherished for his men 
a fondness that was almost paternal. 

Colonel r>ang-horne Wister succeeded to the command of the 
brigade. 

December 24th, the camp was moved to Culpeper, the men going 
into winter quarters, building comfortable log huts, and establishing 
a regular camp, with all the regulations pertaining thereto, such as 
the performance of police duty, guard and picket duty, dress parades 
daily, occasional reviews and division inspections. One pleasant duty 
they performed occasionally w^as turning out by companies for target 
practice ; while an amusing performance was the daily drilling of 
the awkward squad by a sergeant of Company "E." The regiment 
had recently been favored with about thirty recruits, who w^ere 
distributed among the various companies, but who were collected by 
themselves every day for drill ; and while some were exceedingly 
awkward, others soon became proficient, particularly in target prac- 
tice, many being from the interior of Pennsylvania and familiar with 
the use of the rifle. The day preceding division inspection was always 
a busy one in camp. Everything had to be cleaned up: uniforms 
overhauled, holes patched up, straps and belts greased or blackened, 
guns, plates, buckles, etc., shined up, and everything put in first-class 
order. Kna]:)sacks had to be packed for the occasion with clean under- 
clothing and mounted with neatly-rolled blankets, tents all put in order, 
streets swept, etc., etc. ; and then before starting next morning for 
inspection, faces and hands washed and shoes polished — with fat pork. 
This day was always dreaded by the 121st Regiment; for, notwith- 
standing the fact that the men worked like beavers to clean up and 
look spry, they several times succeeded in securing the distinction of 
being the dirtiest regiment in the division. There was one man in the 
regiment who took a particular pride in appearing well on inspection 
day. and who invariably was complimented by the inspecting ofiicers. 
This was Christopher Montgomery, of Company "E," an old man, 
but who had evidently concealed his correct age when enlisting for 
the war ; about fifty-five, and every inch a soldier, straight as an arrow 
and strong as an ox, good-natured and attentive to duty. Chris, kept 
his gun at all times shining like a new silver dollar and enveloped in 
a flannel sack. 

That gim made every soldier envious, and was as dear to its owner 
as a blood relation. But, alas for Chris, and his gun, a squad of wily 
rcbs lit down on him one day while away from camp ; and while he 



CULPEPER. 75 

was made a prisoner and paroled on the spot, his darhng gun was 
broken into pieces before his eyes. 

Several prettv good snow-storms occurred while at Culpeper, and 
the men engaged in snow-ball battles with their neighbors, the 1426. 
Regiment; and once or twice various other regiments participated, 
thus bringing on a general engagement in canip, and compelhng the 
field stafif to get out of range in short order— snow fell on the 23d of 
March, 1864, eight inches deep. 

While at Culpeper, Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander Biddle, who 
had received his commission as colonel, having sent in his resignation, 
received his papers granting it, and bid adieu to the regiment. 
Although promoted, the boys always knew him as major. He carried 
a merry twinkle in his eye. and seemed glad whenever any of his men 
approached him. The sight of his short figure and long stride always 
gladdened their hearts. They knew they were all right when the major 
was on hand. When he left, which was near the middle of January, 
1864, the command devolved on Major Thomas M. Hall, who was 
promoted in February to lieutenant-colonel, but who was destined to 
remain with the regiment but a short time, his health completely failing, 
and he died shortly after at his home in Germantown. 

February loth. Colonel James Ash worth was, owing to disability 
resulting from wounds received at Gettysburg, discharged by special 
order. On the 24th of February the command of the brigade fell to 
Colonel E. L. Dana, but during the month of ^larch what was left of 
the old First Corps was wiped out of existence and the remnants 
scattered among the other corps of the army. The 121st Regt. Penna. 
Vols, was transferred to the Fifth Army Corps, and placed in the Third 
Brigade of the Fourth Division, the brigade being under the command 
of Colonel Roy Stone. On the 12th of April Captain Samuel T. 
Lloyd, of Company "E." succeeded to the command of the regiment 
on the retirement of Lieutenant-Colonel Hall. 

With the exception of a jaunt to Raccoon Ford, on the Rapidan 
River, on the 6th of February, and return to camp on the 7th, nothing 
occurred to interfere with the regular routine of winter quarters at 
Culpeper until General Grant took the bull by the horns and began his 
Wilderness campaign in May. 



Wilderness. 



Breaking camp at i o'clock on the morning of May 4, 1864, after 
taking their coffee and hard-tack, the men started on that never-to-be- 
forgotten tramp through Dixey under the guidance of the invincible 
Grant, very far from realizing the magnitude of the enterprise on 
which they were embarking, and certainly not dreaming of the possi- 
bility of entering upon a series of combats that were to continue day 
after day for successive solid weeks and months without so much as a 
rest, or with barely time to take the necessary amount of nourishment. 
They were yet to learn the trade they had undertaken, and which 
they had supposed they had mastered long before. As for indulging 
in the luxury of a bath or making a change of clothing during the 
six weeks from the day the camp at Culpeper was abandoned until 
the James River was crossed, a man would have been regarded as a 
full-fledged lunatic to have entertained such a notion. The days were 
now to be devoted to fighting and marching, and the nights to march- 
ing and working on the entrenchments. No time now for rest, no 
time for sleep, no time for eating or anything else, except at such 
moments as might be taken up now and then at favorable intervals 
during lulls or between movements, much of the eating and sleeping 
being accomplished while on the march. No incentive short of the 
loftiest degree of patriotism and devotion to their superior officers 
and to each other, could have enabled the men to pass through such 
an ordeal cheerfully, overcoming every obstacle, anxiously forging 
their way forward, always longing to find the enemy, never tiring, 
never despairing, never complaining. 

Reaching the Rapidan River at Germania Ford, at 10 a. m., and 
crossing with no opposition, the line moved on the Wilderness Plank 
Road to Wilderness Tavern, where it rested for the night. The morn- 
ing of May 5th, on this portion of the line, was spent feeling and locat- 
ing the enemy, which, from the caution exercised in moving the troops, 
was evidently a difficult task to perform. The woods and underbrush 
were so thick they may not have been disturbed for centuries. The 
troops v;ere compelled to cut alley-ways through the thickets with 
axes and hatchets, in order to proceed, and finally brought up on the 

76 




GENERAL U. S. GRANT. 



WILDERNESS. ^^ 

brink of a swamp with short, briery undergrowth, which it seemed 
impossible to penetrate. However, the effort was made, the men 
descending a sHght decUvity to reach this marsh. The firing, now 
going on at a short distance to the right, was evidence that the hne 
was abnost upon the enemy, and the advance proceeded with extra 
caution. It was fortunate it was so, for the regiment had not progressed 
far through the swamp wlien, without seeing a single foe, a sheet of fire 
opened on the line — if line it could be called — already in great disorder 
from its endeavors to work through the mire and entangled bushes. 
Here the men were almost entirely at the mercy of the foe, who, no 
doubt, had been lying in wait for them for some time. The engage- 
ment at this point was of short duration, but quite lively while it lasted, 
and not at all satisfactory to our men, who could not do much execu- 
tion while floundering about in the mud and water up to their middle. 
The obstacles in their way, however, were the means of saving the 
lives of many, as the aim of the enemy was merely at random, the balls 
passing harmlessly overhead. Neither combatant could see the other, 
and the only guide as to the locality of the opponent was the noise of 
the scrambling through the network of briers and floundering through 
the mud and water, as well as the irregular musketry lire on either 
side. It was evident before long that this locality was altogether too 
unhealthy ; and when the order to retire was given, the scrambling to 
get out of that mud hole was amusing as well as ridiculous. The troops 
on the right had been withdrawn, and after extricating themselves 
from that champion mud hole of mud holes, it required considerable 
agility to catch up to the balance of the troops and regain their place 
in the division. During this stampede it very naturally followed that 
the men became somewhat confused and more or less scattered, many 
not being sure which way to turn. An amusing incident occurred 
right here, when Colonel Dana, of the 143d Penna. Vols., accosted 
Sergeant Dempsey, of Company ''E," as related by the sergeant. The 
colonel, it seems, was making straight for the rebel lines, and, hailing 
Dempsey, asked, "What troops are those over there?" "The rebs," 
replied the sergeant, who had good reason to know. "Can't be," said 
the colonel, continuing on, no doubt to investigate. The sergeant 
replied : "All right, colonel, go over and you'll find out, for I've been 
there," and adds in his memorandum, "he went, and I went down to 
the rear, you may bet. He went down to Dixie." 

The brigade, on being gathered together, was sent to assist a por- 
tion of the Second Corps in maintaining its line, but no further engage- 
ment in its front took place that evening. About five o'clock on the 
morning of the 6th, however, the rebels advanced in great masses on 



78 AT THE BROCK ROAD. 

the Second Corps' troops in our front. The first and second lines of 
battle were made up of Second Corps' troops, and the third line by 
the brigade of which the 121st Regiment was a part. The fight imme- 
diately grew hot ; the enemy pressing the Second Corps very closely, 
and the first line was driven back on to the second, and the two lines 
on to the third. The three lines of battle blended together and drove 
the rebels back through the wood, which resounded with the deafening 
roar ; but the tide of battle turned again and again, the ground being 
fought over and over a number of times, until, towards noon, the 
Union troops withdrew slowly to a clearing at the crossing of the Brock 
Road and the Orange Plank Road, where a stand was made, and where 
one of the liveliest little engagements of the campaign was fought. At 
this point a line of earthworks had, through somebody's excellent fore- 
sight and good management, been thrown up along the road, parallel 
to and 200 yards from the edge of the wood, the intervening space being 
cleared ground, offering no protection to the advancing foe. A line 
of troops occupied these works, and the men of the various regiments 
who had, during the morning's engagement, become completely mixed 
together and lost all identity as to regiments and brigades, formed a 
second line in rear of the works as they arrived from the front. The 
brigade colors and those of one or two of the regiments of the brigade 
were fiying, and the men clustered around these colors. They had 
been badly scattered among the troops of the Second Corps during 
the fight, and a comparatively small portion seeing their colors, the 
brigade showed but a small front, the balance of the brigade and greater 
portion forming in another part of the field, the two portions remaining 
separated until the following morning. No time was lost in completing 
even a temporary formation, and the men lay on the ground awaiting 
developments. Very soon the enemy appeared at the edge of the 
w'ood, and advanced across the open space in front of the works under 
a galling fire that sent many a brave fellow to Mother Earth before half 
the space was covered. Nevertheless, they made a determined effort 
to secure the works, and partially succeeded in doing so and retaining 
them for a short time. 

A few yards to the right, at the cross-roads, two small pieces of 
artillery played great havoc with the rebs as they advanced, and were 
worked with such ability that the enemy at that point were kept back ; 
but further to the left they were more successful, and fairly got on and 
into the works, planting their colors and fighting the men in the works. 
At this stage the line was ordered forward and into the w^orks, and the 
Confederates, after showing a disposition to hold what they had gained, 
were compelled in short order to relinquish them and fall back, our 




COLOR-SERGEANT JAMES BINGHAM GRAHAM. 



WILDERNESS. 79 

men following to within a few paces of the wood in which the enemy 
sought cover. 

Thus ended the fighting at this point for the day. The dead of 
both rebel and Union soldiers lay thick in the works where they fell ; 
and the ferocity with which the enemy strove to get possession was an 
indication of tlie importance of the position. General Wadsworth, 
commanding the division, was killed near the right of the regiment 
early in the day. 

Our men rested at the cross-roads for the balance of the day, 
receiving a fresh supply of ammunition, and next morning they rejoined 
the balance of the brigade, resting until evening, when the brigade, now 
under command of Colonel E. S. Bragg, started for Laurel Hill on an 
all-night march that was exceedingly tiresome and fatiguing to the men. 

The following account of this engagement at the cross-roads is 
taken from "Stine's History of the Army of the Potomac:" — 

"General (then Colonel) E. S. Osborne, of Wadsworth's staff, took 
as many of the troops as he could rally to the left of the Brock Road, 
and from there to the intersection of the Orange Plank and Brock 
Roads. At this time the latter road was full of troops of the Second, 
Fifth and Ninth Corps. The confusion was so great that Osborne had 
considerable difficulty in holding the regiments of Roy Stone's brigade 
at that point. Having restored order, Osborne moved the troops along 
the plank road a short distance, then filed into the woods and stacked 
arms, and then found he had the brigade headquarter's colors, and the 
colors of the 121st, I42d, 143d, 149th and 150th Pennsylvania Regi- 
ments, with small detachments of each regiment. On looking at the 
officers, Osborne found that Lieutenant-Colonel John Irvin, of the 
149th, was the ranking officer present. Therefore, Osborne and Irvin, 
after consulting, decided to let the men rest and make coffee, as the 
battle was liable to be renewed at any moment. Osborne then placed 
the headquarters' flag near the Orange Plank Road, so it could be 
seen from the crossing, and advised Lieutenant-Colonel Irvin to take 
command of the brigade. General Rice, commanding the Second 
Brigade of Wadsworth's division, had been detailed on special duty 
by Plancock, and Colonel Plofmann, of the 56th Pennsylvania, was put 
in command of the brigade by Rice. Hofmann at once proceeded to 
form the troops of that brigade back on the Brock Road near the 
remnant of Roy Stone's brigade. When Hancock gave the order for 
these two brigades of the old First Corps to charge the works which 
had been held by the Second Corps, and were then occupied by the 
Confederates, these two brigades advanced together and retook them. 
Hofmann displayed great coolness and gallantry in this charge, and 



8o AT THE BROCK ROAD. 

well earned the rank of major-general for his heroic conduct. The 
brigade under Cutler had been forced back in the direction of the Lacy 
House early in the day, and was rallied by Cutler near the old Wilder- 
ness Tavern, and did not participate in the subsequent charges of the 
division that day. There were two pieces of artillery near the cross- 
ing, and shortly after coffee had been taken this section of the artillery 
opened on the enem}', and there was considerable commotion near one 
of the guns. While waiting for results Osborne saw two officers riding 
toward him from the crossing. They both came up at once, when 
Osborne saw they were Hancock and Captain Wilson, of his staff. 
General Hancock said, in a sharp tone of voice: 'What troops are 
these?' Osborne answered: 'They are what is left of the old First 
Corps.' He then remarked : 'Those are just the troops I want. Take 
them up there and drive the enemy out of our works.' Colonel Irvin 
and Captain William M. Dalgleish then came up, and the order was 
repeated to them by Captain Wilson ; then Hancock and Wilson rode 
away. Osborne and Irvin got the troops in line, and, at a double-quick, 
went to the cross-roads, leaving the gun at the road. The enemy had 
driven the troops of the Second Corps out of the works, and were 
using them as shelter against our attack. The command moved on 
the right into line, and with Hofmann's brigade charged the works 
that had been abandoned by the Second Corps, and drove the enemy 
from them. This was one of the most brilliant exploits that was 
performed during the war. Again had the soldiers of the old First 
Corps added another wreath of fame to their accumulated laurels. The 
credit of that work was assumed by others, who, an officer in high 
repute says, 'were not in the engagement at the supreme moment at 
all.' 

"There were many acts of valor performed on the part of officers 
and men that placed them high on the roll of honor that day. Captain 
Bell, of the 150th Pennsylvania, was killed while on the works defend- 
ing the flag of his regiment. Captain P. DeLacy, of the 143d Penn- 
sylvania, captured a Confederate battle-flag." 

There must be a mistake in the statement that the colors of the 
12 1 St Penna. Vols, were among those of other regiments collected at 
this point. The colors were with that portion of the regiment that had 
been separated and collected in another part of the field. 



Spottsylvania. 



On the morning of the 8th, after passing Todd's Tavern, the 
brigade advanced in hne and joined in the battle of Spottsylvania, at 
a point called Laurel Hill, and was engaged in various portions of 
the field from noon until evening. During a lull in the engagement, a 
little trick of the enemy was nicely foiled through the enterprise of one 
of our staff officers. A line of skirmishers lay a few yards in front, 
and although the}- kept up a dragging fire in the direction of the enemy, 
it was difficult to see just what they were firing at or for, there being 
apparently nothing to be gained just at that -time by their maintaining 
their fire. This excited some remark among the men and officers, as 
well as a curiosity to know to what regiment or brigade these skirmish- 
ers belonged, and one of the staff officers proposed to investigate. Rid- 
ing out towards them, he soon discovered they were rebels who were 
keeping up a deception by firing towards their own men, making it 
appear they were our men ; but the way they "dusted" when found out 
was remarkable, and the peppering they received before getting out of 
range w^as certainly uncomfortable. During the afternoon the regiment 
maintained its position against an advance of the enemy and lost heavily. 
On the night of the Sth, and during day and night of the 9th, the 
regiment was enrployed at various points erecting earthworks, and 
shifting from point to point to meet various emergencies ; and on the 
loth relieved Colonel Lyle's men and engaged the enemy for three 
hours, during which time the brave Captain Dorr was killed while 
temporarily in command of the regiment. General Rice was also 
killed at this point, almost in front of the regiment. Subsequently the 
division formed cii masse to charge the rebel works, the Third Brigade 
being in the second line, but. before starting in, the charge was 
abandoned. The brigade was then shifted off to the left to support a 
portion of the Second Corps. After lying in the works all night and 
next day, the night of the nth was spent in building earthworks. 
On the 1 2th, most of the regiment was on the skirmish line, and 
succeeded in bringing on an engagement that lasted about two hours. 
The men were then drawn back to the works, and, under a heavy 
musketrv fire, hurried oft' to the support of the Second Corps, where 



82 A SAMPLE NIGHT MARCH. 

the rebel works had been carried in the morning. Here they lay, near 
the rebel lines, all night, under heavy rains in the sappling timber, and 
kept very close to the wet ground, to save their heads from rebel 
bullets. Early in the day the regiment returned to Laurel Hill under 
a heavy artillery fire. iVt daybreak on the 13th it was discovered that 
the rebs were abandoning the works in front, when some of our men 
went over the works and met a fearful sight, the result of the fight of 
the Second Corps on the day before. The rebel dead and wounded 
lay behind the works three and four deep. The dead lay on top of the 
wounded so they could not move. An oak tree about eighteen inches 
thick had been so cut up with minie balls that it had toppled over and 
lay on the ground. At this point, and in fact anywhere in the locality 
of Laurel Hill or Spottsylvania at this time, the stench arising from 
the unburied dead was terribly sickening. After some skirmishing at 
dark, the line moved out and marched all night for Spottsylvania, 
halting on the morning of the 14th, after a severe all-night march in 
the rain and mud, the mud being of the consistency of New Orleans 
molasses and several inches deep. 

During the 14th. 15th and part of the i6th, the regiment lay 
around Spottsylvania, sometimes in one position, then in another, 
usually assuming a defensive position behind earthworks, but not 
engaging in any conflict, the opposing forces seeming to be satisfied 
for the time in watching and feeling each other. On the i6th it moved 
further to the left and built more works, and quietly lay in line of 
battle until the 20th. 



This was one of the most tiresome marches of the campaign. 
The rain poured and the night was black. The roads leading through 
the forest, which had heretofore been covered several inches deep with 
pulverized dust, were now covered with an assortment of mud, ranging 
from the choicest thick Virginia mud to the thinnest specimen, accord- 
ing to the elevation or depression of the road. Progress was so slow 
and the men were so fatigued that many wandered off from the ranks 
and fell asleep in the woods ; and in fact many in the ranks fell asleep 
while slowly wending their way through the Wilderness ; and before 
reaching their destination at daylight but a handful of men were left 
in the ranks. Like magic, however, as soon as the brigade flag came 
to a halt the men began clustering around it, and probably within a 
half hour every mnn in the brigade was at his post. 



North Anna 



May 2 1 St the brigade left Spottsylvania and marched lo miles to 
Gtiiney Station, where a halt was made for the night with orders to 
keep quiet, as it was stated our line had got between two rebel 
corps, and on the 22d continued on to Bull's Church. On its way to 
Bull's Church, after submitting to a little annoyance in the way of 
shelling by the rebs, the regiment was sent forward to ascertain what 
was ahead of our column. It was found to be a light battery in the 
edge of a wood, which left on short notice as the regiment came up 
over a hill. A couple of Johnnies who were captured reported we were 
close on to the rear of one of the rebel corps. 

On the 23d, the enemy were engaged in a lively tilt at Jericho 
Ford, on the North Anna River. On this march the regiment was 
detailed as flankers on the left of the brigade, crossing the North x\nna 
in the afternoon. After crossing the river, the men prepared for a rest 
for the balance of the day and night, and were busy cooking their coffee 
when they were abruptly ordered into line of battle, and moved forward 
for about a quarter of a mile, striking the rebs, who were secreted in 
the edge of a thick wood, and drawing from them an uncomfortably 
brisk fire. In this our men were worsted, and fell back to the crest of 
the hill near the river bank, where, assisted by a battery of artillery, 
the line was maintained, and the rebs, who had followed up their 
advantage, were compelled to withdraw. The fight on the hills near 
the river bank was hotly contested by both sides, and the enemy finally 
completel}' routed was sent flying to the woods for shelter. General 
Cutler, commanding the division, complimented the brigade on the 
stand it made on this occasion. During the scrimmage a small portion 
of the men became separated from the regiment, and, of their own 
accord, assumed position as skirriiishers, and advanced to within a few 
feet of the enemy's position, where they remained all night. Here 
they could hear the conversation carried on by the rebs, and the orders 
given by their officers. A stafif officer visited them during the night 
and ordered Sergeant Dempsey to take charge and remain there until 
he received orders to come in. No orders came until late next day, 
by which time poor Dempsey and his comrades were nearly starved, 

83 



84 TOTOPOTOMAY. 

having liad notliing to cat since noon of the day before, when they had 
feasted on fried hard-tack and coffee. 

On the 24th. the hne was advanced to the woods again, and earth- 
works thrown up. On the 25th, the brigade moved to tlie left, and 
the regiment was sent forward as skirmishers, where it remained from 
8 A. M., until midnight before being relieved. This was a very lively 
skirmish in the woods, the men having to replenish their stock of 
ammunition in order to keep up their fire, and the regiment losing 
heavily in wounded, John lungerich, the adjutant of the regiment, 
being among the number. He died about a month later. 



Totopotomay. 



On the night of the 26th, the regiment recrossed the North Anna 
River and marched to Hanover Court-house, crossing the Pamunkey 
River on the 28th, and threw up earthworks. On the 29th it moved 
to near Bethesda Church, and formed in line of battle. On the 30th, 
proceeded by the New C'astle Road through the woods, and threw up 
earthworks and rested for the night, the troops on both flanks being 
hotly engaged. May 31st, regiment was on the skirmish line until 
noon, when it was relieved bv the i6th Michigan. 



Bethesda Church. 



On the 1st of June, the regiment proceeded by the Mechanicsville 
Road to Bethesda Church, when it was formed in line of battle, and 
advanced into the woods under a heavy fire from the rebel batteries, 
halting at the line of the enemy's skirmish-pits ; after night it advanced 
probably one hundred and fifty yards nearer the rebel lines, clearing 
the edge of the woods, and into the fields beyond, where it quietly 
threw u\) earthworks, in which it remained until the 6th. During 



BETIIESDA CHURCH. 85 

these five days, although no infantry became actively engaged, the 
opposing forces kept up a continual fire, and every few minutes saw 
the loss of a man. The artillery leisurely pegged away at the rebel 
sharpshooters, and they in turn brought down many an artilleryman. 
Young Clymer, the color-bearer of the regiment, was shot near one 
of these guns, on the 2d of June, a solid shot, no doubt intended for 
the gun. tearing away a great chunk of flesh from his leg, and the poor 
fellow died soon after being sent to the hospital. Clymer was a mere 
lad, apparently about nineteen years of age. Comrade James Pearce 
was also killed at this point, and the corporal in charge of the gun 
placed in the works in the midst of the regiment seemed to court 
death by declining to take advantage of the cover of the works, even 
when unemployed. The sharpshooters, who were located in a barn a 
short distance in front, had at first been able to pick off quite a number 
of our men. The corporal turned his gun on the barn, and asked for 
orders, which were finally granted. His first shell exploded in the 
barn, setting firejj© it, and driving out the sharpshooters. This brave 
man was killed by a solid siiot which took off his leg while he was 
working his gun. 



Cold Harbor. 



June 6th, the regiment marched to Cold Harbor, and on this day 
was placed in the First Brigade, First Division, Fifth Corps, under the 
command of Colonel J. L. Chamberlain, of the First Maine Infantry. 

June 7th, moved at 4 a. m., and threw up works near Chicka- 
hominy River, where it lay until the 12th, when, at dark, it started on 
an all-night march, crossing the Chickahominy, at Long Bridge, at day- 
light of the 13th; keeping up the march day and night, and halting at 
4 A. M. of June 14th for a rest, then continuing on until it reached the 
James River, near Harrison's Landing. 

June i6th, the men turned out at 3 a. m., and crossed the James 
River at sunrise on the transport "Exchange ;" marched past Prince 
George Court-house to within three miles of Petersburg, about 
eighteen miles since morning. 



Petersburg. 



At sunrise on the i8th the regiment moved a short distance, cross- 
ing the Norfolk Railroad, and formed in line of battle; after remain- 
ing under a heavy fire for some time, lying on the ground, it moved 
further to the left and advanced, driving the rebel skirmishers, and 
halted in a ravine nearly parallel to, and a short distance from, the 
rebel earthworks. During the advance Colonel Chamberlain, com- 
manding the brigade, was wounded, and was succeeded by Colonel W. 
S. Tilton. Here the men rested, under the cross-fire from the rebel 
artillery and infantry, while one of our own batteries, some distance in 
the rear, intending to fire over the line, dropped several shots in the 
midst of the regiment, one of which took off the leg of one of the 
men. This firing from all directions — from friends as well as foes — 
had a somewhat demoralizing effect; but the brigade occupying this 
position had to remain and hold it until the line of troops, some eighty 
yards in the rear, threw up earthworks. 

Valuable service, in the way of lessening the enemy's fire, while 
the line lay in its exposed position, was rendered by two Venango 
County men, one of whom was private Wm. McKinzie, of Company 
"A," and the other a sergeant of Company "E," two crack shots, but 
which cost McKinzie his life. This service is best told in the words 
of the sergeant, viz. : — 

Br.\dfork, Pa., July 25, 1892. 
"Df..'\r Friend: — T remember the 18th of. June very well. We 
charged over the point of the hill into a strip of woods that extended 
down into another hollow. About the time we came to the woods. 
Benedick, of our company, was wounded. You will remember by a 
remark of his, which was, T now have got a furlough.' Colonel Cham- 
berlain, who commanded our brigade, was wounded about the same 
time. When we got to the top of the little hill, we were received very 
warmly by the rebs, which caused me to look for a place that would not 
be quite so hot. Seeing the hollow in front, I made for it : but when 
I got there it was no better, as the Johnnies had an enfilading fire down 
the hollow. Finding it too warm for comfort, and thinking the regi- 
ment was close by, I made another dash towards the rebs' works, and 

86 




CAPTAIN P. R. GRAY. 



PETERSBURG. 87 

succeeded in g-etting as far as I thought it was safe until the others 
caught up to me. I had been there but a few moments when Wm. 
McKinzie, of Company "A," came up to me. After looking the situa- 
tion over, we concluded to try our luck on the reb gunners, and was 
succeeding admirably, one of us firing while the other loaded, and had 
come to the conclusion that we had it all our own way; but our 
opponents thought different, and were laying for us; and when my 
comrade got up to fire, it being his turn, Mr. Johnny shot him through 
the head, which made me lay close to the ground afterwards." 

On the morning of the 19th the regiment was ordered out after 
being under severe fire for eighteen hours, forming behind the works, 
and remaining until the 20th, when it was relieved by troops of the 
Ninth Army Corps, and moved at dusk one mile to the rear. June 
2 1st it moved again to the front, somewhat to the left of the troops of 
the Ninth Corps, and threw up entrenchments. Shifting still further 
to the left on the 8th of July, relieving the 88th Penna. Vols., it took 
position diagonally across the Jerusalem Plank Road, and remained at 
this point until July i6th, during which time the men were employed in 
building "Fort Hell." The line at this point w^as more or less obscured 
from the view of the enemy by a wood which skirted and extended a 
few yards beyond the plank road, and several days elapsed before the 
rebs seemed to appreciate the fact that a formidable fortress was being 
erected. Prisoners deserting from the rebel picket line were surprised 
when they discovered what was going on ; but as the works grew 
higher and higher and the workers more careless of their own safety, 
the fact dawned upon them, as was evidenced by the target practice 
kept up almost continually by the rebel batteries while the work was 
going on. While details were at work on the fort, the regiment held 
the line of earthworks along the plank road to the left of the fort, and 
so were more or less exposed to this fire, and the rebel artillerymen 
seemed to take particular delight in making the men hustle into the 
works every now and then. No trouble was experienced from the 
rebel infantry, as there was maintained a truce from infantrv or picket 
firing, and the men on the opposing picket lines made no effort what- 
ever to shield themselves from danger, but, on the contrary, freely con- 
versed and traded with each other, and at times became quite friendly, 
often meeting half way between the lines, which were but a few paces 
apart, in order to accomplish a trade for tobacco, coffee or hard-tack. 
Through this friendly intercourse between the opposing pickets, a 
scheme was projected early in July by which it was intended that an 
entire regiment of Confederates was to come into our lines ; but it so 
happened that it was ordered to another portion of the field just before 



88 



CAMPING U.NUliK DIFFICULTIES. 



the appointed time. Comracle Lewis Clapper, of Company "C," was. 
.an active agent in bringing about this intended desertion. He it was 
who carried the communications between our officers and the rebels on 
picket, and his efforts surely deserved better results. It was supposed 
at the time that some of the Confederates allowed the secret to get 
out, and thus brought about the removal of the regiment to another 
locality. 

While the men on picket were comparatively safe, it was not so 
with those resting behind the earthworks. Although tents w^ere 
erected, fires built and dinners cooked just the same as if the camp 
liad been miles away from any hostile force, it was never known just 
when a rebel shell might drop in the midst of the camp, and the slight 
earthworks, four or five feet high along the established line, were not 
nuich protection to those mcnang around twenty or thirty yards in the 
I ear of these works, which was the case almost always with most of 
the men. In fact, their living was in full view of the enemy, who 
permitted the men to live thus peacefully, sometimes for many hours,, 
or for an entire day or two at a stretch — long enough to make them 
careless and induce them to show themselves freely — when suddenly 
they would open their artillery and bring the Yanks to a proper sense 
of the situation, knocking the props from under the tents and the 
kettles from over the fires, and creating a general stampede for the 
breastworks. On one such occasion a shell knocked the props from 
under the floor of a tent occupied by several non-commissioned officers, 
of Company "E,'' who were at the time quietly enjoying their hard- 
tack and coft'ee, letting the "non-coms" down very suddenly, and 
scattering their repast over the ground. The realization of their loss 
and the damage to their quarters seemed to hamper their usual agility 
in getting to safe cover. I'his constant shelling became so annoying 
that, in order to get supplies up to the troops, deep-dug roads had 
to be made, which extended diagonally from the works a safe distance 
in the rear, and deep enough to hide from the view of the enemy 
the tops of the army supply wagons in their progress to the front. 
These dug roads extended all along the rear of the works, intersecting 
each other at various points, and required an enormous amount of 
labor to build. 

The men soon became accustomed to this way of living, and by 
constantly keeping several on the watch, no doubt saved many lives. 
The watchers would station themselves where they would have a good, 
clear view of the rebel batteries, and the instant a small puff of smoke 
would rise from a rebel cannon, would cry out in stentorian tones, 
"get down," the emphasis being on the "down," and as the ground 



PETERSBURG. 89 

all through the camp was full of holes made for the purpose, the men 
lost no time in getting "down," which they could do in marvelously 
quick order and usually before the unwelcome missiles could reach 
them. The Johnnies must have wondered many a time how an entire 
encampment of Yanks could disappear instantaneously to reappear in 
a few moments. 

During the night of July 17th the line was advanced some ten 
rods closer to the rebel works, where the men remained enjoying the 
pleasures of this exceedingly warm summer resort until the 15th of 
August, losing a man occasionally and recording the capture every 
now and then of a Johnny, who, taking advantage of the darkness of 
the night, would escape to our lines. The monotony of this existence 
was somewhat relieved by the efforts of the Ninth Corps to break 
through the rebel lines on the morning of July 30th, when they suc- 
ceeded in blowing up a great mound of sacred soil, and penning up in 
the "crater" a regiment or two of poor negroes, where they were 
slaughtered by the rebels. From this time on the artillery kept up a 
general fusillade along the whole line, and when a man had occasion to 
get out of his cosy nook he was particularly careful to keep one eye 
on the handy guns of his neighbors. 

One striking feature of the readiness with which all possible 
means of improving the situation were brought into requisition, was 
General Grant's railroad, used for bringing up supplies from City Point 
to the troops at the front. This was truly a "surface" road, and a 
train running over it would rise and fall with all the various undula- 
tions of the country, no effort whatever being made at grading, except 
such as was necessary in some cases to solidify and strengthen the 
road-bed or cross a stream. The tracks were laid squarely up to the 
breastworks in the direction of Petersburg; and some of the men 
rigged up and posted on a high pole at the end of the tracks and 
against the breastworks, a sign-board bearing a prophecy in the form 
of the familiar phrase, "to be continued." 



Weldon Railroad. 



On the 15th of August, having been rcheved by some troops of the 
Ninth Ojrps, the regiment moved a mile to the rear, and went into 
camp for a quiet, comfortable rest ; but three days after, about 6 o'clock 
on the morning- of the i8th, was marched off in the direction of the 
Weldon Railroad, driving the enemy's skirmishers. Near Reams 
Station, while portions of the Second and Third Divisions were hotly 
engaged, the brigade was deployed along the railroad, and at the word 
of command, every man took hold of the rails and lifted the track, ties 
and all, bodily from the road-bed. While the troops on the right rolled 
the huge ladder in one direction, those on the left rolled it in the 
opposite direction, forming an immense screw, until finally it was 
forced to pieces, when the ties were gathered together in piles short 
distances apart, and the rails laid crosswise on top, and fire applied, 
and the destruction was complete. The rails becoming red-hot in the 
middle were taken off and bent round and round a telegraph pole or a 
tree most convenient, and not a rail was left fit to use again ; after which 
the men were formed in line on the left of the troops already engaged, 
and earthw^orks thrown up to make the position secure. 

On the 19th, the regiment, after relieving the 150th Penna. Vols., 
was engaged on the skirmish line, and remained until 5 p. m. the next 
day, having a severe tussle with the enemy and capturing thirty-seven 
rebs and the rebel rifie-pits ; quite a large number of the Pennsylvania 
Reserves on the right of the regiment were captured. 

On the 20th the regiment was relieved by some Maryland troops, 
and retired to the line of w^orks on the left and slightly in rear of the 
main line, along the railroad, and near the "Yellow House" where the 
corps headquarters were, leaving a vacant space of some 150 or 200 
yards between the left of the line of troops of the Fourth Division in 
front and the right of our line in rear, which was thus en echelon. 
Here the rebels made a very resolute charge on the 21st, attempting 
to force through the opening with several lines of troops massed ; and 
although subjected to the fire of our troops in the front line, and the 
vigorous fire of the brigade, placed en echelon, besides the lively fire 
from "Paddy" Hart's battery, placed near the opening, they succeeded 

90 



WELDON RAILROAD. 9I 

in reaching- a point almost in rear of the front hne, but could get no 
further ; and as they hesitated, were mercilessly mowed down by 
musketry and artillery until, almost in a body they threw down their 
arms and offered to surrender, when the firing ceased. 

An unfortunate incident took place at this point that no doubt 
cost the lives of many brave men. After the offer on the part of these 
rebels to surrender, an officer rode out to receive them. When within 
a few feet of their commanding officer, the latter declined to surrender 
and shot at the Union officer, who returned the fire, both falling at 
once. A fusillade was begun again, as a number of the Johnnies, seeing 
an opportunity to escape, undertook to run off, but many were quickly 
brought down and the balance threw down their guns and came into 
our lines. This was quite an animated engagement, and its result 
was the eft'ect of a ruse to deceive the enemy, who were located in 
the woods, and who, in approaching our works, could not have had a 
clear view of the line e)i echelon until they had reached the point where 
they no doubt supposed was the extreme left of the line, but which 
was exactly in front of the First Brigade. The works, while within 
good rifle range, were still far enough away to be unnoticed until too 
late to escape. Probably a whole brigade of Confederates were cap- 
tured at this point. 

Subsequent to this affair, during the same day, the regiment was 
hurried oft' at a "double quick" to a point about a mile to the left, 
where the enemy were making an effort to get around that flank, but 
did not persist on finding Union troops already in position behind 
breastworks. By this time the men had become so accustomed to 
throwing up works as soon as a halt was made that one of the natural 
consequences of a halt was the erection, in a remarkably short space 
of time, of a line of breastworks. 

On August 22d. Lieutenant-Colonel W. A. Throop took command 
of the brigade. Lieutenant-Colonel Warner, who had recently been 
promoted from captain of Company "A," returned to the regiment 
and assumed command thereof September 4th, thus relieving Captain 
Lang, of Company "F," who had commanded the regiment for 
several weeks. 

The regiment continued in the intrenchments, participating in the 
various movements of the brigade and in building Fort White, until 
September 12th, when it went into camp near the "Yellow House," 
some mile and a half in rear of the line. On the 14th, it was trans- 
ferred to the Third Brigade, Third Division of the Fifth Corps, Colonel 
J. W. Hofmann, brigade commander. 



Poplar Grove Church. 



On the 25th of September the regiment moved into the breast- 
works, where it remained until the 30th, when it moved to Poplar 
Grove Church, sometimes called Peeble's P'arm, and advanced in line 
of battle, after dark, in support of a portion of the First Division, 
which was at this time hotly engaged and driving the enemy. After 
the firing ceased, the men threw up earthworks and lay on their arms, 
the position of the brigade being on the extreme left of the line, and 
the I2ist and the i42d Regiments being on the left of the brigade. 
This line extended across a large open field, at the ends of which were 
thick woods, and on the left artd rear a depression in the ground 
covered by heavy undergrowth that would hide the movement of any 
force in that direction, but w'hich appears to have been unoccupied by 
any troops of our own. 

The first day of October proved to be a very unfortunate one for 
the regiment, which deprived it of a large part of its force. As develop- 
ments subsequently proved, it was not the intention of the corps com- 
mander to hold the advanced position any longer than necessary to 
establish a permanent one some four or five hundred yards further in 
the rear, and erect eartlnvorks sufficient to protect it from assault; and 
while on this morning the advanced line was engaging the enemy, 
and the permanent position was being strengthened, as was afterward 
reported, word w-as sent along the line that our troops should fall back 
as soon as hotly pressed by the enemy. This order, if sent, never 
reached Lieutenant-Colonel Warner, and it was a surprise to the men to 
behold the troops on their right relinquishing their ground without, so 
far as they could see, any plausible reason for so doing. A majority of 
the regiment — fortunately for them, as it afterwards proved — instinc- 
tively took the course, followed by the balance of the division, leaving 
the lieutenant-colonel, adjutant and seven other commissioned officers 
and forty-three men, and a few belonging to one or two other regiments, 
to defend the works, which they evidently felt determined to do to the 
best of their ability, as was indicated by three rousing cheers from 
these men when they beheld the works still in their possession while 
the fields in the rear were covered with troops falling back. This 
handful of men settled themselves down to defend their position to 

92 



POl'LAR GROVE CHURCH. 93 

the last ; but. alas for them, the enemy, instead of contesting the ground 
from the front, advanced from the woods on their left and rear, and 
scooped in the whole party, making prisoners of them all, including 
Lieutenant-Colonel Warner and Adjutant Bates; Lieutenant Bing- 
ham, Company "A ;" Lieutenant Childs, Company "C ;" Lieutenant 
Harvey, Company "D;" Lieutenant Strong, Company "E;" Captain 
John AIcTaggart and Lieutenant Cowpland, Company "I," and Cap- 
tain Allen, Company "K." These men (those of them who lived long 
enough) were held in rebel prisons for over four months before being 
paroled, and were not exchanged in time to rejoin the regiment before 
the final campaign of the war had wound up. Many of them did not 
survive their prison terms, and most of those who did, were so badly 
broken down in health as to be imfit for an active campaign when they 
were exchanged. The regiment — but a small one up to this time — 
was reduced by this catastrophe to a mere skeleton. What was left 
of it — consisting of four commissioned officers and eighty-five enlisted 
men present for duty, joined the brigade behind the works, already 
established in rear of the first position, and there remained, participat- 
ing in occasional skirmishing, until October 27th, when, under com- 
mand of Captain Henry H. Herpst, it marched to Hatcher's Run, 
where it again met and engaged the enemy, capturing a number of 
prisoners, who proved to be some of Mahone's men ; and on the 28th 
moved forward at 4 a. m., and captured the rebel picket-line, after 
\\hich it returned to its former camp, where it was engaged for several 
days in the erection of winter quarters. While at this place news 
reached the regiment of the death of Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas M. 
Hall, throwing a gloom over the camp. Lieutenant-Colonel Hall was 
a great favorite among the men as well as the officers. While particular 
to observe that their duties were rigidly performed, he was always 
careful that their wants were attended to, and as a consequence he was 
highlv respected and beloved bv the regiment. 



Apple-jack Raid. 



December 5th, a force consisting of the Fifth Corps, one division 
of the Second Corps and a division of cavalry, all under the command 
of General Warren, started for a raid along the Weldon Railroad, 
reaching the Jerusalem Plank Road on the r)th, Sussex Court-house on 
the 7th and on the 8th marching twenty miles further, crossing Stony 
Creek to Nottoway River, tearing up the railroad from Jarratt's Station 
to Belfield, burning the ties and destroying the rails. Captain Charles 
Barlow, of Company "H," commanded the regiment on this raid. On 
the 9th, the force moved in two columns with the sup|)ly trains between 
them, tearing up the rails for about seventeen miles and burning a 
bridge. On the loth. the homestretch began with the Johnnies close 
behind. Hopkinsville and Sussex Court-house were passed and the 
Nottoway River recrossed at 4 p. m. on the nth, and on the 12th the 
old camp on the plank road was reached. 

During this raid of six days the regiment traveled some eighty 
miles, participated in destroying everything that could have been of 
any use to the enemy, including seventeen miles of the Weldon Railroad 
and an immense amount of property, the only loss being the result of 
the too formidable advance on the "apple-jack" with which the country 
abounded, and which stretched out quite a number of our men. A 
disagreeable rain, hail and snow storm prevailed most of the time 
during this raid, making the work unusually severe. 

December i6th. the regiment was shifted about three miles, where 
it continued in camp until Februar}- 4, 1865, during which time com- 
fortable winter quarters were erected. 

On the 22c\ December, Captain Atlee received his discharge, and 
was happy. On the 31st the regiment was mustered for pay during a 
lively snow storm. 

January i, 1865. The new year came in cold and clear, bringing 
snow on the 3d of January, and a heavy rain on the loth, overflowing 
the camp and filling the tents with water. Captain John Chittick, of 
Company "E," received his discharge for disability from wounds, and 
Lieutenant W. W. Strong, still in captivity, was promoted to fill the 
vacancy. Januar\- T2th, Captain Zinnell left for home, having received 
his discharge, and January i6th, Joseph Bastian, Company "G," received 
his commission as first lieutenant, dating back to December 7, 1864. 
January 24th, Colonel H. A. Morrow took command of the brigade. 

94 



Calls. 



REVEILLE. 



^ N 



i 



^^ r i «^> f *i«r;' -n r 






=?=* 



^ i m^i^ C>^ ^ 



rtf ^rirr7Jilr ifd^£^-^-^^4^ 



s 



^^\f^f\f&ff 



D.C. 



1 



^ 



? !» 



^^^ 



FATIGUE CALL. 






n^fi^iftt^ 



rv 



\ 



^ffl3 



ASSEMBLY— "FALL IN!' 






i 



SICK CALL. 



J"3| r ^ 



1 ^ "I i r tf 



.^ 1 1 r^ ^ 



^E3 



^ 



fczt 



^ d 



i 



^ 



TAPS. 



\' J ^ I r 






^ 



t^ ^jg: 



717 r- --^"~IF 



Dabney's Mills. 



The unemployed days were passed in discussing rumors of peace, 
home matters, etc., which were invariably well ventilated in the absence 
of active and more entertaining employment, the talks of the prospect 
of winding up the war shortly particularly filling the atmosphere about 
this time ; but finally, on the 5th of February, marching orders were 
received, and the regiment (now numbering about eighty-five muskets), 
under command of Major Funk, moved ofif to Hatcher's Run, which 
was crossed and recrossed the same day. Crossing again on the 6th, 
an advance was made on the enemv posted in the woods near Dabney's 
Mills. 

Flere the regiment advanced across an open field, exposed to a 
heavy musketry fire from the enemy posted in the woods beyond, and 
succeeded in securing and retaining the position desired, notwithstand- 
ing the repeated efi:'orts of the Confederates to drive it back. The 
casualties in this engagement were four killed and fifteen wounded, 
Major Funk being among the wounded. Of the wounded three were 
mortally wounded. 

The fighting continued on. the 7th, the Third Division being hotly 
engaged, and receiving the congratulations of both Generals Warren 
and Meade. The regiment spent the 8th, 9th and loth of February 
on the picket line, returning to camp at 7 p. m. of the loth, with orders 
to move at 6 a. m. of the nth. 

On the nth the brigade, under command of Brigadier-General 
Hofmann, who had returned on the loth, left camp early in the day 
and marched in a southerly direction, crossing the Weldon Railroad. 
February 12th was very cold and the men exercised themselves in 
cutting timber for building quarters, this being the third time they had 
arranged their winter quarters since cold weather set in. February 
17th Joseph Davis was mustered in as first lieutenant of Company "H." 
February 27th was a big day among the boys, the paymaster coming 
to camp with four months' pay, creating an amazingly happy lot of 
capitalists and giving the boys plenty to do for the next few days in 
disposing of their cash ; and while it was evident that most of the men 
sent their entire pay to their homes, it was a fact the sutlers reaped 

95 



96 OMINOUS PREPARATIONS. 

a rich harvest in their settlements with those who had made a practice 
of patronizing them. 

A grand review of the Mfth Corps was held on the 7th of March, 
which demonstrated that the old Fifth was still in good fighting trim 
and could make a good showing on close inspection. General Hof- 
mann had left for home on the 6th, leaving the brigade in command of 
Lieutenant-Colonel J. T. Jack, who was succeeded on the 9th by Colonel 
C. W. Tilden, of the i6th Maine. 

On the 13th of March the news reached camp of General Sheri- 
dan's success in the Shenandoah Valley, and the men were highly 
elated over the good news, and cheer after cheer went up as an expres- 
sion of their satisfaction. The corps was again reviewed on the 14th 
and also on the i6th, there apparently being a determination that there 
should be no mistake about the condition of the Fifth Corps, which 
was evidently receiving a special training for some anticipated heavy 
work that required plenty of muscle and wind and good marching 
qualifications that were soon to be tested. 

On the 15th of March Colonel Dick Coulter took command of 
the brigade, and that meant if any stifif work was to be done the 
brigade was in for it. 

On the 2T^i\ of March the camp was visited by a heavy wind storm 
that lasted fully two hours, wrecking tents, blowing down the chim- 
neys of the huts, etc., and creating quite a destruction, during which 
a fire broke out in the camp of the I42d Penna. Vols., alongside and 
extended to our quarters. Before it could be got under control many 
were rendered homeless ; but a still worse calamity was in store for 
the brigade, for on the 25th the rebels attacked the Union lines, and so 
far succeeded as to get possession for awhile of one of the forts, but 
the men, rallying, drove them out. After this a hurried review of the 
corps was made by President Lincoln and General Meade, while the 
Sixth Corps was being engaged b\' the enemy. The march to and 
from this review, and some considerable movements in light marching 
order, rctin"ning to camp twice during the day, covered some twenty- 
five miles in the aggregate. 



Boydton Plank Road. 



The regiment, now under command of Major Funk, rested until 
the 29th (Sheridan's cavalry arriving on the 27th), and then broke 
camp at 2 o'clock a. m., traveling over familiar roads, crossing the 
Rowanta Creek about 10 a. m., skirmishing the most of the latter por- 
tion of the day, which was continued on the 30th, when the division 
secured possession of the Boydton Plank Road, where a sharp fight 
took place on the 31st. 



Five Forks. 



April 1st, with Sheridan's cavalry in the advance, the march was 
continued, over very muddy roads, through Dinwiddle County, moving 
towards the South Side Railroad (now the Norfolk and Western), 
progress being somewhat retarded by barricades and various obstacles 
that had been placed in the way by the rebels. Finally, coming up 
with the enemy, the corps was formed in columns of four lines of battle, 
and was ordered forward, finding the Johnnies very shortly and engag- 
ing in quite a lively tussle with both General Warren and General 
Sheridan in the lead. The Confederates were routed, leaving to take 
care of themselves six cannon, a lot of wagons and several thousand 
prisoners. After this little scrimmage the march was continued, and 
when a halt was ordered the regiment was sent out to picket for the 
balance of the day and night, during which time the artillery kept up 
the fight, their incessant firing during the whole night keeping all hands 
on the alert. 

97 



Appomattox Court-House. 



April 2d news was received of the fall of Petersburg — the wel- 
come news lending extra strength to the lungs of the men as they 
cheered General Sheridan passing along the line. The cavalry again 
taking the lead, the march was resumed, and the South Side Railroad 
crossed some fifteen miles west of Petersburg; then taking the road 
to the north the column struck off to the left, the Confederates leading 
off at a rapid pace and evidently in a fearfully demoralized condition, 
as was demonstrated by the trophies continually falling into our pos- 
session, representing cavalry, infantry, commissary department, pack 
mules, etc., when at dark the skirmishers again came up with the rear 
guard of the flying rebs, and after a slight skirmish rested for the 
night. Continuing the march on the 3d, the enemy was closely fol- 
lowed up, no opportunity for rest being allowed the unhappy rebs. 
The road was strewn with wagons, caissons, ammunition, dead mules, 
etc., and prisoners were constantly being captured and sent to the 
rear. 

Starting again on the morning of the 4th, before breakfast, the 
race was kept up on a road leading to Amelia Court-house, until about 
II o'clock, when a halt of a half hour was allowed the men to get 
breakfast, after which the road was again taken, and some twenty-two 
miles in all covered before halting for the night. Rebel prisoners 
reported the utter inability of General Lee to keep his army together, 
demoralization seeming to have taken full possession. 

April 5th finds the division on the line of the Richmond and 
Danville Railroad, with the enemy close at hand. Scouts reported 
that there were two corps of the rebel army that had been cut off from 
their main body and that they would be compelled to pass this point 
on their way to Lynchburg, which place it was understood was their 
destination. The pickets and cavalry were now far in advance of the 
infantry force, doing great work. The cavalry captured a portion of 
the enemy's supply train and six pieces of artillery. Captured rebel 
flags also appeared among the troops, the cavalry carrying them at 
the head of their columns. Some 27,000 Confederates were now 
reported in front, the troops present to confront them consisting of 

98 




FIRST LIliUTENANT JOHN M. lilNGIIAM. 



ArPOMATTOX COURT-HOUSE. 99 

the Fifth Corps, two divisions of the Second Corps, one division of 
the Sixth Corps, and the Twenty- fourth Corps, besides four divisions 
of cavalry. The cavah-y were finally driven in. After considerable 
fighting and manoeuvring, the enemy moved off, having lost in the 
contest five stands of colors, some guns, three field officers and any 
number of prisoners and contrabrands coming into our lines in swarms. 
April 6th, at about 7.30 a. m., the troops were again put in motion, 
in three columns, passing through Jettersville to the vicinity of Appo- 
mattox River, the Second Corps and cavalry catching it for getting 
into close quarters with the rebs, and a sharp fight ensued. The 
beautiful country and fine farms now beheld were in striking contrast 
W'ith what had all along been the experience in Virginia. The pretty 
hills over which the line of march passed afforded splendid views for 
miles around, and the prospect, together with the great quantities of 
bacon, corn meal, poultry, etc., that continually fell into the hands of 
the men, seemed to indicate anything but the starvation among the 
rebs of which we had heard so much. This day several general 
officers fell into the hands of our troops, besides some fourteen pieces 
of artillery, a hundred wagons and thousands of prisoners, and it was 
currently reported and believed that the North Carolina men were 
going home. Twenty-three miles were covered in this day's march. 
The advance on the 7th was somewhat delayed, owing to a bridge 
having been destroyed, but by 7 a. m. the march was resumed, the 
skirmishers ahead being continually engaged, until, some eighteen 
miles from the starting-point, the line halted about a half-mile from 
Prince Edward, where a tannery was in process of destruction. April 
8th the column marched sixteen miles, starting at 7.30 a. m., and taking 
the Lynchburg Road, passing Hampden and Sidney College. Negroes 
along the route reported that the rebs had been passing for eight or 
nine days. Contrabands, as they came in, in great numbers, fell in 
and marched with the troops. Suddenly, about 6 p. m., the marching 
having considerably slacked up, cannonading opened in front and 
continued during the evening. On this march, four trains of cars 
loaded with supplies and a large number of train wagons, also several 
pieces of artillery, and about one thousand prisoners, fell into the 
hands of our troops. 

April 9th, the march was resumed at 7 o'clock, the men in high 
spirits and apparently conscious of the fact that the Confederates were 
on their last legs, although fighting with desperation against fate ; the 
skirmishers keeping busy following closly up to the rear-guard of 
the rebel army, or v/hat was left of it, pegging away and giving them 
no chance for rest, while the artillery managed to keep close up to the 



lOO THE SURRENDER. 

front and put in a shot at every opportunity. It was, and had been 
for some da}-s, a running fight, with the advantage all on one side ; 
though now and then a stand of considerable obstinacy would be made 
by the rebs, seemingly to remind the Yanks they had better not be 
too precipitate and that they had considerable fight in them yet. 
During this latter move, a complete wagon train ot supplies was cut off 
from the enemy, and a whole brigade, glad, no doubt, of the oppor- 
tunity, and seeing the absolute absurdity of continuing such a condition 
of things, surrendered. Finally, as the lines w^ere concentrated, the 
men found themselves within 300 yards of the rebel lines, but to the 
delight of the troops a flag of truce was seen, and hostilities were dis- 
continued, the last cannon fired by the rebs bursting at the breech. 

At twenty minutes to four o'clock, information was received that 
General Lee had surrendered. 

The order was read to the troops stating the conditions of the 
surrender and the disposition of the prisoners. The joy that per- 
vaded the ranks of the completely tired-out veteran patriots knew 
no bounds. The demonstrations of gladness among the Union troops 
were really inspiring. The full, round Yankee cheer resounded over 
the field, and hats, clothing, boots, anything that could be laid hold 
of, were sent flying through the air, that at times was almost black 
with these missiles. These demonstrations, although of gladness, 
were far from those of exultation over a fallen foe, and it appeared to 
be the universal feeling among the men that their late enemies should 
not feel the humility of defeat so far as they could prevent it. As 
opportunity occurred the men in blue mingled with those in gray in 
friendly intercourse, and good-natured dialogues were indulged in. 
Our men shared their rations and willingly and anxiously gave up 
little trifles that would contribute to the comfort of Johnny Reb,* and 
it was evident that many of the men, than whom no soldiers ever 
fought harder, or with more desperation while there was a particle of 



*Colonel Aylett, formerly of Pickett's Division, in his address at 
Gettysburg, May 2, 1888, described how, "after the battle of Five 
Forks, when Pickett's Division was a part of the rear-guard of Lee's 
army, marching and fighting for six days, on parched corn, they w^ould 
have died from starvation, after their capture at Saylor's Creek, if the 
Boys in Blue had not shared their haversacks with them until General 
Grant issued them rations ; that the union of the Blue and Gray began 
then, and that these kind acts were a victory over their hearts more 
enduring than that of w^ar — it softened more than lead and steel. It 
was the voice of a common blood and ancestry speaking in the midst 
of the battle-smoke and roar of cannon, and the Boys in Gray have 
not forgotten it." 



APPOMATTOX COURT-HOUSE. lOI 

chance for success were really glad that at last their fruitless labor was 
over and they would soon be home again with their families. They 
never, however, faltered in their expressions of love for General Lee. 

The troops remained in camp around Appomattox Court-house 
until the 12th, the regiment having been detailed to guard the village 
during the nth. 

On the 1 2th, the men packed up for a march to Burkville, escort- 
ing the supply trains and captured property. No one would have 
recognized the regiment on this march, not even the men themselves. 
Every man, many of whom had never handled a rein or straddled a 
horse, was driving some broken-down conveyance or riding a mule ; 
and such mules ! veritable frames, nearly starved, but good naturedly 
jogging along, hoping for a better time to come. These mules had had 
no food for some four or five days, except just what kept them alive, 
and for their benefit considerable foraging was done on this march, 
which continued some twenty miles. During the night the rain poured 
in torrents. The march was continued next day for eleven miles, 
passing Prince Edward Court-house at dark, and on the 14th to 
Farmville, some six miles further. Leaving Farmville at 6.30 a. m. 
on the 15th, the march was continued seventeen miles through the 
rain and over muddy roads, the mules giving out and laying all along 
the road. 

On the i6th of April, Easter Sunday, and a beautiful morning, a 
number of the ofiicers who had been captured by the rebels at Poplar 
Grove Church, on the ist of October, 1864, rejoined the regiment, 
having been recently exchanged. On the 17th the news of the assas- 
sination of President Lincoln reached the camp and threw consterna- 
tion and dismay among the troops. They did not know what the next 
news might be, and were prepared for almost anything, no matter how 
desperate, while their sorrow for the lamented President was universal. 

The march was resumed on the 20th, when the regiment rejoined 
the division, and was ordered to City Point; consequently the boys 
were in excellent good humor and correspondingly thankful at the 
prospect of soon getting back to civilization. The regiment boarded 
a train and began to feel quite comfortable, and to anticipate the enjoy- 
ment of home comforts, when lo ! it was ordered ofif the train ; spirits 
down correspondingly. Comrade Plarry Weaver, of Company "A," 
was struck by lightning during this manceuvre. 

April 2 1 St the regiment moved to Millville. in the vicinity of 
which place it remained until May 2d, when it started for Petersburg, 
making about twenty-one miles, and continued twenty miles further, 
reaching and passing through Petersburg May 3d. While passing 



102 THE WIND-UP. 

througli the town, General Warren stood at the corner of a street 
looking- at the troops, who. catching- sight of him, greeted him with 
rousing cheers. May 4th Lieutenant-Colonel [as. S. Warner returned 
to the regiment and assumed command. Leaving Petersburg at 6.30 
A. M. of the 4th. the regiment moved to Manchester. Men and boys, 
women and girls, black and white, swarmed among the troops, selling 
pies, cakes, milk, etc. It left Manchester on the morning of the 7th, 
passing Hanover Court-house, on the Fredericksburg and Richmond 
Road. This was a good road and a fine day and all the colored folk 
of the count}' seemed to turn out to greet the soldiers. As plantations 
were passed, the darkies came out in great crowds in their holiday attire, 
singing their joyful songs, clapping their hands, the women waving 
their aprons, and in many cases following the line of troops for long 
distances, behaving as though they fully appreciated that their deliver- 
ance had come through the efforts of the hard}- men from the north, 
now wending their way homeward. After marching about twelve 
miles and crossing the i^amunkey River, a halt for the night was made. 
Starting again on the morning of the 8th, and keeping along the 
Bowling Green Road, crossing the Polecat Creek and passing Polecat 
Station, reached Milford about 5 p. m., and crossed the Mattapony 
River, making about eighteen miles before stopping for the night, 
many men being overcome by the heat on this march. 

JNfay 9th the line moved again at 6 a. m., passing through Bowling 
Green and the old battle-ground of December, 1862, and crossed 
the Rappahannock River at 7 r. m., marching twenty-three miles, and 
passing on the roiite many ex-rebel officers and soldiers still wearing 
their gray uniforms. 

The regiment marched twenty-three miles on the nth through a 
heavy rain and thunder storm, and spent a cold, wet night. On the 
1 2th it passed Fairfax Court-house and covered eighteen miles, halting 
within some six miles of Washington, the dome of the Capitol being 
in sight. This made the boys feel as if they were at length getting 
somewhere near their own ground again. 

On the T3th of May the brigade, now commanded by Col. A. R. 
Root, went into camp about four miles from Washington. Salutes 
from all the forts were being fired during the day. 

The 14th and 15th were spent receiving visitors from Washington, 
and on the i6th the old camp duties were resumed, dress parade, guard 
mount, jiolice duty, etc., being performed daily. 

A grand review of all the troops took place May 23d, when Wash- 
ington was crowded. President Johnson and General Grant were 
present and the streets of Washington were filled by the populace. 



HOME, SWEET HOME. IO3 

On the 30th of May our sister regiment, the I42d Penna. Vols., 
started for home, and hearty cheers were exchanged at the parting. 

On the 2d of June the 121st Regiment was mustered out of the 
service of the United States, about 4 o'clock in the afternoon, and that 
night the men illuminated the camp and held a torchlight procession. 
Starting for home at daylight on the 3d of June, the regiment arrived 
at Philadelphia, our good, faithful old City of Brotherly Love, on the 
4th, and went to the Cooper Shop Refreshment Saloon for a lunch. 

During the march down Washington avenue to the refreshment 
saloon, the regiment received quite an ovation from the citizens of the 
southern portion of the city. Some of the men on being recognized 
by their friends were seized and pulled from the ranks, and immedi- 
ately surrounded and pressed with all sorts of questions, scarcely any 
of which could be answered, they were plied so rapidly. Here was 
remarked the striking contrast between the size of the regiment return- 
ing and its size when it marched to the same railroad depot nearly 
three years before, and the joy prompted by the safe return of the 
survivors was manifestly impaired by tlie recollection that so many 
•did not return. 

After partaking of the dinner it had been waiting for, since Sep- 
tember, 1862, and which was indeed a royal repast, the regiment pro- 
ceeded to Camp "Cadwallader," in the northern part of the city. 

On the 5th of June it participated in the farewell review by General 
Meade, under a' pouring rain, and on returning to camp on the same 
day turned in all the Government property and disbanded. The men 
returned to their homes and resumed the peaceful callings in which so 
many have since become prominent. 




i2«e PENNA. 

JUW 1'-' 1863 




GF.TTVSBURC; I'.ATTLEFIIil.l) .MONUMENT. 
Standing at ilu- i oint occupied by the Regiment July 1, 1863. 



DEDICATION OF 
The Gettysburg Battlefield Monuments 

BY THE SURVIVORS' ASSOCIATION. 



After a lapse of years the survivors in the vicinity of Philadelphia 
came together again and organized a survivors' association, in order to 
keep warm and fresh the old friendships formed during the service. A 
similar association exists in the western part of our State of the sur- 
vivors from Venango County. These two associations, or rather two 
branches of the one association, met at Gettysburg in September, 1889, 
and joined in the dedication of the Battlefield Monument. This 
monument had been furnished by the State of Pennsylvania, in accord- 
ance with an Act of the Legislature, at a cost of $1,500, and is of 
beautiful design. It stands 11^ feet high from the base, built of 
Ouincy granite, with the First Corps badge and inscription cut from 
the polished surface ; soldiers' accoutrements in bronze, in front ; knap- 
sack, with blanket neatly rolled and strapped, on the top, and the 
American flag cut from the stone, gracefully covering a portion of the 
monument. The dedication was an enjoyable affair, and brought 
together more of the survivors than any occasion since their discharge 
from the service, and in all probability more than wall ever be brought 
together again. This monument marks the position held by the regi- 
ment on the morning of the memorable first day of July, 1863, and 
bears the following inscriptions : — 

On front of monument facing west: — 

I2ist Pennsylvania Infantry, 

July I, 1863, 

Occupied this position, the extreme left of the 

Union line, 

July 2d and 3d, on Cemetery Ridge. 

Present at Gettysburg, . . 11 officers, 295 men. 

Killed and died of wounds, . 20 men. 

Wounded 5 officers, 93 men. 

Captured and missing, . . i officer, 60 men. 
First Brigade, Third Division, First Corps. 
North side of monument : — 

Recruited in Philadelphia and Venango Counties. 
Mustered in September I, 1862. 
Mustered out June 2, 1865. 
South side of monument : — 

From Fredericksburg to Appomattox. 

105 



106 GETTYSBURG BATTLEFIELD MONUMENTS. 

The following- address was delivered by Captain Joseph G. Rosen- 
garten at the dedication of this monument: — 

Officers and Soldiers of the 121st. 

Comrades and Friends: — We are met together to-day, at the 
invitation of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, to renew the mem- 
ories of that great battle fought here in 1863. We stand again at the 
spot made memorable by the gallant resistance of the 121st to over- 
whelming numbers. A modest monument marks the point on which 
the 12 1 St, together with the other regiments with which it was brigaded, 
under its own commander. Colonel Chapman Biddle, bravely awaited 
the onset. Led by Major Alexander Biddle, the regiment was w^orthy 
of its leaders, and to-day, after the lapse of long years, a little band 
of survivors gather here to join their comrades of other Pennsylvania 
regiments in commemorating the deeds and the men of that day. 
Fortunately, we have the story as it was told with characteristic modesty 
by those two gallant soldiers, and their words will recall to you the 
events of the battle. 

Colonel Chapman Biddle, in his address before the Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania, on March 8, 1880, said: "The First Brigade, 
of Doubleday's division, was under my command, and consisted of the 
I2ist, I42d and 151st Penna. and the 20th N. Y. S. M.; Cooper's 
Battery, ist Penna. Artillery, had on the morning of the ist been 
attached to the brigade. On that morning, as soon as the pickets of 
the 12 1 St could be withdrawn, the infantry and artillery were marched 
from the cross-roads at Ross White's, which lies between Marsh and 
Middle Creeks, along the Nunemaker Mill Road to Gettysburg, a 
distance of about seven miles. When within a mile of the town, the 
sound of heavy firing to the northwest indicated that a sharp engage- 
ment was already in progress. The brigade was in consequence 
rapidly pushed across the fields to open ground, a short distance north 
of the Hagerstovvn Road, and about a third of a mile west of the 
seminary, and there formed, a little before 11 a. m., on the extreme left 
of the general line of battle. The battery w^as immediately placed in 
position, and its fire directed towards the northwest, to the left of the 
woods in which the First Division was then engaged. Upwards of 
three-quarters of a mile in front were woods nearly parallel with the 
line of battle, and between, somewhat to the left, a house and large 
stone barn, the latter of which was afterwards used as a cover for the 
enemy's sharpshooters. To protect the battery from the annoyance 
which the sharpshooters occasioned, a company of sharpshooters was 
sent from the 20th N. Y., who, readily driving the men oflf, occupied 



CAPTAIN ROSENGARTEN'S ADDRESS. lO/ 

their shelter. Later in the day, towards 3 p. u., Pettigrew's brigade 
of North CaroHna troops, Heth's division, Hill's corps, advancing in 
two lines and in perfect order, commenced a vigorous attack on the 
extreme left of the Federal line held by the First Brigade. Of the 
four small regiments composing the brigade, the 151st had been 
detached about half after two, to be held in reserve, and was posted 
near the seminary grove until it was sent forward subsequently to 
occupy the gap between Meredith's and my (Biddle's) brigade. Not- 
withstanding the great disparity in numbers between the contending 
forces, and that the left of the Federal line was greatly outflanked, the 
position was maintained with spirit for a considerable time under a 
severe direct and oblique fire, and until, being without support, the 
fragments of the four regiments were compelled to retire, towards 
4 p. M., to a partial cover on the edge of the town, close to and west 
of the seminary, where they continued to resist the progress of the 
enemy until the batteries and most of the Union troops had withdrawn 
to Cemetery Hill ; then, as the enemy were swarming in on the left, they 
fell back to the same point, reforming in the rear of its crest. The 
admirable behavior of the men and officers may to some extent be 
inferred, for out of 1,287 officers and men who went into action as the 
First Brigade of the Third Division of the First Corps, 440 were either 
killed or wounded and 457 missing, leaving as its effective strength at 
the close of the first day's battle 390 officers and men." 

Colonel Alexander Biddle, who commanded the regiment on the 
1st of July, in his narrative, tells the story of the 121st on that memor- 
able 1st of July, 1863, and the monument records its losses in holding 
the extreme left of the Union line. Twenty were killed and died of 
their wounds, 98 were wounded, 61 missing. At no time was there 
any panic, and the 121st showed throughout steadiness, alacrity and 
willingness in doing all that was required of them. It is the duty of 
the survivors to perpetuate and preserve the records of that day. The 
colonel himself, in command of the brigade, by his example, riding 
along the line between the two fires, encouraging his men, held them 
as if spell-bound until all the other troops had abandoned the field, and 
until the artillery had ample opportunity to withdraw, and even until 
the enemy, with its overwhelming superiority of numbers, had already 
overlapped the flanks and were filing around to the rear. In a letter 
written by him on the 2d of July, he says: "Yesterday we had a 
sharp engagement with the rebels just outside the town of Gettysburg, 
which lasted for some hours. The enemy had quite a large force, 
much greater than ours. Our division was on the extreme left. 
Being in command of the First Brigade, I was assigned to a position 



108 CETTV-SnUKG I'.ATTLEFIELD MONUMENTS. 

on the left of all. My force consisted of four rei^iinents, all very small, 
however. We were opposed by at least eight large regiments, who 
entirely outflanked us and compelled us to return to the edge of the 
town, when, getting under some slight cover, we held our ground for 
some time — long enough to let the troops move intcj a new position, 
we retiring with the rest. My horse was shot; 1 was struck by a 
round ball on the back of the head, but only slightly wounded. When 
the horse was struck, he reared and threw me and fell over himself, 
but, fortunately, fell on the side from me." 

Thus modestly and characteristically does Colonel J'iddle speak 
of himself. Of his officers, and especially of Ashworth, Ruth and 
Sterling, all severely woimded, and of the men he speaks but simply 
as if he and they and all had only done their duty. 

The stand made by the 121st at the Lutheran Seminary was, under 
the circumstances, something worthy of the highest praise. By that 
time the troops were considerably demoralized, and the bulk of them 
well on their way to Cemetery Hill. The halt in the woods at the 
seminary showed the morale of the 121st, and a steadiness, after long 
and exhausting exposure under fire from an overwhelming and out- 
flanking force, that could not be surpassed. The defense of this 
position, prolonged until the great body of troops had passed to the 
rear, saved many thousands from capture, and the loss inflicted on the 
enemy by the 121st while it was thus held at bay must have been very 
considerable, as the thinning out of their ranks was plainly seen. 
How the little remnant of the 121st ever got away from there without 
capture is still hard to explain. After a hard march, exposed at one 
time to an enfilading fire, afterwards sheltered only by a rough barri- 
cade of fence rails hastily thrown together, what was left of the 121st 
clung to this defensive line and made it an offensive position until 
further efforts were useless, and then slowly and in an orderly wa\ 
moved to its assigned position in the rear at Cemetery Hill. Such is, 
in brief, the story of the 121st on the ist of July, 1863, and it well 
deserves the enduring record made upon the granite shaft that marks 
its position on the extreme left of the Union line, its heroic defense and 
its gallant resistance until defense was impossible and resistance at an 
end. On that monument stands forth the name of Colonel Chapman 
Biddle, the colonel of the 121st, a man whose heroic courage, noble 
character, unselfish devotion to duty, and sacrifice in defense of the 
I'nion, entitle him to our afifection, esteem and lasting gratitude. 
What manner of man he was is known to you all, yet it ma}' be well 
to say a word of the stock from which he sprang. It has given to the 
city of Philadcl])hia. to the State of Pennsylvania, to the whole coimtry, 



CAPTAIN ROSENGARTEN's ADDRESS. lt)9 

many brave soldiers and good citizens, but no better man and braver 
soldier than Chapman Biddle, the first colonel of the I2ist Penna. Vols., 
the regiment he organized, disciplined, commanded and led to victory 
here at Gettysburg. 

Clement Biddle, the grandfather of Colonel Chapman Biddle, is 
knovvrn in local annals as the Quaker soldier. Descended from early 
Quaker settlers of New Jersey, he was brought up strictly in the tenets 
of his sect. In 1744 he headed a company of Quakers to put down 
the Paxton boys, who were murdering inoffensive Indians. He was 
a signer of the non-importation agreement of 1765, and when the 
Revolution was impending, organized a Quaker company of volunteers. 
In 1777, he was elected deputy quartermaster by Congress. After the 
battle of Trenton he was sent by Washington to receive the swords of 
the Hessian officers. He was present at the battles of Princeton, 
Germantown, Brandywine and Monmouth, and at Valley Forge. He 
took an active part in the adoption of the Federal Constitution, and 
was appointed by Washington United States Marshal of Pennsylvania. 
In 1794, he took part in the suppression of the whiskey insurrection, 
and died in Philadelphia, July 14, 1814. His son, Clement Caldwell 
Biddle, was born in Philadelphia in 1784 and died there in 1855. He 
entered the navy in his youth, resigned and studied law, and in 1807, 
in anticipation of war with England, entered the army as captain of 
dragoons. lie resigned when peace seemed reassured, but on the 
outbreak of hostilities, in 1812, he raised the State Fencibles, was 
elected its captain, and subsequently colonel of the ist Penna. 
Infantry. 

The war over, he returned to civil life, was a diligent student of 
economical and financial questions, and was consulted as an authority 
by the government. Colonel Chapman Biddle inherited from his father 
and his grandfather the manly virtues that made him a soldier worthy 
of every honor. What he was in the field, we who served under him 
can never forget, and the same thorough, conscientious discharge of 
every duty that distinguished him in the field marked his whole life, 
so that alike in war and in peace he was an example worthy of the 
highest praise. Chapman Biddle was born in Philadelphia, January 22, 
1822, the youngest son of the late Colonel Clement C. Biddle. Colonel 
Clement Biddle lived to a ripe old age, managing with marked success 
the Philadelphia Savings Fund, which owed much to his forethought 
and watchful care. His sons, George W., now the leader of the 
Philadelphia bar ; the late Dr. John B. Biddle, a distinguished practi- 
tioner and teacher of medicine, and Chapman, were all educated at 
St. Mary's College, Baltimore. 



no GETTYSBURG BATTLEFIELD MONUMENTS. 

Cha]:);nan Bicklle had, of course, the advantage of an admirable 
home and the training that comes with it. He went to the capital 
school of Dr. Wylie and Dr. Engles, famous for their discipline and 
their instruction. He was a diligent, painstaking boy, learning easily 
and maintaining a good record. At fourteen he went to St. Mary's 
College, where he spent four years full of admirable results, and steadily 
growing in the eyes of teachers and fellow-pupils. On his return 
home, he went into the counting-house of his cousin, Clement Biddle 
Barcla}', at whose suggestion Chapman, young as he was, was sent to 
Montevideo as supercargo. On the long sailing journey he applied 
himself to the study of Spanish with characteristic perseverance and 
thoroughness, so that he mastered it sufficiently to make good use of 
it for his business needs. Always afterwards he kept up his knowledge 
of the language, and this stood him in good stead in his later profes- 
sional life and in his journeys abroad, as well as in the pleasant inter- 
change of acquantance with foreigners visiting here. 

On his return to Philadelphia, he carried out his long-cherished 
purpose and began the study of law in the office of his elder brother, 
George W. Biddle, Esq. He was admitted to the bar of Philadelphia 
in 1848. His business training made him a thorough accountant, and 
his accuracy and painstaking mastery of detail enabled him to apply 
himself especially to the management of trusts, the disentangling of 
complicated estates, and the general duties of a counsellor rather than 
to the more shining branches of the profession. Still, he won the 
confidence of the bench and the bar, as well as of numerous 
important clients, by the management of their business, by advising 
the best method of avoiding litigation, and by persistently making 
the best use of every possible means to secure a successful 
result when it was necessary to ap])eal to a jury or to a court 
/// banc. 

His arguments were clear and strong, terse and exhaustive, and 
his mastery of facts and of the law was always complete. His profes- 
sional career included a term of service as counsel for the Pennsylvania 
Railroad and for other corporations, and to all his clients his assistance 
was of the highest value. 

The mother of Colonel Chapman Biddle was Mary Searle Barclay, 
the daughter of John Barclay, Esq., the sixth mayor of Philadelphia, 
an old merchant, the son of a leading citizen, one of the great mer- 
chants of his day. \Its. Biddle lived to see her sons leaders in their 
respective professions, and found in them a devoted affection and a 
loval trust that comforted her in her widowhood and old age. The 
Barclays are of that Scotch-Irish stock which has contributed so many 



CAPTAIN ROSENGARTEN S ADDRESS. Ill 

well-known names to every branch of Philadelphia reputation, and the 
McCalls, the Willings, the Aleades, were all their kith and kin. The 
Biddies are of English origin, and the union of the two races made a 
strong and notable family. The grandmother of Chapman Biddle was 
Miss Connell, of Newport, Rhode Island, where that name is still 
remembered as that of an old family of importance. His name, Chap- 
man, was that of his uncle. Dr. Nathaniel Chapman, one of the great 
lights of medicine in Philadelphia, and one still borne by his grand- 
son, who has again illustrated many of the qualities that made his 
ancestor famous. 

A cousin of Colonel Biddle is Clement Biddle BarclaVj who is so 
affectionately remembered for his devotion to the interest and comfort 
of the soldiers in the field ; who sacrificed his own ease to bring to 
them aid and assistance ; who brought light and life to many sick and 
wounded, cared for the dying, and was always ready to succor their 
families. Thus on all sides, by blood and birth and descent, by training 
and association. Chapman Biddle was a thorough Philadelphian, true 
to the traditions of his name, and always ready to do his duty. What 
he sacrificed in taking up arms and leading a regiment to the front and 
in the service, is too sacred to be spoken of, and yet it must be borne 
in mind by all who think of him. Singularly reticent in all matters 
of personal concern, he was full of sympathy for others, helpful to 
them in their trials, and ready to give aid and counsel and substantial 
help. He was absolutely indifi^erent to that sort of notoriety which is 
so often mistaken for reputation, and in war and in peace his only 
standard was that of duty, and from that he never swerved on any 
point. Chapman Biddle was for many years a member of a military 
organization commanded by the late Judge John Cadwallader, and 
when the war broke out he was himself elected captain of a com- 
pany of artillery, which he brought to a high state of efficiency. He 
was afterwards empowered to raise a regiment of volunteers for three 
years' service, and was appointed colonel of the 121st Pennsylvania 
Volunteers. It was completed by consolidation with the 145th Penn- 
sylvania, and Colonel E. W. Davis, of the latter, was made lieutenant- 
colonel, and Lieutenant-Colonel Alex. Biddle, major. From the day 
it was mustered in. Colonel Biddle was heartily seconded by Major, 
afterwards Colonel x\lex. Biddle in putting his regiment on a high 
plane of efficiency and discipline. After a brief stay in camp at 
Chestnut Hill, the regiment was sent to Washington, and there placed 
in a provisional brigade under General Casey and General Hum- 
phreys in succession, and both the Biddies were complimented by 
those veteran soldiers for the excellent drill and thorough training of 



112 GETTYSBURG BATTLEFIELD MONUMENTS. 

the 12 1st. Finally it was assigned a place in Porter's corps, and 
marched through AJaryland to Antietam, where it was assigned to 
Meade's brigade of Reynolds' division of the Pennsylvania Reserves. 
It took a distinguished part in the battle of Fredericksburg, and the 
brilliant success of this, its first engagement — its baptism of fire — 
secured it a strong place in the good opinion of all the general officers 
under whom it served in succession. At Gettysburg it bore its part in the 
heroic struggle of the first day's fight against overwhelming numbers. 
Colonel Biddle remained in the field in spite of broken health and 
against the entreaty and advice of his medical advisers and of his 
friends, enduring the hardship and exposure of the winter of 1863, 
until he was finally forced to resign on December loth, when he 
returned to Philadelphia and slowly regained his health and strength. 
He resumed the practice of his profession, but always kept a close 
watch on his old regiment, and at all times showed an affectionate 
interest and regard for all who had served with him, generously assist- 
ing them and their families, and maintaining a friendly intercourse with 
them. He was a diligent student of military history, and followed 
with sympathy the operations of the army of which he had been an 
active officer. To his exertions is largely due the bronze heroic 
statue of Reynolds at Gettysburg, the tribute of the First Corps, at 
whose head he fell at Gettysburg. Equally characteristic of his 
thoroughness in mastering all the details of military history is his 
address on "The First Day of the Battle of Gettysburg," delivered on 
March 8, 1880, before the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. It is a 
complete history in itself, and has been praised by very high and com- 
petent authority. Of his own distinguished part in the battle he says 
little, yet it was marked b}^ personal gallantry and rare military ability. 
For many years his professional occupation at the bar engaged his 
time and strength. In addition to his large private practice and the 
management of many important estates, he was for several years the 
counsel for the Pennsylvania Railroad, until failing health and other 
pressing duties obliged him to resign that important position. He 
took a lively interest in the Fairmount Park Art Association, and to 
his good taste, substantial help and wise counsel, it owes some of its 
finest art works. His death, at the early age of fifty-nine, was sorely 
mourned, both by his family, to whom he was tenderly attached, and 
by his large circle of friends. At his funeral there gathered men of 
all professions and pursuits, and his old regiment was largely repre- 
sented. In him the bar lost one of its ablest members, the city one of 
its most useful citizens, the State a distinguished soldier, the country a 
tried patriot. 



CAPTAIN ROSENGARTEN S ADDRESS. II3 

Among- the numerous testimonials of regret at his loss, none were 
more truthful, earnest and heart-felt than that of the survivors of the 
I2ist. It expressed their sense of his merits in these words: "His 
energy in raising the I2ist, his ability to discipline it, his gallantry in 
leading it in battle, his zeal and endurance in its hard service, have 
made his reputation as a soldier one that can never be forgotten by his 
comrades. His military qualities were of a high order of excellence, 
gaining the confidence of his command and the approval of his general 
officers. His courage in battle was characteristic of the name he bore, 
and his patience under physical suffering was heroic in a high degree. 
His care of his men in the field, on the march, in camp, in battle, in 
hospital, was incessant and untiring. Even after ill-health forced him 
to resign, he maintained his interest in them, and he watched over 
their welfare and their widows and orphans, and long after the regi- 
ment was mustered out he was always ready to help its members or 
their families." The Society of the Army of the Potomac, the First 
Corps Association, the Historical Society, and many private associa- 
tions and individuals, joined in expressions of profound sorrow for his 
death, sympathy for his family, and sense of grief for the loss of such 
a man. The tie that bound him to the men of his regiment was not 
severed by his death, for his only son always took his father's place 
in their regard, and in the short years of his life, prematurely cut off, 
he was looked on as the successor in their good-will, and he returned 
it by a friendly interest in all that related to their service under Colonel 
Biddle. It was he who, on July 2, 1886, made an address at the 
unveiling of the regimental monument at Gettysburg, which forms 
part of the record of that day, so full of interest for the 121st. How 
many are gone who helped to win for it the good opinion of its succes- 
sive commanders ! Who can forget Dorr, that gallant soldier, pure 
Christian, watchful officer and brave leader? Dear Harry Lambdin, 
so full of heroism, of energy and of fire, with a spirit only too strong 
for his frail body ; Ashworth, whose whole life was an example worthy 
of the deepest reverence ; Barclay, lungerich. Sterling, Brickley, all 
fell in action or died of their wounds, and all merit that affection which 
is still so warmly cherished for their memory by their comrades. S. P. 
Jones, Wm. Graham, Wm. Hardy, the Copelands, Herpst, Winkworth, 
Bingham. Bates, McCoy, Childs, IMcTaggart, Allen, Barlow, Weikel, 
Knight, McPherson and Branson were all praised by Colonel Biddle 
in his official report. Ruth and Pippet and Byers and Raymond are 
among the officers whose woimds disabled them from service, and their 
names, too, deserve to be specially recalled at a time when the story 
of the regiment is once more told to the survivors. How many of the 



114 GETTYSBURG BATTLEFIELD MONUMENTS. 

enlisted men were endeared to ns by their merits, known, perhaps, 
only to those who saw them through the long and trying years of the 
M ar ! What characteristic bravery was shown by Hazard and James, 
and by the veteran soldier Scheerer, who after years of good service 
in the 2d U. S. Artillery, under Bragg and Burnside, Sherman and 
Reynolds, fell at Fredericksburg ! Who can tell the story of each and 
every one of that long roll of the killed and wounded of the 121st? 
The record of those who took part in the battle of Gettysburg finds its 
proper place in this day's proceedings, and each name will recall to 
some comrade the special qualities of the man who did his share on 
that day. Time may soften the sorrow of those who lost sons, and 
brothers, and husbands, but it will still preserve the memory of their 
good qualities in the hearts of their surviving comrades, and thus 
heighten our regret that the monument which marks the scene of their 
last action cannot perpetuate their names on its surface. 

The details of the regimental history are now being gathered 
together, with a view to its due and proper preservation, and each man 
should do his best to supply material for its full and complete recital. 
It is only by the details of the part taken by each regiment that the 
whole story can be completely told. Just as the regimental monu- 
ments that now mark the lines of Gettysburg recall its history, so the 
regimental histories will preserve the record of the part each regiment 
took in the war. Leaving to others the general record and history of 
the war for the Union, let us strive to preserve every name and every 
deed that forms part of our record as a regiment, content in this, as we 
were in war, to do our duty without fear or favor. What has been 
said to-day will no doubt become part of the splendid record of the 
Keystone State ; for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has made of 
Gettysburg a Mecca to which pious pilgrims will come for inspiration 
as long as patriotism continues to beat in the heart of every man who 
fought for the Union, and inspires their children in the future. 

The losses of the 121st at Gettysburg were: — 

Enlisted men killed 12 

Officers wounded 5 

Enlisted men wounded loi 

Officer captured i 

Enlisted men captured 60 



Total 1 79 

The total losses in the First Brigade were 896. 



CAPTAIN ROSENGARTEn's ADDRESS. 115 

Colonel Chapman Biddle's report, dated July 2d, says: "The 
brigade reached the front about 11 a. m. It was pushed forward, and 
formed in line on the extreme left, facing west. The battery (Cooper's) 
'B,' ist Penna., was placed in position, and its fire directed towards 
the northwest, on the left of a piece of woods in which the First 
Division was then engaged with the enemy. In front of our line, and 
at the distance of three-fourths of a mile or more, were woods running 
nearly parallel with it; and between these woods and our line, and 
towards our left, were a brick house and a large stone barn, the barn 
afifording cover to the enemy's sharpshooters, who were then skirmish- 
ing in front of us. A company of skirmishers was sent from the 20th 
N. Y. for the purpose of protecting the battery. The position of the 
brigade was varied two or three times in order to shelter the men from 
the heavy artillery fire of the enemy, which at one time enfiladed them 
from the north. During the morning, rebel infantry were observed 
on the edge of the woods first referred to; and between 2 and 3 p. m. 
a large body of them, amounting to a division or more, advanced m 
line towards us. Of the four small regiments constituting the brigade, 
one (the 151st) had been previously detached to support a portion 
of the corps to our right and rear. The remaining three were drawn 
up in the following order: the I42d on the right, 20th N. Y. in the 
centre, the 121st on the left, the battery occupying a space between 
the I42d and 121st. Notwithstanding the great disparity of the 
contending forces, and the left of our line being outflanked by at 
least one and probably two regiments, and the enemy's fire, direct 
and oblique, being very severe, the men of the brigade continued to 
hold their position for some time, until, being without any support, 
thev were compelled to retire to a cover on the edge of the town, 
immediately in front of the seminary. Here they remained doing 
good service, checking the further advance of the enemy, till the 
battery and many of the troops in the town had withdrawn in the 
direction of the cemetery, when they retired to that point." Colonel 
Chapman Biddle's supplementary report of July 4th, says: "On the 
morning of the 2d, the 121st was moved into a field to the south of and 
near the cemetery, and placed under cover of a stone wall by the road- 
side, where it remained during the forenoon. Towards 12 noon, it 
was exposed to a severe shelling, which reached it from both the front 
and rear, during a sharp attack made by the enemy on our extreme 
right. The peculiar shape of the general line of battle, resembling 
somewhat a flattened horseshoe, will account for this effect. In the 
afternoon the fire slackened, when the regiment was moved behind a 
wall on the other side of the road, in which position its defenses were 



Il6 GETTYSBURG P.ATTLEFIELD MONUMENTS. 

reached by the enemy's musketry. The attack on this part of our Une 
ceased toward evening, when the regiment changed its position to a 
field in front, and susequently to the road, where the night was passed. 
On the morning of the 3d, the regiment was moved to the left to a 
field nearly opposite to our left centre, where it remained during the 
morning, exposed somewhat to the enemy's fire. Towards i p. m. 
a violent cannonading from a very large number of pieces of artillery 
was concentrated on our position, which continued for upwards of 
two hours and a half, destroying much of the breastwork sheltering 
the men, and wounding three of them. During the hottest part of 
this fire the regiment was moved in good order to an adjoining field 
to the left, and placed behind a breastwork of rails near the crest of 
a hill, where it remained throughout the attack on the centre. This 
attack, of a most determined character, was finally and successfully 
repulsed, towards sundown, by the troops in the first line, supported 
by our artillery. The steadiness of the men during the unparalleled 
artillery fire of the enemy cannot be too highly commended, and to 
it in some measure may be attributed the brilliant results of this day's 
operations." 

Colonel Alexander Biddle's report, dated Bivouac in the Field, 
July 2, 1863, is as follows: — 

"The I2ist Regt. Penna. \'ols., under my command, marched from 
W. R. White's house, in Freedom Township, yesterday morning, 
Wednesday, July ist. On arriving at the top of the hill bordering 
the valley in w-hich Gettysburg lies, we were marched into a field on 
the left of a wood, through which we saw the First Division driving 
the enem\-. We remained in this field, exposed at all times to an 
enfilading or direct fire, sometimes facing northwardly and sometimes 
westwardly, as the attack of the enemy varied. A large body of the 
enemy's troops had been seen to the w'est of our position throughout 
the day. \Miile we were taking up a position to the north, to support 
a battery at the corner of a wood, the enemy was seen advancing. 
We were ordered to form to meet them and changed front to efifect it. 
As the proper position assigned to the i2Tst was immediately in front 
of the battery, we were moved to the extreme left, with the 20th N. Y. 
on our right. I saw the line of the enemy slowly approaching up the 
hill, extending far beyond our left fiank, for which we had no defense. 
As the enemy's faces appeared over the crest of the hill, we fired 
efl^ectually into them, and soon after received a crushing fire from their 
right, under which our ranks were broken and became massed together 
as we endeavored to change front to the left to meet them. The 
immediate attack on our front was dcstroved bv our first fire. The 




.>^ 



CAPTAIN JAMES HARRISON LAMBDIN. 



CAPTAIN ROSENGARTEN S ADDRESS. 11/ 

officers made every possible effort to form their men, and Captains 
Ashworth and Sterling and Lieutenants Ruth and Funk were all 
wounded. The regiment, broken and scattered, retreated to the wood 
around the hospital and maintained a scattering fire. Here, with the 
broken fragments of other regiments, it defended the fence of the 
hospital grounds with great determination. Finding the enemy were 
moving out on our left flank, with the intention of closing in on the 
only opening into the barricade. I reported the fact to the division 
commander, and by his directions returned to the fence barricade. 
The rebels, advancing on our left flank, soon turned the position, and 
our regimental colors, with the few men left with them, moved out of 
the hospital grounds to our present position, where we now have 
almost exactly one-fourth of our force, and one commissioned officer 
besides myself. 

"I beg particularly to call attention to the meritorious conduct of 
Sergeant William Hardy, color-bearer, who carried off the regi- 
mental colors, the staff shot to pieces in his hands ; also to the 
gallantry of Captain Ashworth and Lieutenant Ruth, both wounded ; 
also to Lieutenants Funk and Dorr, and Captain Sterling. Acting 
Sergeant-Major Henry M. Copeland, Sergeant Henry H. Herbst, in 
command of Company 'A,' and Sergeant Charles Winkworth, are all 
deserving of high commendation ; also Corporal John M. Bingham, 
of Company 'A.' The constant changes of position which the regi- 
ment was ordered to make, and the seeming uncertainty of which 
way we were to expect an attack, or what position we were to defend, 
was exceedingly trying to the discipline of the regiment. Their 
conduct was, in my opinion, far beyond praise. I also wish to call 
attention to those whom the men speak of as deserving of high com- 
mendation : Sergeants Robt. F. Bates, Wm. A. McCoy, Joshua L. 
Childs (wounded, who insisted on remaining with his company), John 
McTaggart, James Allen and Charles Barlow, Corporals Daniel H. 
Weikel and Edward D. Knight, and Privates T. B. H. McPherson and 
William Branson." 

Thus, from both Colonel Chapman Biddle and Colonel Alexander 
Biddle, we have the story of the I2ist on that eventful ist of July and 
the succeeding days. Brief and simple, told at the moment, how 
clearly the incidents stand out, and how emphatic their commendation, 
how grateful their praise of individual officers and men. The regi- 
ment was worthy of its commanders, and did its duty, as they did 
theirs, coolly and fully, resolutely facing the enemy, outnumbering our 
force almost doubly, and holding one position after another, until by 
order it fell back to Cemetery Hill. Rallied there, the little band still 



Il8 GETTYSBURG BATTLEFIELD MONUMENTS. 

showed its noted courage, and joined in strengthening the Unes on 
which the fresh divisions of the Third and Twelfth Corps and Stan- 
nard's Vermont brigade were formed, thus securing the opportunity 
for the concentration of the rest of the army with which General 
Meade won the battle of Gettysburg. 

Buford, in his report, says: ''General Doubleday's command, 
which fought bravely, was greatly outnumbered and forced to fall back. 
Seeing our troops retiring, and their need of assistance, I immediately 
rushed Gamble's brigade to Doubleday's left, and dismounted it in 
time to render great assistance to our infantry and to check and break 
the enemy's line. 

"My troops at this place had partial shelter behind a low stone 
fence, and were in short carbine range. Their fire was perfectly 
terrific, causing the enemy to break and rally on their second 
line, which made no farther advance toward my position. General 
Gamble reports that in the afternoon the enemy, being strongly rein- 
forced, extended his flanks and advanced on our left, in three strong 
lines, to turn that flank. The general commanding division ordered 
my brigade forward at a trot, and it deployed in line on the ridge of 
the woods, with the seminary on our right. Half of the 8th New 
York, 3d Indiana and 12th Illinois were dismounted and placed behind 
a portion of a stone wall and under cover of trees. The enemy being 
close upon us, w^e opened a sharp and rapid carbine fire, which killed 
and wounded so many of the first line of the enemy that it fell back 
upon the second line. Our men kept up the fire until the enemy in 
overwhelming numbers approached so near that, in order to save my 
men and horses from capture, they were ordered to mount and fall 
back rapidly to the next ridge, on the left of the town, where our 
artillery was posted. The stand which we made against the enemy 
prevented our left flank from being turned, and saved a division of our 
infantry." 

Thus the cavalry, which in the morning had been relieved by 
the infantry, when the thin lines of Buford's brigade were hard pressed, 
in the afternoon helped to weaken the force of the enemy directed 
against our weak infantry lines. Together thus infantry, cavalry and 
artillery co-operated in holding firmly the front of Gettysburg, and 
thus gave time for that concentration of fresh troops under General 
Hancock which gave General Meade time to approve the choice of 
the position in the rear of Gettysburg, and there to concentrate his 
army, and with it win the victory over Lee. 

In "Fox's Regimental Losses," well called "Fox's Book of 
Martyrs," the 121st is repeatedly mentioned, viz.: — 



CAPTAIN ROSENGARTEN S ADDRESS. 



119 



The total number enrolled is given as 891 

Killed 109 



Being 12.2 per cent. 

The total number engaged at Gettysburg was 263 

Killed 29 

Being 11 per cent. 

At page 295 its history is thus given: 1st, Colonel Chapman 
Biddle; 2d, Colonel Alexander Biddle; 3d, Colonel Jas. S. Warner. 
Then follows the list (total enrollment and casualties) : — 



Field and staff 17 

Company "A" 105 



"B". 
"C". 
"D". 
"E". 

"F". 

"H". 



77 
90 
86 

95 
96 

75 

58 

100 

92 



Killed 2 

" 21 

" 9 

" 10 

" 10 

" 10 

" 16 



Died. 



6 
10 

7 



2 
10 
4 
7 
3 
7 
8 
2 

5 
9 
9 



Total 891 109 66 

It then gives 109 killed — 12.21 per cent. ; total killed and 
wounded, 402 ; died in Confederate prisons, 18. 

Battles ; killed : Fredericksburg, 45 ; Chancellorsville, i ; Gettys- 
burg, 29; Wilderness, 4; Spottsylvania, 9; North Anna, 2; Bethesda 
Church, 2 ; Petersburg, 6 ; Dabney's Mills, 8 ; Five Forks, 2 ; Salis- 
bury Prison, i. 

Present also at Totopotamy, Cold Harbor, Weldon Railroad, 
Peeble's Farm, Boydton Plank Road, Hatcher's Run, Appomattox. 

The following note gives the summary : — 

"This gallant little regiment sustained a heavy loss in proportion 
to its numbers. At no time did it have a full complement of men, yet 
it distinguished itself on all occasions by its proficiency. It was 
recruited mostly in Philadelphia, and was organized there in September, 
1862. It joined McClellan's army in October, and was placed in 
McCandless' brigade, Meade's division, Pennsylvania Reserves. With 
this command it fought its initiatory battle at Fredericksburg, with a 



I20 GETTYSBURG BATTLEFIELD MONUMENTS. 

loss of 14 killed, 114 wounded and 10 missing; total, 138. The 
brigade, under Colonel Chapman Biddle, was engaged at Gettysburg 
on the first day, its operations being conspicuous in the history of that 
day. The regiment marched on the field with only 263 officers and 
men; of this number 12 were killed and 106 wounded, and 61 missing 
and captured ; many of the prisoners were wounded before they were 
captured. Upon the transfer of the First to the Fifth Corps, the 
regiment was placed in Ro}' Stone's brigade, of Wadsworth's division. 
It had received no recruits, and entered the spring campaign of 1864 
witii only 200 men. It fought in all the battles of the iMfth Corps, 
and in October the morning report showed only 89 men present for 
duty. In the spring of 1865 it entered on the final campaign in 
Coulter's Third Brigade, Crawford's Third Division, Fifth Corps, in 
which command it fought at Five Forks, and was present at the last 
surrender."' 

In the final list of regiments, we find the i2Tst lost: — 

Killed and died of wounds 109 

Died of diseases, accidents, in prison, etc 66 

A total of 1 75 

The record of the 121st is perpetuated on the memorial which we- 
dedicate to-day, and it is one of which the survivors have just reason 
to be honestly proud. It is the story of men who w^ent into the field 
at a time of trial and despondency, who trusted to the leadership of a 
gallant soldier, and who found in him, and in Colonel Alexander 
Biddle, examples of what every man should be and do, a self-sacri- 
ficing devotion to duty, and a constant sense to it. Xmv. after the 
lapse of years, we look back upon the experience of that trying time, 
and may well be content with what the I2ist did both here at Gettys- 
burg and at every point at which it was tried, to the end. 

The Confederate troops directly in action with the brigade com- 
manded by Colonel Chapman iJiddle were Pettigrew's brigade, of 
Heth's division, of Hill's corps, consisting of the nth, 26th. 47th and 
52d North Carolina. Their casualty list was reported at 1,105. 
Pettigrew had on his right Archer's brigade, 5th and 13th Alabama, 
1st, /th and 14th Tennessee, and on its left Brockenbrough's 40th, 
47th and 55th, and 22d \"irginia ; the former reported a loss of 148, 
the latter of 677. General Heth says that "Pettigrew's brigade 
encountered the enemy in heavy force, and broke through his first, 
second and third lines. The nth and 26th N. C. displayed conspic- 
uous gallantry, the 26th losing more than half its numbers in killed 



CAPTAIN ROSENGARTEN S ADDRESS. 121 

and wounded. The returns of casualties in this regiment are 588 out 
of 800, showing what its strength must have been. Pettigrew's brigade 
fought as well and displayed as heroic courage as it was ever my 
fortune to witness on a battlefield. The number of its own gallant 
dead and wounded, as well as the large number of the enemy's dead 
and wounded, left on the field over which it fought, attest the gallant 

1 art it displayed on July ist. The command of Pettigrew's brigade 
passed to Major Jones, of the 26th N. C, who reports that the brigade 
moved in the following order : on the right, the 52d, next the 47th, 
then the nth, and on the left, the 26th. When within about two 
and a half miles of Gettysburg the brigade moved forward to and 
halted in a skirt of woods. In front was a wheat field about a fourth 
of a mile wide, then came a branch with thick underbrush and briers 
skirting the banks. Beyond this was an open field, with the exception 
of a wooded hill directly in front of the 26th, about covering its front. 
Skirmishers being thrown out, we remained in line of battle until 

2 p. M., when orders to advance were received. The brigade moved 
forward in beautiful style, at quick time, just with the brigade on our 
left commanded by Colonel Brockenbrough. When nearing the 
branch referred to, the enemy poured a galling fire into the left of the 
brigade from the opposite branch, where they had massed in heavy 
force while we were in line of battle in the woods. On went the com- 
mand across the branch and up the opposite slope, driving the enemy 
at the point of the bayonet, back again upon their second line. This 
second line was encountered by our left, the 26th N. C, while the 
other regiments were exposed to a heavy shelling. The enemy's 
single line in the field was engaged principally with the right of the 
nth and 47th. The enemy did not perceive the 52d, which flanked 
their left, until they disclosed themselves by a raking and destructive 
fire into their ranks, by which they were broken. On this second line 
the fighting was terrible, our men advancing, the enemy stubbornly 
resisting, imtil the two lines were pouring volleys into each other at a 
distance not greater than twenty paces. At last the enemy was com- 
pelled to give way. They again made a stand in the woods, and the 
third time they were driven from their position." 

There are no regimental reports printed in the war records from 
Pettigrew's brigade, but the quartermaster of the 26th wrote to the 
Governor of North Carolina that the brigade went in with over 800 men 
and came out with but 216, all told, unhurt. The division at the begin- 
ning numbered about 8,000, and came out at the close with only 1,500 
or 1,600 efi^ective men. The 26th N. C. at Gettysburg lost 72 per cent., 
a total of 588, the heaviest of any single regiment in any engagement 



122 GETTYSBURG BATTLEFIELD MONUMENTS. 

during- the war. The 47th lost 161 ; the 52d, 147; the nth, 209; a 
total of 1,105 l>itUlIe's brigade lost; the 121st, 179; the I42d, 211; 
the 151st, 335; the 20th N. Y. (20th N. Y. State Militia), 170; making 
a total of 895, to which must be added the loss in Cooper's battery, 12, 
and a staff officer, i ; so that in its offensive defense the little brigade 
inllicted a much greater injury on its immediate opponent than it 
received, held its own against a much stronger force, and covered the 
retreat of the main body of the corps when it was overpowered and 
outflanked and forced to retreat through the town to Cemetery Hill. 
There the 121st rallied, was put in position, and waited for the succor 
that came before nightfall, to make the lines on which the successive 
events of the second and third days ended in the final victory. 

Such, then, is the story of the 121st at Gettysburg, and indeed 
w^e need no better proof of the way it did its duty than this uncon- 
scious and involuntary praise from those who led the overwhelmingly 
strong force that swept in on both its flanks and compelled it, with the 
rest of Biddle's brigade, to retire from one position to another. Only 
when the guns were safely moved to the rear, and the mass of infantry 
had gone through the streets of Gettysburg did what was left of the 
12 1 St and the other regiments move steadily on to Cemetery Hill, 
where it was again put in line, and, under General Wadsw^orth, helped 
by its show of force to withstand and hold off the threatened attack of 
the large divisions of the enemy. The night was spent, as Colonel 
Alexander Biddle tells us, in singing hymns, not, perhaps, an evidence 
of satisfaction with the result of the day's work, but still showing that 
there was no panic in the hearts of men who, after so many weary 
hours of fighting and such heavy losses, could find comfort in their 
dear old tunes. The fact is, at all events, characteristic of the regi- 
ment, for at all times it was ready to do its duty, and that done, content 
to make the best of any condition of affairs. 

Thus, then, let us close our share in the day's celebration; not, 
however, without making our acknowledgment to the authorities of 
the State of Pennsylvania for their care of the battlefield, for the liberal 
provision made for the regimental monuments, for the thoroughness 
with which the State Commission has done its work, and for the State 
aid providing for the transportation of every veteran to the field on 
this memorable occasion. Henceforth we shall feel that the 121st 
has secured its right place, and its survivors and the families and 
descendants of those who have passed away will find its memorial the 
spot to which their feet will be directed whenever they may revisit this 
ground, so fraught with historic reminiscences, so full of interest for 
the historian and the patriot. Let us, too, follow the example of our 



CAPTAIN ROSENGARTEN's ADDRESS. 1 23 

first colonel and do our duty in civil life, each of us in his own sphere, 
content that the opportunity is still granted us to perpetuate his name, 
and, as far as we may, to live up to the high standard that was always 
in the heart and mind of Chapman Biddle. Nor can we fail to 
emphasize our affection for Colonel Alexander Biddle, who bore his 
share in the work of the regiment with characteristic and distinguished 
gallantry, and who has always shown the liveliest interest in the welfare 
of all its survivors and in the affairs of its Veteran Association. To 
him, in peace as in war, the I2ist has always turned for guidance 
and leadership, and in him it has always found a strong and constant 
friend. No truer test of merit exists than the harsh experiences of 
war, and his shard in the trials and hardships of regimental life endeared 
him to every man in his command, and his kindness and personal 
interest have continued from that day to this, so that on every occasion 
the regiment, its Veteran Association and its members, and the families 
of those who have died, have found in him a friend. That he is not 
with us to-day is at least fortunate in this, that it enables us to give 
free utterance to our respect and aft"ection in terms that his modesty 
would forbid if he were himself present on this occasion. The I2ist 
learned from both Colonel Chapman Biddle and Colonel Alexander 
Biddle to let its actions speak for it, and from the outset it has made 
little claim for public notice. Even now it is content to poiut to the 
brief history recorded on its monument as embodying the most 
important events of its career. It can, however, fairly claim that it 
did its whole duty from the time it first entered the field until it was 
finally mustered out; that it fully justified the commendation of those 
under whom it served, and merited, as it received, the due praise 
of Aleade and Reynolds, of Chamberlain and Warren, of Stone and 
Wadsworth, of Coulter and Crawford, of every general officer in 
whose command it took part, from Fredericksburg to Five Forks. 
From its officers it supplied many staff officers to the various brigades, 
division and corps headquarters of the army, and from its ranks came 
many of its best officers, and from them, in turn, officers of other regi- 
ments and of the regular army, so that it was, in its way, a training 
school, in that best of all schools, the actual experience of successive 
campaigns. Made up by the consolidation of companies from dift'erent 
parts of the State, it has been difficult to secure such reunion of its scat- 
tered elements as would give its regimental association its full strength. 
On this occasion, almost for the first time, is there an opportunity 
for meeting once more those who were once united in its organization. 
For that we may well return thanks to the State, which has thus 
enabled its soldiers to renew their old associations. In the common 



124 GETTYSr.URG BATTl.liFIKLD MONUMENTS. 

service rendered by the regiment, its members share alike ; and when 
its history comes to be pubHshed, it will be seen how strong was the 
lie that bound together its members in the past, and how little time 
and separation have weakened it. It needs only an occasion like this 
of Pennsylvania Day to revive the old affection that binds together 
the scattered survivors in a love of the old regiment, in a common 
testimonial of piety for the memory of Colonel Chapman Biddle and 
of the other officers and men who have answered at the last roll-call. 
To us is left the sacred duty of renewing the memory of their good 
deeds, and the regiment has no need of other praise than the names of 
Chapman Biddle, James Ashworth, William White Dorr, Harrison 
Lambdin, Collett Barclay, and that long list of officers and men who 
are still affectionately remembered by all of us. By their deeds it won 
the right to the monument which marks its place on this field, and 
Gettysburg is but one of the battles in which it did its dut}', and did it 
thoroughly. Here, then, at the foot of this memorial, we may fairly 
recount the events of that great struggle, which practically turned the 
tide of the rebellion and forever stayed its progress. Small as was 
the part of any single regiment in the great contest, still the I2ist bore 
its share in the heat and burden of that first day, and may well take part 
now in the celebration which has brought us here once more, perhaps 
for the last time, to mark the final dedication of the State's memorials 
of its regiments. Let us, then, in conclusion, join in a resolve that we 
will try to be worthy of the I2ist and of its first colonel, Chapman 
Biddle, and of those who shared with him and with us in its trials and 
hardships, in its honors and its history. Not the least marked of his 
characteristics were his modesty and his reticence — qualities that, per- 
haps, were not without effect on the regiment and the place awarded 
it in general estimation. It is, however, enough for us to know that 
it did its duty thoroughly and well, to the satisfaction of its leaders and 
to the advantage of the cause for which it enlisted. Its best reward 
was the final triumph of the Union, and beyond that it is plain that 
the regiment and its members have asked nothing and have got less. 
Perhaps all the more it is dear to its survivors because, from the colonel 
down, no man ever made any personal claim for what he or the regiment 
did, but all looked on it and its services as part and parcel of the Union 
army, freely sacrificing for the Union strength and health and life, and 
content with the final result as the full return for any loss. 

The real test of success is the result, after all these years, when, 
witliout discussion or question, the place of the regiment is freely 
awarded to it on the post of most danger and of severest trial, and its 
share in the events of the day fully secured alike in the history of the 








GKTTYSBURG BATTLEFIELD MONUMENT. 
Standing- at the point occupied by the Regiment July 3, 1863. 



CAPTAIN ROSENGARTEn's ADDRESS. I25 

battle and in the reports of its commanders. The comparison of the 
reports given bv Colonels Chapman and Alexander Biddle, and of 
those of the officers on the Confederate side, show such a general and 
unconscious agreement that the facts are clear and almost without 
difference. The I2ist was in a post of great danger, and pitted against 
largeh- overpowering numbers ; yet, with the rest of the brigade, it 
firmly held its own, falling back slowly from position to position, and 
only at the last retreated in good order to the last rallying point, 
Cemeterv Hill. The events of that long day of successive fights earn 
for the iJTst its distinctive monument, and to that we may pomt in 
justification of our right to be part of the events of to-day. and with 
our fellow-regiments renew the memories of the Gettysburg of 1863. 
Nearly a generation has passed since then, and how few are left of the 
little band that survived the day ; how changed, and yet how strong in 
our devotion to the flag, to the Union and to the cause for which we 
stood together then ! There is little occasion for the veterans who make 
part of the pilgrimage to-day to renew their pledges of patriotism ; they 
made their proof when the battle was at its hottest, and time has not 
lessened their devotion to the country and their love for it. The men 
who gather together around their regimental monuments are relighting 
the fires of youthful devotion at the altars on which were sacrificed so 
many lives that the Union might live. While this still stands, sup- 
ported by men of all sections of the country, who can fail to find in it 
the best return for all the losses, all the hardships, all the trials of the 
war? What greater lesson of patriotism than that which is taught 
by such a reunion as that of to-day? And this is but one of a long 
succession of such days. We and all who have gathered here will go 
home better citizens for having been good soldiers; and the govern- 
ment bought by the sacrifice made on this and on so many other battle- 
fields will be purified and elevated, while it will be maintained at any 
cost by those who remember the trials and the hardships of the war 
for the Union. Nor are we without friends in the soldiers of the Con- 
federacv, for they, too, are now citizens, and loyal and trUe. and little 
likelv to be misled again. The lessons learned here are not for us 
alone, but the generation that has grown up since the war may well 
take to heart the example of those who are now fast passing from the 
scene; and while they may never need to submit to a test of battle, 
none the less it is incumbent upon them to preserve good government 
that the country may not suffer from evils worse than war. from cor- 
ruption and dishonor. frc5m lax rule and loose administration. Great 
as were the hardships of the war for the Union, they were none too 
much to pay for the salvation of the country. 



126 GETTYSBURG JiATTLEKIELU MONUMENTS. 

Another monument, now standing near the position occupied by 
the regiment on the third day of the battle, and which was placed, 
originally, on the spot occupied on the first, was dedicated on the 3d 
of July, 1886. The following address was delivered by Walter L. C 
Biddle, son of Colonel Chapman Biddle, in the presence of many of 
the survivors of the old T2ist Regiment, when the original monument 
was dedicated : — 

"To-day, after twenty-three years, you revisit the theatre where 
your role was played. Your ranks are thinner and your limbs less 
strong than when, to the martial orchestra of booming cannon, you 
slowly moved, shoulder to shoulder, back through this town of Gettys- 
burg. 

"That day had been well spent ; but your fame depended not on 
one achievement. When you stormed the heights of Fredericksburg, 
leaving your dead piled up to mark the post of honor that you held, 
your deeds were known and voiced by Meade himself, who cried: 
'Well done, 121st; good enough for one day!' And those words find 
echo in every breast, when we read, cut deep into this granite shaft, 
the legend of the part you bore on the spot which is hallowed by the 
spirits of those who fell. 

"This perishable stone conveys at least one thought. It stands 
where many are reared, to tell future generations that here the unity 
of the nation was cemented in blood — that here on the soil of Penn- 
sylvania, by the sinews and the sacrifice of her sons was reset the 
keystone of the arch. 

"This field shall be a Mecca. 

"When Hastings, Waterloo, Sedan are forgotten, the English- 
speaking nations of the world shall turn hither, and, awe-stricken, 
whisper of the Titan race whose greatest battle announced that from 
that day forth their children should be united, and as their twice- 
chosen chief had spoken it on that field, theirs should be the heritage 
of all, a 'government of the people, for the people, and by the 
people.' 

"And now the monument of our regiment is delivered to the 
Association whose charge it will l)c to preserve and keep. 

"Our exercises began with prayer. Let a benediction fall upon 
the heroes of '63. and when the last of the Boys in IMue has marched 
sturdily away to 'fall in' in the ranks of the Grand Army, let little 
children gather flowers and wreathe garlands and twine them around 
this stone, and wonderingly learn to lisp the story of how and why 
their cfrandsires died." 



WALTER L. C. BIDDLE's ADDRESS. 1 27 

Narrative of Colonel Alexander Biddle. 

The I2ist Regiment was raised in the summer of 1862 by Colonel 
Chapman Biddle, and completed by union with a fin«3 body of men 
brought from Venango County by Colonel Elisha W. Davis, once 
Speaker of the Legislature, who became its lieutenant-colonel. 

It first joined the army near Sharpsburg, after the battle of 
Antietam, marching with it to the Rappahannock. Its first general 
action was at Fredericksburg, where, in the assault of Aleade's division 
upon the enemy's lines, it lost one-fifth of its force and was congratu- 
lated for its behavior both by ]\Ieade and Reynolds. 

With this considerable diminution of its strength, details for 
artillery, ambulance and commissariat service, and a full company at 
corps headquarters, it was reduced on the night of June 30, 1863, to 
256 muskets and six line officers present for duty. 

It was the leading regiment of the First Brigade, Third Division 
(Doubleday's), First Corps (Reynolds"), and as such on outpost duty 
on a line extending eastwardly and westwardly from Ross White's 
Cross-roads, about eight miles from Gettysburg, the left of the picket- 
line being near Farmer Topper's house. 

The bearing of the line was taken from a map in Mr. White's 
parlor, and run by compass carried in the hand on horseback. In so 
doing, two lots of horses were passed secreted in the woods, the last 
being the farmer's, who was seen as the last post was established in 
the woods ascending the steps of his house. 

'The officers rode up to him, asked him his name, and assured him 
of the safety of his horses in the Union lines. His astonishment was 
indescribable, for he evidently had no idea of Union soldiers being so 
near at hand. 

"The night passed without alarm, but with early morning a staff 
officer (Lieutenant Lambdin) came with orders to draw in the pickets 
and march, giving directions to promptly engage the enemy wherever 
met, and stating the probability of a battle near Gettysburg. 

"The pickets were hurriedly collected, but before they had all 
returned the brigade was on its march — a company of sharpshooters 
attached to brigade headquarters leading, then the 121st, with skirmish- 
ers thrown out on both flanks ; the r42d. Colonel Cummings ; the 151st, 
Colonel Macfarlane; the Ulster County (New York) 20th Regiment, 
Colonel Gates, and a battery of artillery. Colonel Chapman Biddle, com- 
manding brigade. 

"The march continued on a beautifully clear morning for some 
hours. At last the sound of firing was heard to the front and left. A 



128 GETTYSBURG BATTLEFIELD MONUMENTS. 

bridg-c was passed and the regiment turned to the left, passing along 
the dry bed and banks of a stream, then turned to the right and 
ascended a ravine ; it was not known then that the battery and regi- 
ments in the rear had been met at the bridge by staff officers and 
hurried on through Gettysburg to the field. 

"As the 12 1st reached the head of the ravine it came out on the 
Hagerstown Road, on the crest of a slight ridge west of Gettysburg, 
among the 8th Illinois Cavalry. A trooper volunteered the informa- 
tion that the enemy was not over 5,000 strong, and it was likely to be 
a good day for us; but the enemy's line was clearly seen about 1,000 
yards to the west, extending out of a wood into an open field, where 
the men v^-ere lying down, and both artillery and musketry firing was 
going on to the north. On the edge of an open wood the regiment 
was formed in line of battle, facing west ; the company of sharp- 
shooters was thrown forward about 300 yards into a farm enclosure, 
which they held through most of the day, with eflfective service. To 
the north General Reynolds was seen in the open fields near a wood. 
Soon an order came to move on- to the north and form on the left of 
the first division. Whilst this was being effected a regiment (Michigan 
or Wisconsin) of the division was seen to charge into the w^ood, and 
when its edge was reached, the first care of the surgeon was the 
wounded on the ground. 

"The brigade w^as brought together and continued in this position 
for several hours — sometimes in line of battle patiently waiting attack, 
sometimes in echelon of regiment, sometimes moving up and over the 
summit of the western ridge, sometimes changing front to the north — 
a fire of shells from time to time breaking in the wood or harmlessly 
passing beyond the position. Whether these manceuvres were to avoid 
exposing any definite line to artillery from which distance could be 
calculated, or to keep alive the attention of the men, or for any other 
reason, could not be told, but, perhaps, both ends were attained. 

"An hour or more elapsed before we were told by a staff officer 
(Captain Halstead), in answer to a casual question, 'that Reynolds was 
killed and Doubleday was in command of the First Corps, which was 
to hold the grounds at all hazards.' At last an advance of the enemy 
was distinctly seen from the north — a line of men came out of the 
woods, advanced, seemed to falter and be taken up by another stronger 
line, which moved forward with heavy firing. During this the I2ist 
was ordered to change front to the north, and move to the right to 
permit other regiments to form on its left, the regiment taking its 
assigned position in rear of a battery under a lively fire from the 
enemy's shells. It was again ordered to change front to the west, 



WALTER L. C, BIDDLE S ADDRESS. 1 29 

which it did, moving by the left flank to the south, necessarily in rear 
of the regiment before on its left, from which it was ordered to deploy 
to the left and south to meet the enemy advancing from the west. 

"To effect this it was obliged to pass in rear of a battery firing on 
the approaching enemy, and to form on the extreme left of the brigade. 
As it executed this movement a regiment of the enemy was seen advanc- 
ing diagonally to gain a position well beyond the left flank, and another 
moving directly upon the position the 121st was marching to. 

"It reached this point before the enemy, moved forward to the 
crest of the ridge until obstructed by a fence, but was in time to deliver 
the first fire, the fence preventing the possibility of a charge. The 
firing was continued by file. The inequality of the combat was soon 
manifest. Overwhelmed with the fire from flank and front, this small 
force of less than three full companies retained the position until the 
battery had safely retired, and nothing but a barren field was left to 
their opponents. Major Ashworth (afterwards U. S. revenue officer at 
Philadelphia), left wounded on the field, reported that only scattered 
men passed him. The remnant of the regiment fell back with the 
colors to the seminary, the color-sergeant, Harvey, carrying the colors 
and their staff, shot into three pieces, in his hands. 

"The advancing enemy never followed the retreat as a compact 
line; but when the new position at the seminary was taken, the troops 
of the enemy were seen moving by the flank across our front within a 
very short distance, receiving our fire without returning it. Our men 
were ordered to cease firing under an impression they were our own 
men. It ceased for a few moments, when, facing toward us, our 
adversaries delivered their fire. The contest at this point was obsti- 
natel}' maintained, and while suffering severely the thinning out of our 
opponents was perceptible. The line of the enemy extending beyond 
our left, there was danger of being wholly cut off. At or near this 
point most of our missing men were lost ; the main body, with broken 
troops, artillery and ambulances, retreated along the road towards and 
through Gettysburg, passing the court-house to Cemetery Hill, where 
a regiment of the Eleventh Corps and a battery of artillery were 
formed in position. General Wadsworth and his staff were on the 
hill. The troops were reformed, the men seeking their regiments with 
alacrity; cartridges were procured from an Eleventh Corps ordnance 
officer, the 121st Regiment receiving a supply for 82 men out of 256 
who marched to Gettysburg that morning. Captain William Dorr, of 
Germantown, was the only line officer unhurt. 

"About half an hour afterwards some cannon shots were fired by 
the battery. The troops were ordered to be in readiness. A Bucktail 



130 GETTYSBURG BATTLEFIELD MONUMENTS. 

regiment, believed to be Colonel Langhorne Wister's, moved at double- 
quick towards Gulp's Hill, but no assault was made, although evidently 
intended and expected. General Sickles arrived before sundown, 
announcing the near approach of his corps. Quiet gradually settled 
upon the hill, and the evening was passed by the men singing hymns 
as they rested on their arms in view of the possibilities of the morrow. 

"Thus the first day of July ended, the two armies, moving in the 
same general direction on converging lines, had run into each other, 
the First Gorps striking Hill's division of Lee's army, and holding it 
from early morning with absolute loss in the open field, Archer's 
brigade being captured, the only prisoners taken by Hill being 'the 
men with bullets on their caps,' First Gorps, with others to hear from 
later. 

"The strategical position, whatever the quality of his troops, can 
hardly be considered in favor of Lee ; his line of march, with Ewell 
in advance at Carlisle, Hill in the centre and Longstreet half a day in 
the rear, had been struck as by a wedge by the advance of Reynolds' 
corps. 

"The rapid return of Ewell from Carlisle, grasping the point of 
the wedge, and throwing back the First Gorps, without timely support, 
upon the Gettysburg Hill to await the main body, averted a threatened 
penetration of Lee's centre. 

"Terrible as was the loss of a dearly loved commander, so zealous 
and true, at any sacrifice, to militar}^ duty and friendship as Reynolds 
to the L^nion army, Lee's gain was scarcely more than the preservation 
of his line of battle and concert of action with his separate divisions. 
It would appear that he was satisfied with this. 

"Much has been conjectured about the possibility of taking Ceme- 
tery Hill, on the afternoon of July ist, by Ewell; and that it was 
intended, attempted and given up by him, the writer believes from the 
following incident : — 

"Some time after the war he heard General Aleade say, in con- 
versation, that 'two weeks before he took command of the Union 
army he did not know that he had a single enemy, but that two weeks 
after he did not know that he had a single friend.' This brought forth 
the remark 'that there was greater unanimity of action and feeling 
among the Southern leaders than among the Northern,' on which 
General ]\Ieade said, 'I don't know that ; I will tell you why : When 
General Ewell was in Philadelphia he called on me, and while talking 
asked me. "What would have been the effect if Cemetery Hill had 
been carried on the afternoon of the first day?" To which he replied: 
"Why, of course, the battle of Gettysburg never would have been 




LIEUTENANT-COLONEL JAMES S. WARNER. 



WALTER L. C. BIDDLE's ADDRESS. 13 1 

fought." "Then," said General Ewell, "I wish you to be careful of 
what you say, for if you say that, you take away from General Lee the 
last vestige of military reputation that he possesses." ' The assumption, 
however, that Cemetery Hill could have been carried by Ewell's 
troops — who had marched some twenty miles, not without opposition, 
who would have been obliged to ascend the streets of Gettysburg in 
column, under a direct fire of artillery, deploy in line of battle, and 
mount a hill defended by troops who, though worsted, were far from 
dispirited — is pure conjecture. 

"After a night's repose, with careful study and preparation, the 
experiment was made on the following day, but with no success. 

"At nightfall, as before mentioned, the regiment slept on its arms 
in a field on the south slope of Cemetery Hill, in which the enemy's 
shells from both front and rear met in the attacks of the second day, 
moving at night to a wall on the side of the main road. On the 
morning of the third day it took up a position in rear of the centre in 
front of General Doubleday's headquarters, and was engaged in clear- 
ing the fields of obstructions. A small house to the left and rear was 
in use as a field hospital. In front, from Cemetery Hill to Round 
Top, the Union line was thin and weak, and upon this, after a morn- 
ing's manoeuvre, one hundred pieces of artillery opened their fire, the 
notice and prelude of the grand attack of the third day ; but this notice 
lost to General Lee all the advantage he possessed of selecting a point 
of attack and massing his troops against it. It seems, therefore, to 
have been a tactical mistake. The cannonade was fruitless in results 
to General Lee, but its long continuance gave time for the Union line 
to be greatly strengthened, which, by the energetic efiforts of General 
Newton, who had taken command of the First Corps, as successor of 
General Reynolds, was efifectively accomplished. 

"The reply of the Union guns had almost ceased from its 
demonstrated uselessness, when Lee sent forward his infantry to meet 
a freshened line no weaker than his own. It was not surprising, then, 
that his troops, torn by artillery, which had accurately gained range of 
the whole field, should fail before a line which alone was equal in force 
to their assailants. 

"The awe induced by the startling effects of the artillery fire had 
passed away ; the men had become cool and anxious for the assault. 
Near the position of the 121st a man's arm was shattered by a shell; 
a horse was killed by another ; a spent round bullet struck a man lying 
down, in die middle of the cap, he picked it up and the men laughed; 
some spent round shot ricochetted like cricket balls. A piece of shell 
exploding overhead fell on General Doubleday's back and shoulder. 



132 GETTYSBURG BATTLEFIELD MONUMENTS. 

A battery of artillery moved up and took the position of the 121st, 
which moved further to the left. Three regiments also passed to the 
front before the final assault. A singular instance of presentiment 
occurred : Captain h lagg, of the I42d, ordnance officer on the staff, of 
calm and tried courage, extremely popular and highly esteemed for the 
finer qualities of a soldier and a gentleman, was heard to say, 'This 
shelling I cannot bear ; musketry fire I do not mind.' This feeling, so 
contrary to that usually experienced, seemed a suggestion of impending 
fate. He was found killed by an exploded shell, with a lacerated body 
and a broken arm. 

"The impression that continuous artillery fire on open fieldworks 
being an error may have been formed from hearing Commodore Foote 
speak of the capture of a fort in the Canton River upon which fire was 
opened with a whole broadside, the boats advancing at the same time, 
quickly carried the fort — the Commodore, judging that the smoke of 
the broadside would obscure the vessel as a target, and the exploding 
shells on the ramparts produce the greatest amount of demoralization 
of the enemy at the moment of the assault by the boats. This reasoning 
should apply more forcibly to fieldworks than to forts. 

"The attack ended by Longstreet's men coming in, in crowds, 
without arms, passing down the Baltimore Road. Many received 
rations and hard-tack from the freely-opened haversacks of their oppo- 
nents of one short hour before — a sympathetic evidence of the disposi- 
tion which men long opposed in arms involuntarily cherish of generous 
respect for worthy, courageous opponents. 

"As night approached, the busy hum in the enemy's lines gave 
notice of a movement in retreat. Quiet had existed for some time, and 
a renewed attack had been patiently awaited ; but shots became only 
occasional until the whistling of but one overhead, supposed to be 
from a Whitworth gun at long range, producing a sound like that of 
a widgeon in its flight, was the final assurance of their retreat from the 
field. The men knew that sound meant safety from that which pro- 
duced it, and with increasing intervals the cause was farther off. 

"Thus ended Gettysburg. The loss of this little band of Phila- 
delphia and Venango troops has few parallels in military annals. 
General Solomon Meredith estimated the actual shrinkage of his divi- 
sion on the first day at 70 per cent., the residue being well in heart 
and mind for the next two days. The official reports published by the 
Count of Paris show that the loss was general for the regiments 
engaged. The actual loss of the 121st Regiment was 12 killed out- 
right, 106 wounded, 61 missing. At no time was there any panic or 
other characteristic than that of steadiness, alacritv and willingness in 



WALTER L. C. BIDDLE'S ADDRESS. 133 

behavior. The seven periods of the battle of Inkerman, described by 
Kinglake, exhibit a resistance of British troops to as many assaults, 
but not with such loss. No field of battle exhibits qualities which do 
more honor to the patient endurance, spirit and discipline of the soldier ; 
but yet, as in all other fields, so in Gettysburg, it is to be always 
remembered of those who have acted best their part that they rest upon 
the battlefield. 

" 'Tulit alter honor es.' " 



Commenting on this address, the Philadelphia Public Ledger of 
August II, 1887, remarks: — 

"An interesting memorial has just been issued by the I2ist Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers. It presents an engraving of the monument 
placed on the spot at the extreme advance held by the regiment on 
July I, 1863, together with the following inscriptions: 'Extreme left 
of Union line, first day, facing west. Occupied Cemetery Ridge July 
2d and 3d. Erected by the survivors of this regiment in memory 
of their fallen comrades.' 'Colonel Chapman Biddle, brigade com- 
mander. Major Alex. Biddle commanding regiment. First Brigade, 
Third Division, First Corps.' 'Whole number engaged: 7 officers, 
258 enlisted men. Casualties: Killed, 12 enlisted men; wounded, 5 
officers, loi enlisted men; captured and missing, i officer, 60 enlisted 
men; total, 179.' 'Called into service by President Lincoln, Sep- 
tember I, 1862. Participated in all the engagements of the Army of 
the Potomac, commencing with the battle of Fredericksburg. Mus- 
tered out June 2, 1865.' 

"The four faces of the die thus tell the story of the regiment, 
while the simple granite shaft, surmounted by the insignia of the First 
Corps, fitly marks its services at Gettysburg, where, under the two 
Biddies, it did such gallant fighting. 

"But even more interesting than this silent though eloquent 
memorial is the brief address by Walter L. C. Biddle, son of Colonel 
Chapman Biddle, who commanded the 121st, and the sketch of the 
Gettysburg campaign by Major Alexander Biddle, its immediate com- 
mander at the battle. Both the Biddies belong to that large family 
which for several generations has filled so many important offices of 
trust and honor in this city and in the State. All of them, whether in 
public or private life, have shown themselves good citizens,and earnest 
and able in their performance of every duty. Colonel Chapman Biddle 
was cut ofif in the prime of life, and it was a fitting tribute to his 
memory that his son should dedicate the Gettysburg monument of the 



134 GETTYSBURG BATTLEFIELD MONUMENTS. 

regiment organized and led by the father. Colonel Alexander Biddle 
is still spared to be as useful in peace as he was gallant in war. His 
narrative of the battle and of the part of the regiment in it is told 
with modesty, simplicity and brevity. It presents vividly the occur- 
rences he saw and bore part in, from the march to the front on that 
July day, through all its shifting scenes and rough encounters with an 
overwhelming force, until their retreat to Cemetery Hill. There 'quiet 
gradually settled upon the hill, and the evening was passed by the 
men singing hymns as they rested on their arms in view of the possi- 
bilities of the morrow.' There is a touch of pathos in this, very char- 
acteristic of the officers and men of the regiment, and the serious 
earnestness with which they did their duty. We do not think the 
incident has ever been told before, and it well deserves a place in all 
future histories of Gettysburg and the great battle. Colonel Biddle 
thinks that neither the choice of Gettysburg nor the handling of the 
Southern troops were the best that Lee could have made, but he does 
not accept General Ewell's disparaging reflection on Lee's tactical 
movements. He gives a modest account of the waiting work done by 
the 121 St from their place on the line of battle during the 2d and 3d, 
and a vivid description of the great artillery duel, of the movements 
of troops, of the actual shock of arms, of the overthrow of Pickett's 
column, and the friendly welcome given to Longstreet's men 'coming 
in in crowds without arms. Many received rations and hard-tack from 
the freely-opened haversacks of their opponents of one short hour 
before — a sympathetic evidence of the disposition which men long 
opposed in arms involuntarily cherish of generous respect for worthy, 
courageous opponents.' Few things better befit a gallant soldier like 
Colonel Biddle than this characteristic tribute alike to his own men 
and to their foes. His 'narrative' has but one fault, it is too short." 

At the time this monument was dedicated, no appropriation had 
been made by the State for such purpose. The expense was met by 
contributions from the survivors of the regiment and their friends. 
The appropriation afterward made by the State permitted a larger and 
more suitable mark to be placed where the regiment met such heavy 
loss, and the monument already in position was then moved to the 
point where it now stands, a short distance to the left of the celebrated 
clump of trees, Pickett's point of assault July 3d. The inscriptions are 
as follows : — 

"Colonel Chapman Biddle, Brigade Commander 121st Regt. 
Penna. A'ols., July i, 1863. Major Alexander Biddle, commanding 
regiment First Brigade, Third Division, First Corps." 

"Whole number engaged, 7 officers, 258 enlisted men. Casualties : 



GETTYSBURG BATTLEFIELD MONUMENTS. 135 

Killed, 12 enlisted men; wounded, 5 officers, loi enlisted men; captured 
and missing, i officer, 60 enlisted men; total, 179." 



'Extreme left of Union line, first day (facing west). Occupied 
Cemetery Ridge July 2d and 3d. Erected by the survivors of tliis 
regiment in memory of their fallen comrades." 



"Called into service by President Lincoln, September i, 1862. 
Participated in all the engagements of the Army of the Potomac, com- 
mencing with the battle of Fredericksburg. Mustered out, June 2, 
1865." 

By comparing the inscriptions on the two monuments, it will be 
noticed that discrepancies exist in t4ie figures giving the numbers 
engaged as well as the losses. The correct numbers engaged were 7 
officers and 258 enlisted men. Company "B" was not in the engage- 
ment, and did not return to the regiment from duty at corps head- 
quarters until after the fight, but was no doubt included in arriving at 
the number as given on the second monument. The difference in 
losses is accounted for probably from the fact that the statements of 
losses recorded in the War Department have been undergoing a revi- 
sion, and the new figures were arrived at subsequent to the placing of 
the first monument. 



APPENDIX. 



Regimental and Brigade Commanders 

and Official List of Principal 

Engagements. 



War Department, 

Record and Pension Division, 

June lo, 1 89 1. 

Respectfully returned to Mr. W. W. Strong, Philadelphia, Pa. 

It appears from the records that the 121st Regt. Penna. Inft. Vols, 
was commanded, during its period of service, as follows: — 

From September 3, 1862 (date of muster in of field and staff), to 
January 18, 1863, Colonel Chapman Biddle ; January 19, 1863, to 
February 24, 1863, Lieutenant-Colonel Elisha W. Davis; February 
25, 1863, to March 29, 1863, Major Alexander Biddle; March 29, 
1863, to July I. 1863, Colonel Chapman Biddle; July i, 1863, to 
August, 1863, Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander Biddle; August, 1863, 
to September, 1863, First Lieutenant and Adjutant Thomas M. Hall; 
September, 1863, to January 16, 1864, Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander 
Biddle; January 17. 1864, to February 11, 1864, Major Thomas M. 
Hall; February 11, 1864, to April 12, 1864, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Thomas M. Hall; April 12, 1864, to May or June, 1864, Samuel T. 
Lloyd. Captain Company "E ;" May or June, 1864, to September or 
October, 1864, Nathaniel Lang, Captain Company "F;" September 

137 



138 APPENDIX. 

or October, 1864, to March or April, 1865, Henry H. Herpst, Captain 
Company "A;" March or April, 1865, to May 4, 1865, Major West 
Funk; May 4, 1865, to June 2, 1865 (muster out of field and staff), 
Lieutenant-Colonel J. S. Warner. 

The regiment served in the following-mentioned brigades : — 
October, 1862, First Brigade, Third Division, First Army Corps; 
March, 1864, Third Brigade, Fourth Division, Fifth Army Corps ; 
June, 1864, P'irst Brigade, First Division, Fifth Army Corps; Septem- 
ber, 1864, to muster out of regiment. Third Brigade, Third Division, 
Fifth Army Corps. 

Following are the names of the brigade commanders : — 
September 29, 1862, Brigadier-General T. Seymour ; November 
14, 1862, Colonel William Sinclair; December 13, 1862, Colonel William 
McCandless ; February 17, 1863, Colonel James R. Porter; March 28, 

1863, Brigadier-General Thomas A. Rowley; June 30, 1863, Colonel 
Chapman Biddle ; July 2, 1863, Brigadier-General Thomas A. Rowley; 
July 3, 1863. Colonel Chapman Biddle; September 24, 1863, Lieutenant- 
Colonel A. B. McCalmont; October 2, 1863, Colonel Chapman Biddle; 
December 28, 1863, Colonel Langhorne Wister; February 24, 1864, 
Colonel E. L. Dana; March 24, 1864, Colonel Roy Stone; May 7, 

1864, Colonel E. S. Bragg; June 6, 1864, Colonel J. L. Chamberlain; 
June 18, 1864, Colonel W. S. Tilton; August 22, 1864, Lieutenant- 
Colonel W. A. Throop; September 14, 1864, Colonel J. W. Hofmann ; 
January 24, 1865, Colonel H. A. Morrow; February 10, 1865. Colonel 
J. W. Hofmann; March 6, 1865, Lieutenant-Colonel J. T. Jack; March 
9, 1865, Colonel C. W. Tilden; March 15, 1865, Colonel R. Coulter; 
May 13, 1865, Colonel A. R. Root; June 24, 1865, Colonel L. Wagner; 
June 26, 1865, Colonel A. R. Root. 

By authority of the Secretary of War. 

F. C. AiNSWORTII, 

Major and Surgeon, U. S. A. 

War Dei'artiment, Adjutant-Gener.\l's Office, 
Washington, November 25, 1887. 
Captain William W. Strong, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sir: — As requested in your letter of the 26th ult., I have the honor 
to furnish, from the records of this office, the following list of the 
principal engagements, etc., in which the 121st Penna. Inft. bore a part 
during the late war, viz. : — 

Fredericksburg, Ya.., December i2-i> 1862; Chancellorsville, Va., 



APPENDIX. 139 

May 3-5, 1863; Gettysburg, Pa., July 1-3, 1863; Wilderness, Va., 
May 5-7, 1864; Spottsylvania, Va., May 8-20, 1864; North Anna, 
Va., May 23-27, 1864; Totopotomay, Va., May 28-31, 1864; Bethesda 
Church, Va., June 1-5, 1864; Cold Harbor, Va., June 6-12, 1864; 
Petersburg, Va., June, 1864-March, 1865 ; Weldon Railroad, Va., 
August 21, 1864; Poplar Grove Church or Peeble's Farm, Va., October 
I, 1864; Dabney's Mill or Hatcher's Run, Va., February 6-7, 1865; 
Boydton Plank Road (Burgess' House), Va., March 31, 1865; Five 
Forks, Va., April i, 1865; Appomattox Court-house, April 9, 1865. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

R. L. Drum, 
Adjutant-General. 

CAPTAIN JAMES ASHWORTH. 

James Ashworth was born in Bury, Lancashire, England, Septem- 
ber IT, 1836, and came to this country with his parents in 1838, 
locating near Holmesburg, Pa. He moved to Frankford about 1853, 
attended a two years' course at the Philadelphia High School, then 
entered the shipping house of Cope Bros. (Liverpool packets), and 
remained with them till the war opened. He accompanied General 
Patterson's command to Hagerstown (though not connected with it). 
While there he heard that the rebels were moving to destroy the canal 
above Williamsport, Md., and went to see what was going on. At 
Cold Spring, above Williamsport, he found the Union men in arms 
to resist the attempts of the rebels, who were trying to blow up Dam 
No. 5, so as to disable the canal. He joined the Union men, taking a 
musket and fighting all day, the rebels being driven off without accom- 
plishing their object. Next day he went to Williamsport, was arrested 
as a rebel spy, and tried as such by a committee of citizens. While 
being tried, his Cold Spring comrades of the day before came in town, 
and learning what was going on, soon cleared him by their testimony 
of his loyal conduct at Dam No. 5, at Cold Spring. Thinking that it 
was getting too warm for a man who was neither in nor out of the 
military service, he came back to Philadelphia. 

In August, 1862, he raised a company of men in Frankford, which 
became Company *T," 121st Penna. Vols., and went to the front, 
joining the Army of the Potomac shortly after the battle of Antietam, 
moved with it down to Fredericksburg, Va., and took part in the battle, 
December 13, 1862, also in the "mud march" and battle of Chancellors- 
ville. After getting back to camp, he applied for a sick furlough and 
came home, as he was much broken down. Before the expiration of 



140 APPENDIX, 

his furlough (thirty clays) the Gettysburg campaign opened and he 
returned to his regiment, which he joined near Centerville, Va., on its 
march after Lee's army. On July ist he was desperately wounded, 
having been hit eleven times, fell into the enemy's hands, and was a 
prisoner until their retreat on the morning of July 5th. He lay at 
Gettysburg and York, Pa., for several months before he was able to be 
moved home. On account of his wounds and being unable to rejoin 
his command, he was honorably discharged February 10, 1864, after 
having been successively commissioned major, lieutenant-colonel and 
colonel. Shortly after he was commissioned captain in the Veteran 
Reserves and ordered to New Orleans. While on his way there the 
steamer was wrecked on the coast of Florida, and the people were 
taken off by a gunboat and brough to New Orleans. After duty at 
New Orleans he was ordered to Baton Rouge, where he was stationed 
at the close of the war. He was then ordered to Washington and 
thence to Andalusia Hospital, Bucks County, Pa., to discharge con- 
valescents, from there to York, Pa., on similar duty, and thence to 
Baltimore, from there to Louisa Court-house, Va., where he was in 
charge of the Freedmen's Bureau until his resignation, when he 
returned to the employ of Cope Bros. He was appointed revenue 
assessor of the Fifth District, Pa., by President Grant, and afterward 
collector of same district, and when the first, second, third, fourth, 
fifth, sixth and seventh were consolidated, was made collector of the 
consolidated district, which position he held until failing health forced 
him to resign, which he did February 16, 1882. He went to Gaines- 
ville, Florida, where he died March 21, 1882. His body was brought 
home and buried at Cedar Hill Cemetery, Frankford, Pa. 

JACOB BENEDICT. 

Who among the survivors of the regiment can forget the many 
instances when the patient drollery of Jake Benedict relieved the 
monotony of our long and tiresome marches on the cold and dreary 
night, as, for instance, when camp was struck in the height of a storm? 
Always cheerful and full of fmi, his light disposition showed most to 
advantage when his comrades were grave with the heavy burdens of 
the march or the discomforts of the camp under unfavorable circum- 
stanes. It was his delight to invent any scheme or prolong any 
dialogue that would tend to cheer up his comrades, and often, by the 
originality and fitness of application of his funny remarks, he raised 
a laugh in which the entire regiment joined. It is to be regretted that 
the committee has been unable to trace up those in the possession of 




FIRST LIEUTENANT GEORGE W. PLUMER. 



APPENDIX, 141 

facts that would enable us to give more extended mention of this good 
and faithful soldier. It has been said that, before he enlisted, Jake 
was a cab driver, in which calling there can be no doubt he was a 
success. He was sent to Mother Earth by a rifle shot from the enemy 
while the regiment was charging down the slope of a hill in front of 
Petersburg, June 18, 1864, and almost turned a double summersault, 
but very soon reported for duty in his accustomed place. Kind-hearted 
and ready to assist a comrade at the risk of his own life, as the writer 
had occasion to know. On the evening of the 5th of Alay, 1864, when 
the entire division fell back precipitately before the enemy, at the risk 
of being captured or losing his life, he stuck close to a comrade who was 
completely exhausted and would have been unable to reach our lines 
had not Jake Benedict fairly dragged him along. After serving his 
entire term with his regiment in all its trials and triumphs, he received 
his honorable discharge at the final muster out and lived in Philadelphia 
many years after, until at length he joined the great majority. 

THE BINGHAM BROTHERS. 

Among the many instances of unselfish patriotism displayed by 
Pennsylvanians in the hour of trial, that of the family of the Rev. Wm. 
B. Bingham, of Venango County, deserves particular mention. His 
three sons, mere boys, the oldest just past twenty, enlisted in Captain 
Ridgway's company and served with the regiment, two of them giving 
up their lives on the altar of their country, and the survivor carrying 
for the balance of his short life several reminders of the excellent 
service he had performed. Wm. J. Bingham was born in Birmingham, 
Pa., December 29, 184 1, and died of congestion of the brain, in camp 
at Belle Plain, Va., February 20, 1863, having been sick three days. 
His remains were afterwards removed and buried in the family lot at 
Miller's, in Crawford County, Pa. A quiet, unassuming and noble 
young man, w^hose bright prospects for the future were suddenly cut 
away by dread disease and exposure. 

The second son, John M., was born also in Birmingham, Pa., 
July 23, 1843, and was employed in a store at the time of his enlist- 
ment. When his brother William called upon his father for his written 
consent to enlist, John in his quiet way said, "Write two ; we will go 
together." William and John enlisted in August, 1862. John was 
wounded at Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville and at Gettysburg, and 
was named in Major Biddle's official report of the battle of Gettysburg 
as worthy of special mention. After Gettysburg, for his bravery, 
he received his promotion to first lieutenant. After conspicuous 



142 APPENDIX. 

gallantry he was taken prisoner at Poplar Grove Chureh with Colonel 
Warner and a number of the officers and men of his regiment. At 
Gettysburg he received a wound in the side from a rifle ball which he 
carrietl through the balance of his life, and which ever after had a 
depressing influence on him. After receiving the shot he continued in 
the ranks firing some twenty rounds. When ordered to the rear he 
asked for bandages and water and coolly dressed his wound, telling 
the surgeon to attend to those more seriously wounded. After the 
war he went into a store again, and subsequently went west, first to 
Nebraska, then to Kansas, lastly to Indian Territory, where he was 
drowned while fording a river. He is buried in Indian Territory. 

The youngest brother of the three, Calvin D. Bingham, was born 
in Birmingham, Pa., January 29, 1849. He enlisted and joined Com- 
pany "A," in February, 1864. His first engagement was the Wilder- 
ness, where he was taken prisoner. His brother John wrote : "Not a 
veteran in my company fought more bravely than did Calvin." He 
was taken to Libby Prison, then to Danville, and finally died in Novem- 
ber, 1864, in the prison at Florence, S. C. His is a nameless grave, 
and all efiforts of his relatives to identify it have failed. Calvin was a 
boy of bright intellect and excellent memory. At the age of eleven 
years he would hold an audience spellbound while giving a declamation. 
A favorite piece of his was, "Shall the name of Washington ever be 
heard by a freeman and thrill not his breast?" He was fond of read- 
ing the lives of those patriots who were prominent in the history of 
his native land. 

LIEUTENANT GEORGE W. BRICKLEY. 

First Lieutenant George W. Brickley, of Company "A," was of 
English parents, and was born in Cincinnati, O. His father was a 
baker of that city. He moved from there in 1854 or 1855 to a farm 
in Pendleton County, Ky., thence, in 1856, to Davenport, Iowa, and 
subsequently to a farm in Iowa, where he and his wife died. George 
left his father's home in 1856 and returned to Cincinnati, O., where 
he learned the carpenter's trade. In i860 he went to Franklin, Pa., 
and worked for Captain P. R. Gray for a short time, after which he 
opened a shop of his own, w^hich he carried on until June, 1862, when 
he enlisted in Company "A," and at the organization of the company 
was elected its first lieutenant. He was an industrious, energetic young 
man and a zealous and patriotic citizen and soldier. 

He was killed in the battle of Fredericksburg, December 13, 
1862, in the woods at the top of the hill at the farthest point advanced 



APPENDIX. 143 

to by our regiment, just as the line was beginning to fall back. He 
was probably shot through the chest, as he was seen to throw his arms 
across his breast and fall on his side. 

As the line fell back, he raised himself on his right elbow, with 
his left hand on his breast and his head leaning back, and cried out 
with pain. 

His body was delivered to our burial party the next day and 
buried on the field. It is not known that any of his relatives are now 
in this country. 

LIEUTENANT J. K. BYERS. 

J. K. Byers was born in Pinegrove Township, Venango County, 
Pa., November 26, 1839. Reared on his father's farm, where in early 
life he spent many a weary day's labor ; thorough-going and attentive 
to his daily toils, never leaving any duty undone. His early education 
was such as was afiforded in the district school. After advancing as 
far as possible in such schools, he attended select school in Venango 
County, Pa., after which he engaged in teaching school — one term in 
Clarion County, Pa., and one in Illinois. After his return from the 
West, he remained at home on the farm until his enlistment in the 
Union army. The first and only battle in which he engaged was 
Fredericksburg, where he lost his right arm, was taken prisoner and 
was incarcerated in Libby Prison. After his release he joined the 
Invalid Corps, serving therein until his appointment in the regular 
army. While stationed at Camp Douglas he was among the first to 
discover the plot laid by the Golden Circle to destroy the city of 
Chicago. He also took an active part in suppressing an insurrection 
raised in the city of St. Louis, and was highly commended by the 
Governor of Missouri for his coolness and bravery. 

CAPTAIN JOSHUA L. CHILDS 

Was twenty-nine years of age when he entered the service. He was 
at once selected as sergeant of his company, in which position, by his 
kind and genial disposition, his untiring care for the men under his 
charge, and the impartiality with which he dispensed the various tasks 
among them, he at once won their respect and esteem. His devotion 
to the cause he had engaged to defend was manifested in the zeal with 
which he performed the duties of his position and the excellent example 
he set his comrades imder all circumstances. Naturally modest, placid 
and even tempered, always cool and collected, he was well calculated 



144 APPENDIX. 

to assume the weightier responsibiHties his promotion to Heutenant 
and subsequently to captain brought to him. The commander of the 
regiment, when making his official report of the first day's battle at 
Gettysburg, July i, 1863, named several, including Sergeant Joshua L. 
Childs, whose meritorious conduct w'as worthy of special mention. 
He was promoted to first lieutenant in July, 1864, and to captain in 
December, 1864. After the muster out of the regiment in 1865, he 
engaged in active business, in which he was as successful as he had 
been in accumulating the honors of war. 

SERGEANT-AIAJOR CONNELLY. 

Charles Collingwood Connelly, son of James F. and Elizabeth C. 
Connelly, was born in Venango County, Pa., February 28, 1838. His 
ancestors held prominent and honorable positions among the early 
pioneers of Northwestern Pennsylvania, his father being a man of 
bright intellect and superior education, and his mother a woman of 
patient, lovable disposition and most exemplary life. Such a one as 
might be expected to impart to her children those attributes of nobility 
w'hich characterized Charles and endeared him alike to school-day 
companions, army associates and all with whom he came in contact. 

He was, from early life, an industrious, kind-hearted boy; and, 
though inured to toil and privations incident to a sparsely settled and 
comparatively isolated district, was diligent in taking advantage of the 
limited opportunities for education afforded by the "old log school- 
house" in the neighborhood, and thus, when he entered the army, was 
a young man of more than average intelligence, judged by the standard 
of his surroundings. 

He enlisted as a private in Company "A" July 12, 1862, and w^as 
successively promoted, each time for meritorious conduct, to corporal 
December 29, 1862; sergeant March 23, 1863, ^^^ sergeant-major 
October 23, 1863, holding the latter position when wounded May 5, 
1864. How faithfully and intelligently he performed the duties of the 
respective positions is testified by all his army comrades. Soon after 
being wounded — the shot having taken efifect in his right leg, below the 
knee — the regiment was forced to retire from the position it had occu- 
pied, and an effort was made to carry the crippled soldier from the field. 
He, seeing the danger to which his rescuers were exposed, insisted on 
their leaving him and making good their escape. 

The last heard from him was through a letter written from the 
field hospital, a few days after his capture, to his father, in which he 
mentioned being very much reduced, and expressed the hope that 



APPENDIX. 145 

amputation of his leg would not become necessary. His character 
was such as to leave no doubt in the minds of those who knew him 
that, if he had survived, he would have embraced the first opportunity 
of informing his friends of his condition. The inevitable conclusion 
is that he sleeps, one among the many thousands, in "graves unmarked, 
unnumbered and unknown." 

The unselfishness of his noble life is epitomized in the last appeal 
heard from his lips by the comrades who endeavored to rescue him 
from the fate of a prisoner: "Boys, leave me here alone, and save 
yourselves or you will be captured." 

Brave ! true ! generous ! Charles Connelly. Among the recorded 
host of "wounded and missing in action" there is none more worthy of 
honorable mention than he. Peace to his soul ! 

LIEUTENANT-COLONEL DAVIS. 

Elisha W. Davis was born in Butler County, Pa., September 8, 
1827. He received a common-school education, and at the age of 
fourteen removed to Venango County, where he found employment 
in the Rockland Blast Furnace, and taught school in the winter, finally 
becoming proprietor of the furnace. He also studied law, and in 
1857 was admitted to practice at the bar of Venango County. Two 
years later he was elected to the lower branch of the State Legisla- 
ture, and was re-elected in i860 and became Speaker of the House in 
1861. 

Lieutenant-Colonel E. W. Davis, whom we remember as a large 
heavily-built man, had originally embarked to organize the 145th 
Regt. Penna. Vols., and was apparently getting fairly under way when 
the exigency of war demanded that the troops already enrolled should 
be sent at once to the front. This brought the men of Biddle and 
Davis together into one regiment,- and nothing short of the loftiest 
patriotism could have induced Davis to accept a subordinate position 
after using his efforts to organize a regiment which he expected to 
command. Between him and Colonel Chapman Biddle, in the matter 
of discipline, there existed the widest possible gap. While Colonel 
Biddle was a strict disciplinarian, for which his men feel grateful even 
to the present day, though they were not able during the service to 
appreciate its value fully, Davis seemed to disregard its importance 
entirely, and while, during the drills and parades of the early service, 
he would look on apparently with some interest, he seldom participated 
in them. The training of the men in matters of discipline he left 
entirely to others. As an illustration of his general manner and genial 



146 APPENDIX. 

disposition, one little instance will sufifice: While on one of the 
marches down through Virginia previous to the Fredericksburg affair, 
one of our comrades from A^enango was more fortunate than the rest 
of us and succeeded in capturing and slaughtering a fine sheep. The 
following morning, bright and early, he proceeded to the lieutenant- 
colonel's quarters to surprise him by presenting a quarter of mutton. 
The lieutenant-colonel was just finishing his toilet when he was greeted 
with: "Good morning, Davis." "Why — is that you? Good morn- 
ing.'' "Davis, I've brought you a nice piece of meat." "Thank you — 
it is nice; what's the cost?" "Oh, nuthin'." "But I want to pay for 
it, and am not willing to take it without paying for it — what's the 
cost?" This somewhat disconcerted his visitor, who, hesitating as to 
the best method of extricating himself from an awkward position, 
finally said : "Now see here, Davis, when I was a working for you at 
the old furnace in Venango County, I wanted some money one Satur- 
day evening to buy whiskey, and you wouldn't give me any. I was 
mad, and went to the stable and took a bag full of oats and sold them 
and got the whiskey, and now if you're a mind to call it square, you take 
this piece of meat for them oats." "All right," said Colonel Davis, 
"we'll call it square, and you shall have a canteen full of 'commissary' 
to-morrow morning in the bargain." 

Resigning from the army on account of ill-health, he moved to 
Philadelphia, and in the fall of 1865 was elected to the House of Repre- 
sentatives, serving for six consecutive terms. In 1868 he was again 
elected Speaker, and several years later entered the State Senate as the 
representative of the Fourth District. He served two terms in this 
body, of which he was the President during the Centennial year. 
November 27, 1872, he received from the Governor of Pennsylvania a 
commission as brigadier-general by brevet. In 1879 General Davis 
went to Colorado to reside permanently, and was for a time a member 
of the Legislature of that State, being the Speaker of the House for 
one year. He died in Philadelphia February 13, 1887. 

CAPTAIN WILLIAM WHITE DORR. 

"Killed in action at Spottsylvania Court-house, \'a., May 10, 1864, 
while temporarily in command of his regiment." His commission as 
major reached the field a few days after his death. 

Captain Dorr was born in Philadelphia October 31, 1837. He 
was the son of the Rev. Benjamin Dorr, D. D., Rector of Christ Church, 
Philadelphia, and Esther Kettell Odin, daughter of John Odin, Esq., 
of Boston. He was descended from distinguished New England 



APPENDIX. 147 

ancestors, through his father, from the Dorrs, among the earhest 
settlers of Roxbury (now part of Boston), and the Daltons, of Salis- 
bury, Mass., sturdy Puritans. On his maternal side he was a lineal 
descendant of the Chief Justices Lynde, father and son, of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay Colony, the Rev. Increase Mather, the Rev. John Eliot, 
the "Apostle to the Indians," the Rev. William Walter, Rector of 
Christ Church, Boston, and other distinguished New Englanders. 

Captain Dorr was educated in Philadelphia. He was twenty-five 
years of age when he entered the army. Of a remarkably genial tem- 
perament,' he was the centre of a large circle of devoted friends. 

A man of unflinching honor and integrity, he became a favorite 
among the officers of his regiment, and his keen sense of duty and con- 
sistent treatment of those under his command made him beloved and 
respected by the enlisted men. 

He served with great bravery and distinction in the battles of 
Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, the Wilderness and at 
Spottsylvania Court-house, where he was killed in action. His remains 
were taken to .Salisbury Point, Mass., and interred among his people, 
in the village cemetery, near "Pine Bank," on the Merrimac River, 
the homestead of his father's family for more than a century, 
and still remaining in the ownership of the sisters and brother of 
Captain Dorr. 

His death was deplored by every one who knew him. A mural 
tablet in Christ Church, Philadelphia, "erected by his comrades and 
his friends," records his patriotism and his virtues. 

A fellow-officer wrote of him : "Among the pure, one of the 
purest ; among the brave, one of the bravest ; among the noble fellows 
of the army, one of the most modest, most loved and most esteemed, 
he was the idol of his company and his regiment." 

LIEUTENANT-COLONEL HALL. 

From "Philadelphia Press" of November 9, 1S64. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Hall was the eldest son of Rev. Dr. Hall, of 
Trenton, Nev/ Jersey. He was born in Philadelphia, June 2, 1835. 
He graduated at Princeton College, and soon after commenced the 
study of law in the office of his uncle, the Hon. William M. Meredith, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1856. 

At the breaking out of the war, in 1861. he actively identified 
himself with the well-known artillery company of Colonel Chapman 
Biddle, and in August, 1862, when the 121st Regiment was raised for 
three vears' service, although not at all in robust health, he determined 



148 APPENDIX. 

to give himself to the service of his country in the field, and accom- 
panied the regiment as its adjutant. 

In the steady, never-ending routine of official business, with its 
innumerable vexations, he was ever untiring in his faithfulness ; never 
absent from his post, he was foremost in every fight, and foremost in 
every good work that tended to improve the regiment. For more than 
a year after his health was seriously impaired, he persisted in going 
through the severest labors and exposure without a murmur. 

Though not in the regular line of promotion. Adjutant Hall was, 
in the spring of 1864, at the request of his brother officers, appointed 
major of the regiment, and was subsequently made lieutenant-colonel. 

Soon after, his health, which had been for a long time failing, 
gave way entirely, and he was obliged to resign the service, in order 
to prolong for a few short months a life which had already, as it were, 
been freely given to his country. He died at his home in Philadelphia, 
on Sunday morning, November 6, 1864. 

Pennsylvania has never mourned a truer soldier, or one of more 
unselfish purity of life. He knew not self; his constant thought was 
for the welfare of others. With the highest order of courage, he com- 
bined a gentleness of disposition almost feminine. 

Respect was too cold a word to express the feeling of his regiment 
for him who asked none to follow where he dare not lead. 

At a meeting of the officers present with the 121st Regt. Penna. 
Vols., held at the headquarters of the regiment, near Petersburg, Va., 
November 15, 1864, the following preamble and resolutions were 
adopted : — 

Wfiereas, It is with deep sorrow that we learn of the death of 
our late beloved commander and esteemed friend, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Thomas M. Hall. 

Resolved, I'lrst, That we deem it a dut}' wc owe to the memory 
of a brave officer to join in this testimonial of our high regard. 

Resolved, Second, That in him we were accustomed to recognize 
those traits of character combining the true gentleman and soldier that 
tend to endear the commander to his subordinates. 

Resolved, Third, That on the battlefields of Fredericksburg, 
Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, he evinced bravery of a superior order, 
and. by his undaunted and fearless example, inspired the men with 
confidence and enthusiasm. 

Resolved, Fourth. That as regimental adjutant he always dis- 
charged his duties promptly and faithfully, and was unanimously called 
upon by the officers present with the regiment to fill the vacancy caused 
by the promotion of IMajor Biddle. and was soon after promoted to be 



APPENDIX. 149 

lieutenant-colonel. But he was not permitted to remain long with us. 
His health, which for more than six months had been visibly declining, 
now became so delicate that he was obliged to be sent home, where, 
after continuing for a short time, it has been our unspeakable mis- 
fortune to learn of his death. 

Resolved, Fifth, That we tender to the family and friends of the 
deceased our heartfelt sympathy in this their deep affliction, and hope 
they may be sustained in the severe ordeal through which they are 
called upon to pass. 

Resolved, Sixth, That these resolutions be sent to the family of 
the deceased, and copies to the Philadelphia Inquirer and Sunday 
Dispatch, for publication. 

Chas. L. Atlee, 

Coinmanding regiment, President, 
P. R. Gray, 

First Lieut, and R. Q. M., V. -President. 
F. F. Davis, 

Assistant Surgeon, Secretary. 

SIDNEY HECKARD. 

Thomas Fair, of Company "A," 121st Penna. Vols., writes from 
Trenton, Mo., January 9, 1893 '• — 

"My schoolmate, messmate and dear friend, Sidney Heckard, was 
killed in the battle of Fredericksburg, on the 13th of December, 1862. 
He was sick on the march from the lately-fought battle of Antietam 
to Fredericksburg, but refused to leave the ranks when the surgeon 
advised him to do so, and went on by my side to his death ; and one 
more who was more generally known and universally loved by all who 
knew him, was my schoolmate before the war and a corporal, I think 
at our regimental organization, afterward promoted to a sergeant-major 
of the regiment, and lost on the 5th day of May, 1864, at our first 
encounter at the Rapidan. As we advanced in line of battle through 
the timber, crossing a small field, containing a small hut and tobacco- 
barn built of logs, scaling the fence and on through the timber again 
and descending to what seemed to be a level tract of dense under- 
growth, a volley of musketry from the enemy riddled our ranks and 
caused our lines to fall back in considerable confusion, Charles Con- 
nelly, our sergeant-major, was at my side trying to retreat with us on 
one leg, the other having been broken just below the knee by a minie 
ball. A comrade of Company "E" and myself tried to help our ser- 
geant-major back, and putting an arm over each of our necks, we helped 
him to the fence of the enclosure before mentioned, and being very 



150 APPENDIX. 

close pressed by the rebs at this point, my comrade, probably thinking 
that one free soldier was worth more to the government than tliree 
in rebel bonds, took to his heels. At this I asked Connelly what I 
must do. He said: 'Help me to that ditch (a small ravine in the 
centre of the open lot), and then save yourself.' This I did. This 
was the last ever heard or seen of our brave little sergeant-major, 
Charles Connelly, by Northern friends." 

CAPTAIN HENRY HARRISON HERPST. 

H. H. Herpst was born on the 26th day of January, 1836, in 
Clarion County, Pa. He was the son of John and ]Vl.ary Herpst, who 
afterwards removed to Scrubgrass, Venango County, Pa., where they 
lived at the period of their son's enlistment in August, 1862. Master 
Herpst was educated in the common schools, and prior to enlistment 
was engaged in farming. 

He w^as a member of Company "A," 121st Penna. Vols., and filled 
the offices of orderly sergeant, first lieutenant and captain, and was 
mustered out with his regiment at the close of the war. 

After the war he engaged in the oil business until November 27, 
1868, when he entered on the duties of high sheriff of Venango County, 
an office which he filled with fidelity and ability. 

He was a stockholder in the Oil City Times, the first daily paper 
published in Oil City. This he afterwards disposed of to the parties 
who organized the Oil City Derrick. 

He was twice married, first to Miss Anna Cone, daughter of 
Andrew Cone, who for a time represented our government at Para, 
Brazil. IMrs. Herpst died about January i, 1872. He afterwards mar- 
ried Mrs. Jennette Shaw. 

He died at Busti, New York, October 23, 1885, of pneumonia. 

The characteristics of Captain Herpst were honesty, bravery and 
coolness in danger. He was loved and respected by his friends and 
neighbors. 

Pie was a good soldier and a good citizen, and died a member of 
the M. E. Church. 

J. H. HOLMAN. 

J. H. Holman was born in Philadelphia July 24, 1838, and was 
the oldest of five sons. He attended the public schools, and after 
passing examination for admission to the Philadelphia High School, 
it was his father's wish that he should enter the drug business ; but, as 
he afterwards became interested in his father's business, he learned the 
trade of book-binding. Previous to the breaking out of the war, in 




COLOR-SERGEANT WILLIAM HARDY AND REGIMENTAL COLORS. 



APPENDIX. 151 

1857, he made a trip around the world in the ship John Trucks. Upon 
the breaking out of the war, he enHsted in the 121st Regiment, as 
private. He was transferred from the 121st Regiment to the 2d Penn- 
sylvania Artillery, under command of Col. Gibson. After serving in 
that regiment as second lieutenant, he was advanced by promotion to 
the rank of captain, and finally was breveted major. He entered 
Colonel Biddle's 121st in 1862, Captain T. Elwood Zell's company, and 
was in the engagement of Snicker's Gap, and from Warrenton Junc- 
tion down to Fredericksburg. In December, 1862, he was promoted 
to second lieutenant of Battery "G," 2d Pennsylvania Artillery, and 
afterward he was first lieutenant. In 1864 he was promoted to 
Battery "E," 2d Provisional Artillery, and participated in the 
battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Cold Harbor and in front of 
Petersburg. 

He commanded his regiment in several charges in front of that 
city, June 17, 1864, and captured the first line of rebel breastworks. 
He commanded five companies of his regiment at the mine explosion 
in front of Petersburg, July 30, 1864, a-i^d was twice wounded. After 
the capture of Richmond, he was appointed Assistant Superintendent 
of the Freedmen's Bureau, in the vicinity of Petersburg, which position 
he held until December, 1865, when his regiment was mustered out of 
service. He died April 27, i88t, from paralysis caused by the wounds 
that he received in the army. 

He was descended from Revolutionary ancestors who settled in 
]\iassachusetts in 1636. Members of his family have been engaged in 
all of the wars of this country, from the early Indian and Revolutionary 
wars, on through the War of 1812 and the Mexican War down to that 
of the Rebellion. Some of his relatives were imprisoned in Dartmoor 
Prison, the Black Hole of Calcutta, and were impressed as seamen in 
the British service. He was fearless and self-sacrificing in the interests 
of his men, sharing with them whatever he had. 

CAPTAIN CHARLES F. HULSE. 

Charles F. Hulse was born May 24, 1843, and after a brief experi- 
ence of mercantile life, joined the company reorganized by Captain 
Chapman Biddle at the outbreak of the Rebellion. When Colonel 
Biddle organized the 121st Penna. Vols., Mr. Hulse became lieutenant 
of Company "B," and was distinguished for his good conduct, both 
in action and in the service generally. He was soon assigned to staff 
duty, and served with great credit, winning the respect and affection 
of the successive brigade and division commanders and the field and 
regimental officers with whom he was thus brought in contact. Return- 



152 APPENDIX. 

ing to civil life, he engaged again in business, and married the daughter 
of Mr. I'Yederic Collins, a well-known citizen of Philadelphia. Captain 
Hulse died August 28, 1876. 

CHAMBERS LAWRENCE. 

Chambers Lawrence was born July 16, 1840, at Great Western, 
Pa. He, with his parents, removed to Scrubgrass Township, Venango 
County, Pa., in 1842. He united with the Big Bend Methodist Epis- 
copal Church at the age of sixteen, and lived a consistent member. 
He w^as wounded in the thigh in the battle of Fredericksburg, Decem- 
ber 13, 1862, and lay on the field two days and two nights, after 
which he was taken to a hospital and lived two days, and died Decem- 
ber 17, 1862. 

CAPTAIN JAMES HARRISON LAMBDIN. 

James Harrison Lambdin was born in Philadelphia September 25,. 
1840. He was the second son of James Read Lambdin, then and for 
many years one of the leading portrait painters of this country. His 
youth was passed in Germantown, where his father resided, and at 
the age of sixteen he entered the University of Pennsylvania. From 
childhood young Lambdin had exhibited a decided artistic talent, whicli 
was encouraged by his father and his elder brother, also a distinguished 
artist, and at the close of his sophomore year he left college and 
engaged in the study of painting. He exhibited two pictures, both 
still life-studies, at the annual exhibition of the Academy of Fine Arts 
in 1859. 

About this time, young Lambdin, while not forsaking art, became 
a teacher of English at the Episcopal Academy, and in this position-, 
developed a power of discipline remarkable in one so young, as well as 
a still more unusual power of commanding personal attachment and 
respect. In the early war excitement he joined an informal military 
compan\- in Germantown, under the instruction of an accomplished 
German ofificer, who afterwards entered the service, when Lambdin, 
though one of the youngest members, became the actual instructor in 
tactics, himself giviog conscientious devotion to the study. This 
amateur science was of value in forming the character of the young 
military man, so that in the summer of 1862, when he began recruiting 
duty for the 121st, he was not wholly without knowledge of the duties 
before him. 

The record of Lambdin's military service is given elsewhere. 
Small and slight in build and of a refined and nervous temperament, 
he nevertheless endured the long, hard service of the Armv of the- 



APPENDIX. 153 

Potomac without fatigue or failure and with constant devotion and 
cheerfuhiess. Throughout the war his artistic talent was frequently 
exercised. It was, in fact, his knowledge of drawing that led to his 
first assignment to staff duty, in topographical work for General 
Doubleday. His sketch-book was his constant companion and his 
letters home were richly illustrated with drawings of camp-life, por- 
traits and views, as well as with humorous illustrations of army experi- 
ence. 

At the close of the war Colonel Lambdin, then in his twenty-sixth 
year, proposed to devote himself again to art, but in the desire for 
immediate employment he entered the service of the Harrison Boiler 
Works as a draughtsman, and somewhat later resumed his former 
profession of a teacher at the Episcopal Academy. He had been always 
a serious-minded man, of earnest religious convictions, and the 
determination now became formed in his mind to devote himself to 
the sacred ministry. Much of his leisure time was devoted to church 
work in the parish of St. Michael's, Germantown, where he was super- 
intendent of the Sunday school and where he established a guild for 
workingmen and other agencies of the kind that were much less com- 
mon then than they have since become. In the spring of 1870 he was 
ordained a deacon by the late Bishop Stevens, of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Diocese of Pennsylvania. 

Although Lambdin had apparently stood the rough service of the 
war without harm, he was one of the many who felt the effects of it 
afterward in the return to a sedentary life. At the time of his ordina- 
tion his constitution was visibly impaired, but it was thought that it 
would be strengthened by a visit to Europe in company witli his 
brother, who was going abroad for his health. They accordingly went 
together, and while traveling on the Continent found themselves sud- 
denly in the midst of the turmoil of the Franco-Prussian War. It 
w^as with difficulty that they made their way through France and to 
England, and the fatigue and anxiety of this experience were such that 
Lambdin returned home in September entirely broken down ; and after 
lingering for a time, amid the alternating hopes and fears of his family 
and friends, in November he died, having but just completed his thir- 
tieth year. He was buried in St. Luke's church-yard, Germantown, 
where a monument erected by his comrades-in-arms commemorates the 
pure record of a faithful soldier and minister of Christ. 

CORPORAL REUBEN McCONNELL. 

Corporal McConnell was universally liked in the regiment. Good- 
natured, generous, brave and willing at all times to accept his share of 



154 APPENDIX. 

any hardship. During one of the many movements of the regiment 
on the 13th of May at Spottsylvania, while crossing an elevation in 
full view of the enemy, whose batteries were rapidly firing at the moving 
line, a shot struck McConnell in the thigh, tearing it to shreds. He 
was almost immediately carried off the field, but expired before reach- 
ing the hospital tent. 

ALEXANDER McDOWELL 

Was seventeen years old on entering the service. He was at once made 
fourtli sergeant of Company "A." His first serious mishap befell him 
when, on the first day of July, 1863, he was held up by the cohorts of 
the Confederacy at Gettysburg and made prisoner of war. During the 
first day's engagement in the Wilderness campaign he received a wound 
that rendered him unfit for active service, and he was transferred to 
the Veteran Reserve Corps in the following December. His name is 
honorably mentioned, among others, in general order issued by the 
commander of the regiment after the engagement at Fredericksburg, 
Va., December 13, 1862, as distinguished for bravery. 

That his services are fully appreciated by his neighbors is indicated 
by the fact that he represented them in Washington, D. C, for two 
years and has been Clerk of the House of Representatives for ten years, 
and still occupies that position. 

SERGEANT SAMUEL C. AHLLER 

Was born in the city of Philadelphia August 11, 1844, was educated 
at the public schools in that city, reaching the Central High School, 
which he left to enter his father's store just prior to the beginning of 
the war. He enlisted in Company "E," 121st Regt. Penna. Vols., and 
was mustered in with his company and appointed sergeant August 15, 
1862. He was with his command at the battles of Fredericksburg, 
Va., December 13, 1862; Pollock's Mills, Va., April 30, 1863; Chancel- 
lorsville, Va., May 4, 1863, and Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863, on which 
latter date he lost his life. 

As a boy he was always obedient and dutiful to his parents, as a 
young man was honorable and upright in all his dealings, and he died 
in his nineteenth year, beloved and respected by all who knew him. 

HON. THOMAS A. MORRISON, 

At the present time Judge of the Superior Court of Pennsylvania and 
a resident of Smethport, McKean County, Pa., was born at Pleasant- 
ville, Venango County, Pa., May 4, 1840. He entered the service of 



APPENDIX. 155 

his country as a private in Company^ "A," 121st Regt. Penna. Vols., 
and lost his left arm at the shoulder joint in the battle of Fredericks- 
burg, December 13, 1862, and at the same time received a severe wound 
in his left knee. He was treasurer of Venango County during 1868 
and 1869, and after having married Helen S. Gardner, of Warsaw, 
N. Y., March 31, 1870, was admitted to the bar of Venango County in 
1879. He was made Judge of the Court of Common Pleas of the 
Forty-eighth Judicial District of Pennsylvania in 1887, and Judge of 
the Superior Court of Pennsylvania in January, 1903. His term expires 
in January, 1914. 

CAPTAIN GEORGE E. RIDGWAY. 

George Espy Ridgway was born in Franklin, Venango County, 
Pa., on the 17th day of October, 1829. He entered the service as 
captain of Company "A," 121st Penna. Vols., August 28, 1862. Dur- 
ing the engagement at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862, he received 
a wound which disabled him and necessitated his discharge from the 
service. He returned to Franklin and engaged in refining oil. In 1872 
he sold his interest in the business and engaged in the omnibus business. 
In 1878 he went West with his family and engaged in carpentering and 
contracting, and while engaged at work a scaffolding on which he was 
working gave way, and he received an injury which caused him to give 
up his trade. After partially recovering from his injury he returned 
to Franklin and was tendered and accepted a position at the Eclipse 
Oil Works, of Franklin, Pa. His injuries, however, had completely 
broken down his health, and he died June 11, 1891, after a lingering 
and painful illness. He was buried in the Franklin Cemetery by the 
Masonic Fraternity. 

FIRST SERGEANT EDWARD SCHEERER, COMPANY "B." 

In that excellent book entitled the "German Soldier in the Wars 
of the United States," written by Captain Jos. G. Rosengarten, he 
says : "One of the best elements of the little regular army was the 
supply of excellent non-commissioned officers, largely old German 
soldiers, and it was a great stroke of good fortune when a volunteer 
company had one of these well-trained and well-disciplined men in its 
ranks. He steadied the whole line and gave it an example of soldierly 
excellence in every particular. 

"Such a man was Edward Scheerer, first sergeant of Company 'B,' 
of the I2ist Regt. Penna. Vols., a German, who had served in a 



156 APPENDIX. 

battery of the Third United States Artillery under some of the most 
distinguished ofiicers of the regular army. Such men as Reynolds 
and Burnside recognized him as an old comrade, and his bearing and 
gallantry and knowledge of the real business of soldiering were the 
object of universal admiration among the green hands, both officers 
and men, of his regiment. He fell at the battle of Fredericksburg, Va., 
and he was but a type of the large number of German soldiers who 
served in the ranks, and who, like Scheerer, sacrificed good employment 
at home to do their duty to the country of their adoption at the hour of 
supreme peril and trial." 

Edward Scheerer was born in Neistan, Germany, and came to his 
adopted country in 1838, while yet under eighteen years of age. His 
naturalization papers state that he had been a subject of the Grand 
Duke of Baden. He had, prior to the Rebellion, served three separate 
terms in the United States regular army. His honorable discharge for 
the term of five years ending June 9, 1850, issued at Jefferson Barracks, 
Mo., as private of Captain and Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Bragg's 
Company "C," Third Artillery, gave his description as "33 years of 
age, five feet eight inches high, fair complexion, blue eyes, light hair, 
and by occupation a soldier," and bears the following endorsement: 
"Private Scheerer served in the field during the whole of the Alexican 
War, and after its close for two years against the Indians in New 
Mexico. He was present in all of General Taylor's battles and 
acquitted himself efficiently and gallantly." Signed, Braxton Bragg, 
Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel and Captain Third Artillery. 

At the formation of the 121st Regiment he was to have been a 
commissioned officer, but was thrown out by the consolidation with the 
145th Regiment, when he enlisted and was made first sergeant of 
Company ''B." Sergeant Scheerer was a soldier by nature, a man of 
magnificent physique ; he stood nearly six feet in height and weighed 
two hundred pounds. He wore a heavy beard, which reached his 
waist. 

His long experience as a soldier made him an excellent drill- 
master, and to his splendid training is due the efficiency which Com- 
pany "B" attained as one of the best drilled companies in the I2ist 
Regiment. At the battle of Fredericksburg, during the repulse of 
Meade's brilliant charge, he stuck to his post and used every effort to 
steady the men. His command, "Rally once more on the colors," 
having been given the third time when he was shot dead. 

The following extracts from letters written shortly after his death 
by Captain Alex. Laurie, of his company, and Lieutenant Jos. G. 
Rosengarten, of Company "D," testify to his worth : — 



APPENDIX. 157 

Camp of 121ST Regt. Penna. Vols., 

Near White Oak Church, Va. 
Mrs. B. Scheerer. 

Dear Madam : — Your letter of the 19th inst. came duly to hand. 
It becomes my sad duty to inform you that your husband fell in the 
battle of Fredericksburg, mortally wounded, almost instantly killed, 
for he never spoke after he was shot. He died in a very few minutes 
afterwards, and we buried him the next day. He was at my side when 
he fell ; he fought bravely, and w^as the best soldier in the regiment. 
All loved him who knew him. Yours respectfully, 

Alex. Laurie. 



Messrs. Powers & Weightman. 

My Dear Sirs :— Captain Laurie, of Company "B," in my regi- 
ment, requested me to call your attention to the case of Edward 
Scheerer. This man was the orderly sergeant of Laurie's company. 
He was the very best soldier that I ever saw, and he fell fighting very 
gallantly at the battle near Fredericksburg almost at my side. He 
had been for fifteen years in the regular service, and was then in your 
employment at the Falls of Schuylkill. Fie enlisted in our regiment, 
and often spoke to me of your zeal for the cause for which he was 
fighting, and hoped, that if he fell, I would tell you of his good con- 
duct. This I am very glad to do. Yours truly, 

J. G. Rosengarten. 

FIRST SERGEANT WILLIAM STRONG. 
William Strong was born in Mifflin County, Pa., April 23, 1817. 
After serving an apprenticeship wath a cabinet-maker in Lewistown, 
Pa., he went to Philadelphia, where he married, and remained until his 
enlistment. By his skill and attention to business he became quite 
prominent among his tradesmen and supplied some of the best-known 
dealers in Philadelphia and other cities with the products of his work- 
shop. At the time of his enlistment he had passed his forty-fifth year, 
and so was entitled to remain at home had he chosen to do so. His 
love of military matters led him early in the forties to become attached 
to the "Philadelphia Grays," a light artillery company, in which he 
continued to take an active interest until the Rebellion scattered its 
members throughout the Union army. He was thoroughly trained in 
the tactics and duties of the soldier. A short time before he enlisted 
he was drill-master for a company of gentlemen organized for an 
emergency, and was solicited to accept the position of captain of the 
company. His experience served him well as first sergeant of Com- 



15^ APPENDIX. 

pany "E," and the men under his care soon profited by the capable 
training they received. He possessed the respect of the officers and 
men of the entire regiment, and his loss was a severe blow to his com- 
pany. He fell at P>edericksbiirg, December 13, 1862, at the most 
advanced point reached by the regiment in Meade's famous charge; 
was wounded in the ankle and in the right side, the latter causing 
his death on the following day. 

It is our duty and pleasure to record the generous act of the com- 
mander of a Confederate regiment that greatly relieved the suffering 
of Sergeant Strong. When the Union lines were finally driven back, 
a son of the sergeant, who was a corporal in the same company, went 
to his father's assistance, but was unable single-handed to take him ofif 
the field, and so both fell into the hands of the advancing foe, and 
became prisoners of war. The corporal approached the commander 
of one of the rebel regiments, occupying a position in reserve, and 
asked for a stretcher for the use of his father. On learning the situ- 
ation, the officer without hesitation detailed men with a stretcher, with 
orders to take the sergeant to the field hospital a half mile or more to 
the rear and entirely out of harm's way, and where he remained until 
his death. When it is remembered that under the orders issued by the 
commander of the Union army, no assistance could be given the 
wounded by their comrades, this kind act on the part of the Confederate 
colonel can be better appreciated. 

COLONEL J. S. W^\RNER. 

James Spencer Warner was born in Lowville, Erie County, Pa., 
October i, ]84i. He was the oldest son of Rev. W. W. Warner, a 
prominent citizen of Erie County, and at one time its representative in 
the Pennsylvania Legislature. 

Colonel Warner received an excellent education at the academies 
of Waterford, Pa., and Kingsville, Ohio, being a student at the latter 
place with Judge Albion Tourgee and other distinguished men. After 
taking a course in a commercial college of Buflfalo, N. Y., he was 
offered and accepted a position in the dry goods house of Sam. L. 
Brown & Bros., of Plcasantville, Pa., where he had been but a short 
time when the call came for volunteers for the army. While not yet 
quite twenty-one years of age, he oflfered himself for the service of 
his country. His company, "A," at once selected him as first lieutenant. 
After the close of the war he returned to mercantile life until 1870, 
going then to Erie, Pa., entering the insurance business as agent for 
some of the largest companies in the United States and England, in 
which business he continued until his death, November 15, 1883. 



One of the 300 Fighting Regiments. 



Colonel Fox has selected from all the regiments in the Union 
armies the 300 regiments whose losses in killed and mortally wounded 
were heaviest, and he designates these as "the 300 fighting regiments." 
In this list of 300 fighting regiments the 121st Penna. Vols, holds the 
proud position of No. 18, there being but 17 regiments whose percentage 
of killed and mortally wounded is greater. 

Philadelphia, October 15, 1890. 
•Dear Colonel : — I note in your volume of "Regimental Losses 
in the Civil War," you fix the percentage of loss in killed and died of 
wounds for the 121st Regt. Penna. Vols, at 12.2 per cent., and the 
number of officers and men enrolled at 891. I have official advice that 
the number of officers and men entering the service was 730, and I 
believe some 24 men were subsequently recruited, making the total 
enrolled about (and almost exactly) 754, which would fix the percentage 
of killed and died of wounds, assuming you are correct in the number 
of the latter, 14.5 per cent. 

The 12 1 St Regt. Penna. Vols, is about getting out a record of all 
matters pertaining to its service, and we expect to make use of much 
of the information you publish in your valuable work, and if our per- 
centage in killed was greater than you have it, would like to see it 
corrected. Will you kindly look into the matter and advise ? 

Yours very truly, 

W. W. Strong. 
Colonel William F. Fox, 

Albany, N. Y. 



Albany, N. Y., October 21, 1890. 
Captain W. W. Strong, Philadelphia, Pa. 

]\Iy Dear Sir: — I take pleasure in answering your favor of the 
15th. ITndoubtedly the 121st Pennsylvania never took to the front 
the number of men indicated by its total enrollment, and the percentage 
of killed, as based on its actual, instead of its nominal strength would 

159 



i6o 



APPENDIX. 



greatly exceed tlie percentage stated in "Regimental Losses." But 
the same may be said of any other regiment; and as I had no means 
of knowing the actual strengtli, as distinguished from the nominal 
strength, I was obliged, in fairness to all, to use the "total enrollment," 
and adopt that as a common standard in calculating the percentages of 
killed. 

Still, if your regimental historian, or historical committee, can 
ascertain definitely the actual strength with which you started for the 
field, together with any recruits who actually joined for service at the 
front, in justice to your regiment, such facts should be stated in your 
publication, and your percentage of killed adjusted accordingly. 

You might also explain that in "Regimental Losses" the "total 
enrollment," which was used as a common standard in calculating 
percentages, necessarily included a large number of men who never 
served with the regiment — men who never joined the command, and 
some who deserted immediately after enlisting. 

Nor could the author avoid including these, for he had no means 
of ascertaining the exact extent of the depletion from such causes. It 
W'as ascertained in some regiments, but, unless it could be ascertained 
for every regiment, the information could not be used. The basis of 
percentages must be the same for all. 

Trusting that you can adjust the matter satisfactorily in your 
history, I remain, Yours fraternally, 

William F. Fox. 

P. S. — How did it happen that Company "H" was so small ? Bates' 
rolls show only 48 ofificers and men in that company. Please ask 
some of the comrades in Company "H" for an explanation. How^ did 
the company get mustered when it had not the minimum strength 
required for muster? 

I note, also, in looking over this matter, that the strength of the 
T2ist Pennsylvania was officially reported on September 29, 1862, at 
770. See Official Records, \"ol. XTX, Part II, p. 369. If this reported 
strength included the "present for duty" only, the regiment must have 
had a still larger number when it left Philadelphia. 

W. F. F. 



Philadelphia, Pa., December 16, 1890. 
Colonel W. F. Fox, Albany, N. Y. 

Dear Sir: — Referring to your courteous letter of October 21st, 
I have made strenuous efforts to secure the information which you ask 
for in your postscript, in reference to the strength of Company "H" 




ADJUTANT JOHN lUNGERICH. 



APPENDIX. 



l6l 



of the I2ist Regiment, when it was mustered into the service. Nobody 
connected with that company or with the regiment seems to be able to 
give any definite information in reference to the point raised by you. 
Colonel Alexander Biddle, who was major of the regiment at the time 
of its muster, explains as follows, viz. : — 

"The Philadelphia half of the regiment, you may recollect, had 
the Venango levy of Colonel Davis added to it, and, with this, was 
mustered in as a complete regiment. I suppose it was the pressing 
need of men which caused the regiment to be accepted in that way, 
putting two half- formed battalions together and hurrying them forward 
to Antietam." 

You are familiar with all the circumstances attending the move- 
ment of troops to the front during August and the beginning of 
September, 1862, when regiments partially organized were consoli- 
dated in order to form full regiments, which were then hurried to the 
front. No doubt the exigency of the times necessitated many things 
that were not fully in accordance with regulations. 

In reference to the strength of the 121st Regiment, and the per- 
centage of loss as determined by you, I enclose for your information 
a letter which I received from O. D. Greene, Assistant Adjutant- 
General, January 13, 1888, from which it appears that the 121st Penn- 
sylvania Infantry entered the service with 730 officers and men. Be 
kind enough to return this letter and oblige. 

Yours truly, Wm. W. Strong. 



War Department, Adjutant-General's Office. 
Washington, January 13, i< 
Mr. William W. Strong, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sir : — As requested in your letter of the 24th ult., I have the honor 
to inform you that the 121st Penna. Inft. entered the service with 730 
officers and men, and at the date of its muster out it numbered 307 
officers and men, including 24 men transferred to the 191st Penna. 
Inft. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

O. D. Greene, 
Assistant A djufan f-General. 



Albany, N. Y., December 18, 1890. 
Wm. W. Strong, Esq., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Dear Sir: — Enclosed I return Colonel Greene's letter, which I 
read with interest and took the liberty of copying. Many thanks for 
the same. Yours truly, William F. Fox. 



Killed and Mortally Wounded. 



The following list of killed and mortally wounded, made from 
company records, after all the facts were known, demonstrates the inac- 
curacy of official returns of casualties, reported immediately after 
engagements, on information not always reliable. 

In this list only those who died within a very few days after being 
wounded are reported as mortally wounded. Very many were seri- 
ously wounded and died after lingering for months, from the efifects 
of woimds, who are not included under this head. 

Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. 

Company "A." — First Lieutenant G. W. Brickley, killed; Corporal 
John Burns, killed ; Private Grin S. Babcock, killed ; Private John B. 
Manson, killed ; Private Chambers LawTcnce, mortally wounded, died 
December 17; Private Prior McMurray, killed; Private James ]\I. 
Alanson, killed ; Private William A. McKenzie, killed ; Private John H. 
Stroop, killed ; Private Sidney Heckard, mortally wounded, died Decem- 
ber 21, 1862. 

Company "B." — First Sergeant Edward Scheerer, killed ; Corporal 
R. M. Snodgrass, killed ; Sergeant George Keen, mortally wounded, 
died January 5, 1863 ; Private Victor Kneblher, mortally wounded, died 
January 6, 1863. 

Company "C." — Private Charles E. Silver, killed ; Private Charles 
B. Newman, mortally wounded. 

Company "D." — Private Cornelius Dougherty, killed ; Private 
Patrick McNamee, killed; Sergeant Erskine Hazard, mortally wounded, 
died December 13, 1862. 

Company "E." — Private Malcolm Graham, killed; Sergeant 
William Strong, mortally wounded, died December 14, 1862; Corporal 
William C. Ryall, mortally wounded, died February 18, 1863; Private 
Peter Denver, mortally wounded, died January 13, 1863; Private John 
SchaiTfer, Jr., mortally wounded, died December 20, 1862. 

Company "F." — Corporal Jacob Shawkey, killed ; Private Leslie L. 
Say, killed; Private Reuben Swab, killed; Corporal John Phipps, 
mortallv* wounded, died January 15, 1863; Corporal Jeremiah Johnson, 
mortally wounded, died January 15, 1863; Private David Cribbs,. 

162 



APPENDIX. 



163 



mortally wounded, died December 23, 1862 ; Private William Kennedy, 
iiiortally wounded, died December 21, 1862. 

Company "G." — Lieutenant M. W. C. Barclay, killed; Private 
Joseph L. Ashbridge, killed; Corporal Charles C. Carver, mortally 
wounded. 

Company "H." — Private Edward J. Lawler, killed. 

Company "I." — Corporal Albert Lindey, killed; Private Robert 
Kay, killed; Private Edward Morin, killed; Private William A. Van- 
netta, killed; Corporal James W. A. Bishop, mortally wounded, died 
January 13, 1863. 

Company "K." — Private J. Bolton, mortally wounded, died Decem- 
ber 21, 1862; Private James Burk, mortally wounded, died December 
27, 1862 ; Private John G. Thom, mortally wounded, died December 
16, 1862. 

Gettysburg, July i, 1863. 

Company "A." — Corporal Solomon Engle, killed; Corporal Francis 
H. Hilliard, mortally wounded, died August 2, 1863 ; Private Wm. H. 
Kelly, killed ; Private Wm. C. Waits, killed ; Private Henry A. Cornell, 
mortally wounded, died July 8, 1863; Private Ebenezer H. James, 
mortally wounded; Private David A. Trip, mortally wounded, died 
July 6, 1863; Private John McCool, killed. 

Company "C." — Sergeant McCoy, killed; Sergeant IMcCaffrey, 
killed ; Private Thomas Sodon. killed ; Private Joseph Wilkins, killed. 

Company "D." — Corporal John Kenny, killed ; Private Henry C. 
Jarres, killed. 

Company "E." — Sergeant Samuel C. Miller, killed ; Private George 
Blackburn, killed ; Private William McDermon, killed. 

Company "F." — Private James R. Bell, killed; Private Chester W. 
Tallman, killed ; Private Simon P. Swab, mortally wounded, died July 
7, 1863. 

Company "G."- — Private Tristan Campbell, killed. 

Company "1." — Sergeant R. H. Cowpland, killed ; Private Peter 
McNally, killed; Private Robert Ray, killed; Private John Thiele, 
mortally wounded, died July 12, 1863. 

Company "K." — Corporal Wm. D. Spear, killed ; Private Daniel 
^lullen, killed. 

Wilderness, May 5, 1864. 
Company "A." — Charles C. Connelly, mortally wounded. 
Company "D." — Sergeant William B. Graham, killed; Private 
Peter McDonough, mortally wounded, died June 5, 1864. 
Company "C." — Private John IVIagner, killed. 



164 appendix. 

Spottsylvania, May 10, 1864. 

Company "C." — Private John Ridgway, killed; Private Wm. H. 
Stong, mortally wounded, died May 18, 1864. 

Company "D." — Private Aaron Shallow, mortally wounded, died 
May 24, 1864. 

Company "F." — Sergeant Thomas Service, killed. 

Company "K." — Captain W. W. Dorr, killed. 

Laurel PIill, May ii, 1864. 

Company "B." — Color-Sergeant William Hardy, killed. 
Company "E." — May 13, 1864, Corporal Reuben McConnell, killed. 

North Anna River, May 23, 1864. 
Company "H." — Private Wm. Graham, killed. 

Bethesda Church. 

Company "I." — Color-Sergeant Alfred Clymer, mortally wounded, 
died July 17, 1864; Private James Pierce, killed. 

Company "H." — Private George Aldrich, killed. 

Petersburg. 

Company "A." — Corporal Aaron H. Harrison, killed ; Private Wm. 
M. Kenzie, killed. 

Company "B." — Private Edw. C. Shannon, killed. 

Company "F."— Wm. Nelles, killed. 

Company "H." — Private Thomas Wood, killed. 

Company "K.' — Private Robt. G. Lindsay, Jr., mortally wounded, 
died July 16, 1864. 

In Rebel Prison at Salisbury, N. C, November 25, 1864. 
Company "H." — Sergeant Wm. Douglass, killed. 

Dabney's Mills, February 6, 1865. 

Company "B." — Private Alfred Wrigley, killed. 
Company "D." — Sergeant Wm. Hudson, mortally wounded, died 
February 22, 1865. 

Company "E." — Private Frank Dougherty, killed. 

Company "F." — Private John Myers, killed ; Private Abram 



APPENDIX, 



165 



Heckathorn, mortally wounded, died February 9, 1865 ; Private Obediah 
Simpson, mortally wounded, died February 14, 1865. 
Company "G." — Private Edward Harker, killed. 

Five Forks, April i, 1865. 

Company "G." — Private Chas. Dick, killed. 

Company "FI." — Private John McFadden, mortally wounded, died 
June 6, 1865. 

Showing the actual loss in killed and mortally wounded as 
follows : — 

Fredericksburg 24 killed 19 mortally wounded. 

Gettysburg 21 " 6 " 

Wilderness 2 '' 2 " 

Laurel Hill and Spottsylvania 5 " 2 " 

North Anna i " o " 

Bethesda Church 2 " i " 

Petersburg 5 " i " 

Hatcher's Run and Dabney's Mills. 4 " 3 " 

Five Forks i " i " 

Stockade, Salisbury, N. C i " o " 



66 



35 



Total killed and mortally wounded, loi. 

Total number entering the service per letter O. D. Greene, Assist- 
ant Adjutant-General, page 161 730 

Recruited during the service 24 



Total 754 

Making the percentage of killed and mortally wounded 13.4 
per cent. 



Biddle's Brigade, July i, 1863. 



As part of the First Brigade of General Doubleday's division at 
the battle of Gettysburg, the survivors of the I2ist Regiment enter a 
protest against the intimation contained in the Comte de Paris' descrip- 
tion of that engagement, that its first position was yielded to the 
enemy one moment before the balance of the line gave way; or, that 
by falling back, it was the cause of other troops being compelled to 
yield. When Biddle's brigade started on its retrograde movement, 
no other troops continued to hold the line. Whatever troops continued 
in their positions up to the time Biddle's brigade fell back, started to 
the rear simultaneously with Biddle. 

In placing the various brigades so as to meet the enemy to the 
best advantage, it so happened that Biddle's position was to the left 
and somewhat to the rear of Meredith, so that necessarily the enemy 
met Meredith before he struck Biddle. While Meredith occupied this 
advanced position, his left flank was, of course, not directly protected. 
It is possible that this peculiar formation of the line, the merits of 
which we do not undertake to discuss, may have misled the Comte de 
Paris, but certain it is that by any retrograde movement of Biddle's 
brigade Meredith's left was not exposed. 

The following correspondence should remove any doubts that may 
exist on this point : — 

Philadelphia, Pa., June i6, 1892. 
General Abner Doubleday, Washington, D. C. 

Sir: — The Comte de Paris, in his History of the War, page 568, 
"Vol. 3, relating the events of the engagement of July i. 1863, ^t Gettys- 
burg, gives the impression that Pender's three brigades advanced 
simultaneously on the left of the Union line, and that while Scale's 
Confederate brigade was driven back by Meredith's brigade. Perrin's 
brigade succeeded in driving Biddle from the field, so that the left of 
Meredith's brigade was exposed and taken in flank, causing it (Mere- 
dith's brigade) to "evacuate a portion of the wood in order to face the 
enemy who is threatening to turn their line." The idea here conveyed 
is that Biddle's brigade was driven from its position, and fell back to 
the seminary while Meredith was still confronting the enemy in the 
first position. 

166 



APPENDIX. 



167 



The survivors of Colonel Riddle's brigade feel that this statement 
of the Comte de Paris is unjust to them; their recollection being that 
there was no perceptible difference in the time of falling back by Bid- 
die's and Meredith's brigades, and that the brigades of the Third 
Division of the First Corps fell back simultaneously. The survivors 
of the I2ist Regiment are about to publish a history of the regiment; 
and, as a part of Biddle's brigade, would like to have a statement from 
you confirming their recollection that Biddle's men held out as long as 
.any others of the division, or that the impression given by Comte de 
Paris is correct. A reply at your convenience will oblige, 

■ Your obedient servant, 

W. W. Strong, 
Late Captain Company "E," 121st Rcgt. Pcnna. Vols. 

Mendham, N. J., June 21, 1892. 
Captain W. W. Strong, late 121st Penna. Vols., Phila. 

Comrade : — I am too ill to leave my room to consult my notes, but 
I think your view of the falling back is correct. 

I write with difficulty, as my fingers are weak and nerveless. 

Yours truly, 

A. DOUBLEDAY. 



Philadelphia, July 2, 1892. 
General: — I wish to thank you for your note of 21st ult. I 
hesitate to trouble you further in your illness, but would like to know 
if we are at liberty to quote your letter as verifying our statement that 
Biddle's brigade maintained its position at Gettysburg July i, 1863, as 
long as any other troops, when our history is published. 

Yours very truly, 
General Doubleday, W. W. Strong. 

Mendham, N. J. 



Mendham, N. J., July 6, 1892. 
Captain W. W. Strong. 

Dear Sir : — You can quote me as stated. 

Yours trulv, A. Doubleday. 



October, 3, 1892. 
Louis Philippe, Comte de Paris, 

Stowe House, Buckingham, England. 
Dear Sir: — I enclose herewith copy of some correspondence I 
have had with General Doubleday in reference to a statement made in 



1 68 



APPENDIX. 



your Plistory of the Civil War, which I have every reason to beUeve is 
incorrect. I feel quite sure that when, on investigation, you find it to 
be so you will not hesitate to do what you can to correct any false 
impression that may have been created by the passage in question. 

As the survivors of the I2ist Regiment, one of the regiments of 
Colonel Biddle's brigade, are about publishing a history of the regi- 
ment, it is the intention that some reference shall be made to the state- 
ment above referred to, and, before doing so, we would like to have 
your authority for the assertion that Biddle's brigade fell back, leaving 
Meredith's left uncovered, or in the event of your finding there is a 
mistake, must ask that you frankly admit it. 

Yours very truly, 

Wm. W. Strong, 
Late Captain Company "E," 121st Pcnna. Vols. 



Stowe House, Buckingham, October 24, 1892. 

Sir : — I have received your letter of the 3d instant and the copy 
of your correspondence with General Doubleday. Unfortunately I 
cannot make the researches which would be required to give a deliberate 
answer to your request. 

Since I have been exiled from my country, six years ago, I have 
been leading an erratic life, settling nowhere, as I can have no home 
far from my native land. In consequence of which I have left at the 
Chateau d'Eu all the papers, books, notes and documents concerning 
the History of the Civil War. I can have no access, personally, to 
them, and nobody except myself could find his way through such a 
mass of documents. I have, therefore, no means of studying again 
the incident of the battle of Gettysburg to which you call my attten- 
tion. I regret it because I aim always to be true in every respect and 
fair to every one. Believe me. Yours truly, 

Philippe, Comte de Paris. 



1307 Walnut Street, December 16, 1892. 

Dear Captain Strong: — I found on my table in town your note 
of December loth. which contained news to me. 

The position occupied by the brigade consisting of the 121st Penn- 
sylvania, 20th New York, a battery of six pieces, the I42d Pennsyl- 
vania and the insist Pennsylvania, is laid down as a definite line on 
Batchelder's map of the three days (this map was prepared from data 
collected on the ground not many days after the battle). To the right 
of this line was General Langhorne Wistcr's brigade, which extended 
as far as the Railroad Cut to the north. 




FIRST LIEUTENANT RICHARD A. DEMPSEY. 



APPENDIX. 169 

We had been facing to the north and an advance was being made 
from the north by the rebel forces, and we were under a hvely fire of 
shells, when we were ordered to change front and deploy to the south, 
facing west; this was done, leaving the 151st in front of the wood, the 
I42d next to it to the south, the battery of artillery next south of that, 
the 20th New York (known as the Ulster County Regiment, Major 
Van Rensselaer and Colonel Gates), and then the 121st Pennsyl- 
vania. We had no more than time enough to deploy beyond the 20th 
New York, face westward and advance a short distance, finding an 
undisturbed fence before us, and then the rebel line was close to us, 
and a regiment some 150 yards further off well on our left flank. We 
remained there until the battery withdrew in safety and no visible line 
was left. 

Lieutenant Herpst and I walked together from the field to the 
seminary, where we joined Colonel Biddle, Colonel McFarlane, Colonel 
McCalmont and others, and efforts were made for a stand in front of 
the seminary. Colonel Cummings had been mortally wounded by a 
fire from his right. 

You see in all this no allusion to Meredith and the Iron Brigade. 
I know they were in the wood and through it well to the front, doing 
admirable service. General Meredith told me he lost 70 per cent, of 
his force in that engagement, and I don't think many were prisoners, 
but at the particular time of the final assault I know not where they 
were. Batchelder places them west of the wood. This wood screened 
the advance of the rebel troops on the 151st, and their numbers burst 
upon them at close quarters. 

I found General Wadsworth on Cemetery Ridge when I arrived 
there, with his troops around him, ready again for effective service. 
The troops as they retreated were not disheartened ; there was no 
panic, no unseemly apprehension ; their being mixed up together and 
separated from their proper ranks was the only disorder. On Ceme- 
tery Hill that confusion was soon rectified; 82 of the 121st Regiment 
gathered together, received fresh cartridges from an Eleventh Corps 
officer of ordnance and were as ready as at first. 

Wister's regiments went off towards Gulp's Hill to resist a fancied 
advance; this I think when the sun was not three hours high. We 
had had 256 muskets in the field. Yours sincerely, A. Biddle. 

Captain Strong, 121st Regt. Penna. Vols. 



J. H. Stine, the historian of the First Corps, writes : — 

"The brigades of Biddle, Meredith, Stone and Cutler retired 



I/O APPENDIX. 

from the advanced position almost simultaneously on the first day at 
Gettysburg. A heavy force of the enemy made a flank movement 
around the left of the corps, hoping to cut off its retreat. In that 
movement Biddle suffered severely from an enfilading fire, and was 
compelled to change front to meet it. Being in an open field, the 
brigade lost heavily, while Meredith's, on its right, was greatly pro- 
tected by a heavy oak grove. When it was discovered that the 
enemy, with great superiority of numbers, were attempting to turn 
both flanks of the First Corps, the Eleventh having been forced back 
to Gettysburg, it was directed to retire to Seminary Ridge, the brigades 
of Biddle, Meredith, Stone and Cutler falling back slowly before three 
lines of battle. The Confederate line overlapped Biddle more than a 
quarter of a mile, and was held in check by Buford throwing his 
cavalry into squares." 

The circumstances attending the movement of the troops during 
the first day's engagement at Gettysburg were such that writers might 
easily be mistaken as to the exact position of the various brigades at 
stated times. Batchelder's map places Meredith's brigade, in an 
advanced position, with Cutler on his right. It also places Biddle's 
brigade some distance in rear of and somewhat to the left of IMeredith, 
and Stone's brigade in rear of Cutler. Stine' in his "History of the 
Army of the Potomac," says Biddle's brigade was posted on Meredith's 
left en echelon. 

General Doubleday, at lo.io a. m., places Meredith north of Wil- 
loughby Run, and at 3.30 p. m. some distance south of Willoughby 
Run, with Biddle on his left and Stone on his right. It would a]>pear 
as the engagement progressed, that Cutler's brigade worked to the 
right and rear ; that Stone, following up this movement and filling the 
gap between Cutler and Meredith, created a vacancy between his own 
and Biddle's brigades, in which vacancy Meredith very naturally took 
his position on falling back from the run. where he had done such 
glorious work during most of the day. 

At no time did Biddle's brigade join Meredith's left in his most 
advanced position north of or even abreast of Willoughby Run, and 
for a portion of the day the greater part of Biddle's brigade faced west 
while Meredith faced north. The advanced position of Meredith left 
his flank somewhat exposed, and this might have caused him to fall 
back to the line occupied by the other troops ; but certainly Biddle's 
brigade did not begin its retrograde movement until the whole line, 
including Meredith's brigade, began to fall back, and no Union troops 
whatever remained on the field after Biddle's brigade had fallen back 
to the seminarv. 



appendix. 171 

The Yankee Cheer and the Rebel Yell. 

A marked accompaniment of every engagement between the oppos- 
ing infantry forces, and one of which mention is seldom made, was 
the triumphant cheer of the Union forces or the exultant yell of the 
Confederates, indulged in by either side as the victory momentarily 
favored the blue or the gray, and to those present on the field and to 
those separated from the view of the contestants by any intervening 
obstacle, the deep baritone cheer or the high tenor yell was a certain 
indication of the success or defeat of the Union forces, the cheer 
frequently being taken up along the whole line of troops, carrying 
with it enthusiasm sufficient in many cases to complete a victory. 

At Fredericksburg. 

Late in the afternoon of December 13, 1862. after the fight, what 
might have been a serious accident proved to be quite an amusing 
incident. Just as the regiment had completed its formation prepara- 
tory for a rest after its day of hard work, a straggling sergeant, seem- 
ingly in search of his regiment, heavily loaded with an immense 
knapsack, apparently completely worn out and hardly able to drag 
one foot after the other, came to a halt a few yards in front of the line, 
unslung his knapsack and unceremoniously took his seat thereon to 
enjoy a few moments' rest. He was hardly seated, however, when a 
shell from a rebel battery came plunging along in a direct line in his 
rear, and, entering the ground a foot or two from him, passed under 
the knapsack and out in front, throwing the knapsack and sergeant 
several feet in the air. The sergeant, turning a summersault and 
coming down on his feet, struck ofif at a "double-quick," apparently 
forgetting all about his former fatigue or his worldly possessions. 



Our Color-Bearers. 



The rcgiinent was fortunate in the selection of its color-bearers. 
The men appointed to this particularly dangerous post proved, in every 
case, that they possessed all the necessary qualifications for such an 
honorable position. Two sets of colors were provided for each of the 
Pennsylvania regiments, viz., the National flag and the blue infantry 
flag. Color-Sergeant Eskine W. Hazard, Jr., of Company "D," took 
charge of the National flag immediately on the organization of the 
regiment. The infantry flag w-as placed in charge of Sergeant W'm. 
Hardy, of Company "B." 

The first to relinquish his life on the altar of his country as the 
bearer of the standard was Color-Sergeant Hazard, who fell at 
Fredericksburg while gallantly carrying aloft the glorious old flag he 
defended with his life. Sergeant Hazard, at the time of his enlistment 
in Company "D," was thirty-five years of age, in the full vigor of the 
prime of life, with every prospect of an illustrious future. He was the 
son of an old merchant of Philadelphia, one of its leading citizens. 
On the death of Hazard, Sergeant William Hardy took his place as 
the bearer of the National colors. 

Wm. Hardy was born at Phcenixville, Pa., in 1830, and lived for 
a number of years in Reading, Pa., working in the car shops. He 
was a member of the Ringgold Light Artillery, organized May 21, 
1850. In i860 he moved to Philadelphia, and in April, 1861, enlisted 
in the 22d Regt. Penna. Vols, for three months, and was honorably 
discharged with his regiment August 7, 1861, after which he was 
attached to a government hospital, where he remained until he enlisted 
in Company "B," 121st Penna. Vols. 

Hardy carried the National colors through the various campaigns 
following the battle of Fredericksburg, facing the music at Chancellors- 
ville. Gettysburg and the Wilderness, Sergeant William Gillespie 
Graham, of Company "D," taking charge of the blue flag. 

Born in Philadelphia. August to, 1841, Graham was twenty-one 
years old w^hen he enlisted, full of vigor, a capital soldier, tall, manly, 
quiet and true as steel. He w'as always on the alert to defend his 



172 



APPENDIX. 173 

sacred charge and ready to plant it at any spot designated by his 
commanding officer. During the first day's battle of the Wilderness, 
May 5, 1864, he bravely met his death defending the colors. 

Graham's death was soon followed by that of Color-Sergeant 
Hardy, who fell a victim to his devotion to the flag at Laurel Hill, Va., 
on the nth of May, 1864, brave, generous, loved and lamented by his 
comrades. While carrying the colors at Gettysburg, the staff was shot 
into fragments, and he bore the flag and the staff in three pieces off 
the field when the entire line fell back. While passing through the 
town of Gettysburg on his way to Cemetery Ridge, he appropriated a 
shingle, which he picked up in one of the streets, and with it, on 
reaching his destination, spliced the staff', which was carried in this 
condition through the remainder of the service. Hardy was thirty- 
two years of age when he enlisted. 

Alfred Clymer, of Company "I," was the next choice for this 
hazardous position. Young Clymer was of a type largely represented 
in the regiment. A mere lad, brim full of enthusiasm, fearing nothing 
and reckless beyond limit, cheerful under the most adverse circum- 
stances, he and his youthful associates, by their song and laughter, 
their jests and merry pastimes, drove despondency from the heads of 
their older and more austere companions. At the time he received his 
fatal wound, June 5, 1864, at Bethesda Church, he was at his post while 
the regiment was being subjected to a severe fire from the rebel artillery. 
A solid cannon shot struck him in the leg and carried away a large 
portion of the flesh. He died from the eff'ect of this wound on the 
17th of the following month. 

On the death of Clymer, James Bingham Graham, of Company 
"D," and a brother of Color-Sergeant William G. Graham, who lost 
his life in the Wilderness, May 5th, was selected to carry the flag, there 
being at this time but one set of colors, viz. : the National colors ; the 
blue flag having been turned in when the elder Graham lost his life. 
James B. Graham was born January 27, 1845 ; enlisted December, 1863. 
Animated by the same intense patriotism that characterized his daring 
brother, he seemed determined to carry on that brother's career. He 
was a plucky fellow, but with less physical strength than his elder 
brother. Of lighter build than most of his robust comrades, he yet 
possessed the ambition to vie with them in all important movements 
of the regiment, that the colors he jealously guarded might always be 
in the lead. While regretting the loss of his genial companionship, 
his promotion spread joy throughout the camp. He was commissioned 
lieutenant in the 214th Penna. Vols, (the Union League Regiment) 
in March, 1865, and in that regiment he served until the close of the 



174 APPENDIX. 

war. He died in Philadelphia, June 6, 1869, from disease incurred in 
the hardship of the service. 

(Jn the promotion of James B. Graham, Louis Clapper, of Com- 
pan\- "C," was selected for the post of honor, and well was the task 
performed. Clapper was another of the Clymer order, and demon- 
strated his temerity in the prominent part he took in arranging with 
the men of a Confederate regiment in front of Petersburg to desert 
and come in a body into the Union line. Had he been detected and 
captured by the enemy while so engaged, no doubt his life would have 
paid the penalty. Clapper carried the colors through the balance of 
the service and had the honor of bringing them back unsullied to 
the grand old Iveystone State that had intrusted them to the care of 
the regiment. 

Narrative of Lieutenant Rich'd A. Dempsey, of Co. "E," 
12 1 ST Regt. Penna. Vols. 

The narrator of this remarkable story was born in Venango 
County, Pa., April 26, 1837. After the close of the war he returned 
to A'enango, and became engaged in oil producing and refining until 
1882, since which time he has been engaged in the manufacture of 
high explosives. He has been honored by his fellow-citizens of 
McKean and Venango Counties by being selected for various positions 
of honor and trust. He has twice been elected mayor of the city of 
Bradford. 

"In writing this narrative of my capture, confinement and escape 
from Salisbury prison, I wish to say that so many years have elapsed 
since that time that the whole matter seems more like a dream than 
reality ; and the absence of dates and the names of those who befriended 
me on my way to the Union lines, must be accounted for from the fact 
that I kept no names in full in my diary, as I was liable to be recaptured 
at any time ; and in that event the friends of the Union would have 
been confronted with the evidence and been most unmercifully dealt 
with, if they escaped death, such was the hatred of the rebels toward 
those who befriended an escaped prisoner. I have endeavored, as far 
as my memory serves me, and from what I could glean from notes 
kept in my diary, to give a pen picture of my prison life, which is not 
overdrawn, knowing that it will not do to portray all the horrors of 
the prison lest it should destroy credit for the whole story. Those 
who did not experience what the inmates of rebel prisons did, cannot 
believe it possible that such cruelty could have been practiced in a 
civilized country, evidently wishing to forget that slavery had made 
callous the hearts of the keepers of their prisons, whose notoriety for 




INTKRTOR VIEW UF LIEUTENANT GARSEU's WINTER QUARTERS CAMPAIGN 1862 AND 1863. 

Sketched by Lieutenant W. W. Dorr, Company K., 121st Regt. P. V. 



APPENDIX. 1/D 



cruelty as slave-owners secured them their appointments where they 
could satisfy their appetites on their helpless captives. Such was the 
class of men the Confederate Government sought out and appointed 
as the keepers and guards of its helpless captives ; and how well they 
did their work let the graves at Salisbury, Andersonville and other 
prisons tell. 

"At the battle of Peeble's Farm I was taken prisoner, at 8.30 on 
the morning of October i, 1864, with many others of the regiment. 
We were sent to the rear of the rebel lines, and marched to Petersburg 
under guard. On arriving in that city we were stripped of our blankets, 
tents and haversacks. After this robbing process had been gone 
through with, and the 'horrors of the prison pens of the Confederacy 
confronting us, we were marched to a building in the part of the citv 
which was being shelled by the Union army, and confined with others 
who had been as luckless as ourselves. The building was so crowded 
with prisoners that there was no chance to lie down during the night, 
and there were no sanitary accommodations. Here, herded together 
like cattle, we suffered all the pangs of hunger and thirst; several of 
the prisoners were taken sick, and one died during the night. 

"On the afternoon of the 2d we were ordered to fall in to receive 
our rations preparatory to leaving for Richmond. Several barrels of 
crackers were placed before us, but they were in such a decayed and 
mouldy state that even a hog would not have eaten them, let alone 
human beings. We declined this chivalrous offer with thanks, and as 
we did so one of the guards remarked that we would be glad to eat 
them before we got through. We then took up the line of march for 
Richmond and Petersburg Depot, where we were crowded into a box- 
car and the train started for Richmond, where we arrived early on the 
morning of the 3d. From the cars we were taken to Libby Prison, 
and confined in that noted bastile till the morning of the 4th; from 
there we were taken to the prison known as the tobacco warehouse, 
and here the fact that we were prisoners of war began very forcibly to 
dawn on us. In this prison the searching process, which the rebs had 
down to a fine art, was gone through with. The prisoners were all 
put into one of the rear rooms, and about one hundred at a time were 
brought out into one of the front rooms and formed into four ranks ; 
then the front rank was marched to the front of the line and stripped 
of all their clothing but their shirts, the pockets, lining and even the 
seams in the clothing being carefully inspected, and all money, watches, 
pocket-knives and everything which was of any value confiscated by the 
chivalrous gentlemen, with the consoling remark that they would keep 
them safe for us, which has been verified in the fact that nothing has 



176 APPENDIX. 

been seen of them since. Myself and several others escaped this 
inspection, from the fact of their not having time to go through us, as 
the train which was to take us, we knew not where, was in readiness 
to leave. 

"When we took the cars at Richmond we supposed our destination 
was Danville, \'a., but when w^e arrived at that place, about noon of 
the 5th, we changed cars and were run out on the railroad about twelve 
miles in the direction of Salisbury, N. C, and side-tracked, where we 
spent the night in the cars. As yet we had had no rations issued to 
us, and were compelled to subsist on what we could get from the 
natives, who out of curiosity came to have a look at the horrible 
Yankees, which was not much, as the guards would not allow them 
to come near us, even driving the women aw'ay, who came there with 
eatables to sell. We did not suffer much that night for the want of 
clothing, as the weather was warm. On the morning of the 6th the 
train was again put in motion, and at i p. m. we reached Greenville, 
N. C. Here we were ordered from the cars and driven like a herd of 
cattle to a field just outside of town and corralled for the night. It 
was here that I experienced one of the worst nights during the war. 
A cold rain was pouring down ; without food, blankets, shelter or fire, 
we were compelled to pass the night as best we could, sleep being out 
of the question. At this place we could have overpowered the guards 
and made our escape, but what w^ould it have availed in the end, as we 
had lost our reckoning and knew not in what direction to go in order 
to reach the Union lines ? 

"On the morning of the 7th, at 6 o'clock, faint with hunger, tired 
and worn out for want of sleep, chilled to the bone with cold and our 
clothes dripping with water, we were ordered to fall in, and were 
informed that our destination w^as Salisbury, N. C. We received the 
news with what' degree of satisfaction men in our condition could 
derive, and it served to divert our thoughts from that blot on American 
civilization — Andersonville. We were told that when we reached 
Salisbury our misery w^ould end. We were to have plenty to eat, 
shelter and clothes. How this was verified will be seen. After this 
little speech we were started for the train, the rebel guards ordering us 
to hurry up in such language as only a rebel could use. Again we 
were crowded into freight cars, the order was given to start, and we 
were off for the promised haven, which we reached at 3 p. m. From 
the cars we were taken directly to the Confederate State prison, which 
was located in the eastern outskirts of the town. It was a brick 
structure, 100x40 feet, four stories in height, erected, originally, for 
a cotton factory. In addition to the main building, there were six 



APPENDIX. 177 

smaller ones of brick, which had formerly been tenement houses, and 
a frame hospital capable of accommodating forty patients. These 
buildings, which would hold about 500 prisoners, were all filled with 
Confederate convicts, Yankee deserters, a number of enlisted men of 
our navy, several United States officers confined as hostages, a large 
number of Southern Unionists, fifty Northern citizens and four 
Northern newspaper correspondents, among them Albert D. Richard- 
son, of the New York Tribune. 

"The grounds consisted of four or five acres, surrounded with a 
fence built in the same manner as those around race-courses and fair 
grounds. On the outside of this fence a scafifolding ran entirely around, 
on which the guards walked back and forward, it being of sufficient 
height to allow them to have a full view of the grounds and to shoot 
with fatal accurateness. In the grounds were a few oak trees, the 
bark of which we used to make tea of to check diarrhoea. There was 
a well of water, but it was inadequate to supply the wants of the men, 
and others were sunk by the prisoners. The prison was under the 
command of Captain Swift Galloway, a thorough Confederate. Within 
this enclosure 10,000 men at one time were confined. We were so 
crowded for room that we could scarcely move, and when the rain 
came on the ground was worked into mud, through which we had to 
wade, many of the prisoners being barefoot and others with nothing 
on but shirt and trousers. The men were divided into divisions of 
from 300 to 400 men, under the charge of a sergeant, and then into 
squads of 100, they also being under the charge of a sergeant. The 
duty of the sergeant was to receive the rations for the division, which 
many times were not sufficient for a squad. 

"When we arrived at this place no preparation had been made for 
us, and my first niglit there did not serve to impress me very favorably 
with my future abiding-place ; and I resolved, as I had when first cap- 
tured, to make my escape at the first favorable opportunity. The night 
was clear, cold and frost}'. The promised clothing and shelter failed 
to materialize, and as to fire we had none, fuel not being obtainable. 
We lay on the bare ground in windrows, hugged together as close as 
we could, the warmth of our bodies being the only heat we had to 
keep our blood in circulation ; and when one side got cold the only 
thing we could do was for the whole crowd to turn over on the other. 
Here I received the first rations since my capture, which consisted of 
corn-bread made from meal ground with the cob, such as we used for 
feeding stock at home. Unsavory as this mess was, hunger compelled 
me to eat it with a relish, the only fault being there was not enough to 
satisfv the craving of my appetite. The rations, issued irregularly, 



178 APPENDIX. 

were insufficient to support life. Prisoners eagerly devoured the potato 
skins thrown out from the hospital kitchen. They ate rats, dogs and 
cats, while many searched the yard for bones and scraps among the 
most revolting substances. Rations of rice and pea soup were issued. 
The pea soup was of the worst kind that could be conceived, consisting 
of the shells of peas from which the bugs had eaten the inside, without 
any seasoning, the bugs themselves being used as the meat to enrich 
it. On this diet is could not be expected that anything but disease 
could fatten. The hospitals were foul pens, dirtier than many of 
the Northern farmers' stables. The rebs would not furnish brooms 
to keep them clean, and water and soap to wash the hands ; and four 
of the sick and dying were also denied clean straw to lay under them, 
as it was not obtainable, though every farmer's barn-yard in that 
vicinity contained stacks of it. In these pens they were compelled to 
lie upon the cold, filthy floors, without the warmth and cleanliness 
usually accorded to brutes. 

"The wasted forms and sad, pleading eyes of those men waiting 
for death to release them from their misery, wanting for the commonest 
comforts of home and friends, without one word of sympathy or one 
tear of affection, will never be blotted from my memory. 

"The last scene was the dead-cart. Before the mortality became 
so great among the prisoners, a mule and a wagon containing a coffin 
was used to convey the dead to their final resting-place. After several 
dead men had been taken out, some of the men thought the coffin 
looked rather familiar, and put a mark on it. On the next trip, sure 
enough, the same coffin made its appearance again. But when the 
death-rate increased to fifty and sixty a day, this mode of remov- 
ing the dead bodies was abandoned, and a two-horse wagon was 
substituted. 

"Into this the dead forms were thrown one upon another like the 
carcasses of dead animals, their arms and legs hanging over the sides 
of the box ; the white, ghastly faces, with glassy, staring eyes and 
dropped jaws, formed a horrible sight never to be forgotten, as the 
wagon rattled along bearing its precious burden of heroes, who had 
sacrificed themselves in order that their country might live, to be 
thrown in a mass into trenches just outside the prison walls and cov- 
ered with a few inches of dirt. When received, there were no sick or 
wounded men among the prisoners, but before they had been in Salis- 
bury six weeks there were not five hundred well men among the ten 
thousand. So great was the mortality in this living tomb that at the 
end of four months five thousand men had died from disease and starva- 
tion, and were buried in trenches outside the prison. 




LIEUTENANT-COLONEL THOMAS M. HALL. 



APPENDIX. 179 

"On the 8th there was nothing to vary the monotony of prison- 
Hfe, but on the 9th the camp was reinforced by the arrival of one 
hundred more unfortunates to share our misery. From the loth to 
the i6th nothing of an exciting nature transpired, except the death of 
several prisoners. On the i6th, the first murder that came under my 
observation was committed. Lieutenant J. W. Davis, while sitting 
near the dead-line, looking his clothes over for vermin, was shot and 
killed by a guard. After this cold-blooded murders were very 
frequent. The guard, at any time he saw a squad of soldiers collected 
together, could fire on them without warning, and would receive no 
rebuke from his superior officers, not even being taken from his post. 
There was said to be an incentive for these murders, to the end that 
every guard that shot a prisoner received a thirty-days' furlough. 

"On the 19th all the commissioned officers were taken out of the 
prison and sent to Danville, while their places were filled with five 
hundred privates brought from Danville. On the 23d R. Lehenthaler, 
of Company "E," took sick. On the 24th the rebs got reckless and 
gave to each squad two old tents, one a marquee, the other a wedge, 
which would not accommodate more than one-half of our number, the 
balance seeking shelter as best they could, which a great number did 
by digging holes in the ground and crawling into them. I also got a 
ration of molasses and flour, but had nothing to cook in. On 25th, 
drew a ration of bread. On the 26th I lived high, having drawn a 
ration of beef and flour. On the 27th the rebs evidently thought we 
were living too high, and no rations were issued. On the 28th bread 
was again issued. On the 29th lived high again, bread and meat being 
issued. On this day a prisoner who was endeavoring to get some- 
thing to eat from the cook-house was shot and killed. On the 30th 
we again drew bread. On the 31st the prison authorities, for some 
cause which has never been explained, issued bread, meat and soup. 
On November ist John Pier, of the 4th Pennsylvania Cavalry, and 
George Wilbur, of the I42d Pennsylvania Regiment, died. From this 
date I kept no record until November 23d. This was a sad da}'. T 
counted eighty-three dead comrades in various portions of the camp 
and dead-house, and how many more there was God only knows, as I 
gave up the counting in despair. On the 24th, at 8 a. m., there were 
twenty-four more dead bodies laying in the dead-house. 

"At this time the rations were cut down, and for two days I lived 
on half a loaf of bread. Among the delicacies issued to us in the way 
of rations was tripe in a crude state. When the butcher slaughtered 
cattle for the use of the rebel garrison, the paunches of the beeves 
were taken out, cut open and were emptied of their contents. They 



l8o APPENDIX. 

were then put into barrels and sent into the camp without any further 
preparation. As I was in command of a squad, it was my (hity to 
cut them up and divide them out. The manner of preparing this 
dehcacy was to put it on the fire, and when it became hot the inside 
Hning would peel off, when it would be eaten with an avidity that was 
born only of starvation. Later on even the emptying of the paunches 
was done away with, and the entrails entire, as they came from the beef, 
were loaded on wheelbarrows and wheeled up an inclined plank on 
the outside of the fence and dumped over the fence into the prison, 
where I have seen hundreds of these poor starving wretches struggling 
to get a piece of the offal. Quite a number of the sergeants having 
charge of divisions and squads occupied quarters in one of the build- 
ings on the second floor, which was reached by means of a ladder 
through one of the windows. 

"We had been arranging a plan to make our escape, and on the 
25th concluded that the opportune time had come, as a portion of the 
rebel garrison had been withdrawn and sent to Wilmington. I was in 
favor of waiting till night, and then go out through a tunnel in which 
I was interested, but the more hot-headed ones insisted that now was 
the time. Each commander of a squad was to notify his men of the 
part they were to take and the duties they were to perform. At 3 p. m. 
the signal was given, and a number, armed with clubs, sprang upon 
the relief guard of sixteen men as they were entering the yard, while 
others rushed on the guards stationed in the grounds. Weak and 
emaciated as the prisoners were, they performed their work well. 
They wrenched the guns from the soldiers, and those resisting were 
bayoneted on the spot. Every gun was taken from them, and they 
made for their camp outside, where, being reinforced by a rebel 
regiment on its way to Wilmington, together with the citizens, who 
had turned out with shot-guns, pistols, or whatever other weapon was 
the nearest at hand, we were overpowered, though we had captured 
one of the field-pieces. There was no organized action ; several thou- 
sand prisoners rushing to one point only, instead of making attempts 
to break down the fence in different places, thus confusing the guards 
on the fence. The attempt was futile, as we had neither hammers nor 
axes with which to make an opening in the fence. At once every 
musket in the garrison was turned upon us, and the two field-pieces 
opened with grape and cannister. The insurrection, which had not 
occupied more than a few minutes, was a failure, and the uninjured 
returned to their quarters. The yard was perfectly quiet then, yet the 
guards stood upon the fence for twenty minutes, taking deliberate aim 
and firing into the tents upon helpless and innocent men. Sixteen 



APPENDIX. 



i8i 



prisoners were killed, among them were Comrade Douglass, of our 
regiment, and sixty wounded, of whom many had no part in the out- 
break and many were ignorant of it till they heard the firing. 

"On the 26th a ration of one-fourth of a loaf of bread and a little 
meat was issued to us. On the 27th full rations of bread were issued, 
and I lived fat for one day. On the 28th 350 men enlisted in the 
rebel service. I believe the object of the rebels in cutting down our 
rations was for the purpose of forcing men to enlist in their service, in 
order to escape the horrible privations which they were forced to 
undergo in the prison. The main incentive among those who enlisted 
was that once outside the prison stockade they would have a better 
chance to make their escape, as many of them did. But among the 
majority of the prisoners their pride overcame their misery, and they 
preferred to starve and freeze rather than take an oath of allegiance to 
the Southern Confederacy. The enlistment of one prisoner I was sur- 
prised at, as he had no cause for doing so. He was a miner, and 
belonged to a Pennsylvania regiment. A party of us had him engaged 
in digging a tunnel out of the prison, through which we intended to 
make our escape. We divided our scant rations wdth him, and he was 
cared for in every way in which it was possible for us to do so. When 
the tunnel was finished and ready to tap, he went to the rebel officers 
and informed them of our plans, pointing out the place where the open- 
ing of the tunnel would be when tapped, and also the time when we 
intended to go out. Among the rebel officers of the garrison was a 
lieutenant who was a Union man and a member of the Order of the 
Union League. He came into camp and told us that our plans had 
been given away, and said for us not to attempt to go out that night. 
One of our number was placed in such a position that night in the 
main building that he had a view of where the outlet of the tunnel 
would be when tapped ; and, a short time after dark, a squad of rebel 
soldiers made their appearance in readiness to shoot us down as fast 
as we emerged from the hole, but we failed to show up. I am of the 
opinion he did this to curry favor with the rebel officers, that he might 
receive favors at their hands, little caring what became of others. 

"Another method used by the rebel authorities to induce prisoners 
to enlist was to pick out from among those who had enlisted certain 
of them and send them back into camp well dressed and well fed, who 
would work on the prisoners by telling them how well they were 
treated by the officers; and as to their clothing, that which was on 
them would show for itself. Among these was the miner referred to 
above, thus proving conclusively that he cared not what he did or in 
what manner it was done so long as he bettered his own condition. 



l82 APPENDIX. 

I also believe the rebels introduced recruiting officers into the prison 
in the guise of Union prisoners, to work on the men by bemoaning 
and bewailing their sad condition, and saying to them, 'I'll enlist in 
the rebel service and get out of this cursed place if you will ;' and so 
it went from one to another imtil they made up their minds that that 
was the only way in which they would ever get out alive, and so 
enlisted. 

"Got rations again to-day. On the 29th we again drew rations. 
On the 30th Thomas Scott, of Company T of the regiment, took sick 
and was sent to the hospital. Drew quarter rations again to-day. On 
December 2d Daniel BIy, of Company 'F,' 121st Regiment, died. 
December 4th, drew a ration of potatoes, the first we had received 
since our confinement here. R. Lehenthaler had so far recovered from 
his sickness as to sit up most of the time during the day. Henry 
Cooper, of Company 'I,' died at 10 o'clock to-night of consumption, 
the technical name for starvation in this God-forsaken place. December 
5th, Thomas Scott, of Company 'I,' died at 5 a. m. of fever brought 
on by exposure to the inclemency of the weather, hunger and want of 
care and medical attendance. On December 6th four hundred and five 
prisoners enlisted in the rebel service, and two hundred and fifty more 
prisoners were brought in from Richmond. 

"On December 7th the thirty-one rebel convicts whom we found 
confined here when we first arrived, were taken out and sent away. 
These prisoners belonged to the .worst class of criminals one can con- 
ceive of. They thought nothing of taking human life, and many 
deaths of prisoners were attributed to them. 

"In the third story of the main building was a sutler's shop, in 
which the principal articles kept on sale were sweet potatoes, peanuts 
and bread. These commodities were bartered to the prisoners in 
exchange for buttons, knives or anything they might have which was 
of any value. This room was the principal hang-out of the convicts, 
and when a prisoner went there for a trade, if he had anything these 
demons wanted, they would 'mug' him and take it away from him. The 
mugging process was to rush on their victim, and by throwing one 
arm around his neck, draw his head back, while another pinioned his 
arms, and the rest then stripped him of whatever he might have that 
they wanted. If he made any resistance he was carried to the window 
and thrown out, with less compunction of conscience than were he the 
dead carcass of some animal. One case of an attempt to mug a 
prisoner who had a gum blanket which these robbers desired came 
under my notice. The prisoner in question went to this den to pur- 
chase a loaf of bread, when the convicts who were there started for 



APPENDIX. 183 

him; he kept himself between them and the stairs, and puUing out a 
large knife which he had managed to keep, defied them while he made 
his retreat backwards down the stairs. Although they were three to 
one, they were too cowardly to face cold steel. Finally things came 
to such a pass that the prisoners determined to tolerate them no longer, 
and whenever one of them was caught outside the building he was 
most unmercifully pummelled, in one instance one of them being used 
for a foot-ball by the exasperated prisoners. Immediately after this 
incident they were removed, and it is well they were, for had they 
remained they certainly w'ould have been lynched. 

"On December 8th another cold-blooded murder was committed 
by one of the guards, who fired at three negro prisoners standing in a 
line, but missed them and killed a man belonging to an Ohio regiment. 
A howl of indignation went up at this outrage, and one of the surgeons 
inquired at headquarters as to the cause of this murder, and was 
told that the guard saw the negroes standing in range, and thinking 
he would never have such an opportunity, fired at them, but missed 
them and killed the wrong man. The murder, was regarded as a huge 
joke by the prison officials. The rebel deserters who were confined 
here were to-day taken to the front to join their commands. On the 
13th about 250 more prisoners enlisted into the rebel service to escape 
the horrors of cold and starvation. On the 14th, 75 prisoners, unable 
longer to endure the terrible sufferings here, enlisted under the rebel 
flag. On the i6th, 22 Union prisoners came into camp, and Wauls, 
of my company, was among them. He was captured at the time the 
Fifth Corps was sent to Ream's Station, on the Weldon Railroad, to 
tear up the track. From December i6th to January 15th I kept no 
diary; but there was the usual amount of suffering from hunger and 
cold, the weather being very inclement during that time. On the 15th 
Harry Engle, of Company 'H,' died from sickness caused by starvation 
and cold. 

"January 24th. Oh, what scenes ! Suffering and death stares 
every one in the face, and many curses and maledictions are being 
showered on the Confederacy and the officers of the prison. To-day 
I answered to a man's name who was sick, and got out in the wood- 
squad to help load cars with wood for the rebel garrison. My object 
m going out was to try to make my escape — which I could have done, 
but I wanted to get Dan Weikel out wdth me. I did my work well 
and tried to please the guard in order to get out again to-morrow, in 
which I succeeded, *and will make a desperate attempt to get away. I 
started with the rest of the wood detail, and when the train was about 
four miles out from Salisbury it ran off the track in a deep cut. While 



184 APPENDIX. 

the railroad eiiiplo3ccs were getting the cars back on tlic track, 1 
proposed to the officer of the guard to allow us to build a fire, as we 
were all very cold, which request was granted. He sent a guard along 
with us, and we went out to the far end of the cut. While we were 
on our way I whispered to Comrade McFarland, who was going to 
try to go with me, as Weikel was sick and did not get out with us : 
'Stay close by me, as I am going to try and get away.' I said to the 
guard that ]^Jac and myself would go and pick up some dry cedar limbs 
to kindle the fire with. Just as Mac and I got to the edge of the 
woods a man came along dressed in citizen's clothes, which was a 
very rare sight in that part of the coimtry. He drew the attention of 
the prisoners and guard, and inquired the way to Salisbury. I tried 
to tell him, but could not, and referred him to the guard, who turned 
his back toward us in order to point out to the stranger the direction 
he should take to reach the town. The moment his back was toward 
us ]\Iac and I started for the woods without any further ceremony ; 
and I often wonder if that guard is still waiting for us to bring those 
cedar limbs to kindle that fire. After traveling all day in the woods 
we came in sight of the railroad, sixteen miles from where we started, 
and the train we had left in the morning passed by us on its way to 
Salisbury at 6 p. m. Here commenced a journey of hundreds of miles 
in the dead of winter, through a country the topography of which we 
knew nothing. Thinly clad and almost barefooted, we started out 
with the determination to reach the Union lines or perish in the 
attempt. 

"Surrounded by enemies on all sides who would have been only 
too glad to have returned us to prison, we knew that our success lay 
only in being able to elude them. Knoxville, Tenn.. was our objective 
point, and we chose that route because we could keep in the mountains, 
and thus avoid the danger of being recaptured which the more open 
country would afford. At dark we started out along the railroad track 
and traveled until near midnight, when we reached the house of a 
Union lady named Mrs. Hare, where we found food and warmth, which 
we were sadly in need of, and where we were well taken care of until 
the night of the 28th, when we left at ten o'clock in company with her 
son, who piloted us to a path which ran along the ridge of the moun- 
tains, and which would take us to a Union man's place by the name 
of Wilburn, who was a lieutenant in the rebel service, but a staunch 
friend to escaping prisoners, many of whom he helped along on their 
way north. 

"During the night we strayed from our course and got lost in 
the woods. We finally emerged from the woods about two o'clock in 




FIRST SERGEANT EDWARD SCHEERER. 



APPENDIX. I05 

the morning, and came out on a plantation, near the negro quarters, 
in one of which was a Hght, and on going to the door we found a 
negro woman engaged in ironing. She was the only treacherous- 
looking colored person I saw on the route, and I distrusted her at first 
sight. I afterwards learned that my suspicions were correct, and 
that she had given several Union men away. I kept between her and 
the door, and had she attempted to give an alarm, I would have 
choked her to death. By doing some good talking I finally got into 
her good graces, and she cooked for Mac and myself one of the best 
meals I had eaten in two years, after which she woke her father up 
and he put us on our course again. On the morning of the 29th we 
came to a village called Slabtown, where we inquired the way to Wil- 
burn's; after getting the desired information we traveled on till ten 
A. M., when the rebs got too thick and we had to run to cover. A 
colored man named Richard Roseburn secreted us in a barn and 
furnished us with food. Here we were in very close quarters, and did 
not know what minute the rebs would take a notion to search the 
barn, as we could hear and see them through the cracks. On the 
30th we left our colored friend at 4 a. m., and his son Henry piloted 
us on to Mr. Lundy's plantation, where we lay on a side hill during 
the day and at night sought shelter in the barn. Here we were also 
supplied with food. We remained here till midnight of the 31st, when 
we left with a colored guide named Carson, who had been referred to 
us while hid in Roseburn's barn. Carson had a mule, and by taking 
turns at riding we made Carson's plantation, a distance of sixteen 
miles, shortly after daylight, where w^e were provided with breakfast. 
We hid in the woods during the balance of the day, and at night the 
darkies entertained us, while Carson at the same time was playing 
host to a rebel colonel. That night we slept in the barn. This man 
Carson had twenty-six children and grandchildren, all of whom were 
slaves. 

"At noon, with one of Carson's slaves — known as Squire John 
through the country, and who, by the way, was a regular masher 
among the white women — as a guide, we started for Bell's plantation, 
some ten or twelve mlies from Carson's. While on the way, for the 
first and only time in my life I was put on exhibition, and that, too, 
under the management of Squire John, who wished to show a 
couple of his mashes a real, live Yankee. Mac and I consented to 
remain in the woods while he went for the women, with whom he 
soon returned, and we stood up for inspection. These women looked 
us over from head to foot, walked around us, and then stopped in 
front of us, neither Mac nor myself speaking. When they had con- 



l86 Al'PENDIX. 

eluded their survey, 1 asked one of the women what they thought of 
us, anyhow ; she repHed that she chd not see that there was any 
difference between us and other men. After the exhibition was over 
we went on and reached Bell's plantation, where we hid in the barn 
until the night of the 3d of February, when a Union woman came four 
miles through a blinding snow-storm to give us warning that the rebel 
guards were on our track. I lost the name of the woman, but remem- 
ber that she v>as the sister of a Union scout named Johnson, who 
piloted many prisoners to the Union lines. While w^e were hid in the 
barn, for fear that the rebels would find out that we were there, Bell 
conveyed our food to us in a half-bushel measure, as if he were feeding 
live-stock, and would set it down in a convenient place and appear to 
be busying himself with his work around the barn. We would crawl 
out from under the straw and get the food, when Bell would take the 
half-bushel and leave. 

"We left our hiding place in a snow-storm and took to the woods, 
and while there the rebs came along and passed by. We then came 
out of the woods and followed them all night. When they left a 
house we went in. At one house, where they had just left, we were 
met at the door by an old, gray-hairea man, who on learning that we 
were escaped prisoners, threw up his hands and implored us for God's 
sake to leave, as the rebs had just been there, and if they should come 
back and find us they would kill him for harboring Union prisoners, 
as they had warned him to that effect. I think he was the worst 
frightened man I ever saw. On the morning of the 4th we reached 
Lieutenant Wilburn's plantation. Here we had a narrow escape from 
capture. The road made a sudden turn and shut off the view in front, 
and almost before we knew it we were on top of the rebs, wdio had 
halted and tied their horses to the fence around the bend. One of 
the horses gave a snort, and that was what saved us. I crept forward 
to reconnoitre and saw the rebs, some of whom were lying on the 
ground, while others were around and in Wilburn's house. I went 
back to where I left Mac, and as the ground was covered with snow, 
in order that the guards might not discover our tracks, we waded 
down a little stream into the woods, keeping the scrub pines that grew 
along the banks between the rebs and ourselves. After we had gained 
the cover of the woods, Wilburn came out to an old barn that stood 
between us and the house and I went to him, little thinking at the 
time the risk I was running, keeping the barn and the scrub pines 
between myself and the rebs, and when I had got his attention I gave 
him the sign of the Union League. His first salutation was, 'My 
God! what are you doing here? The rebs are after me; hide as soon 



APPENDIX. 187 

as you can.' He then went towards the house and ^lac and myself 
went further back into the woods, but saw the rebs capture him. 
After they had made him a prisoner, they commenced firing off their 
guns, which badly frightened us, as we thought they were going to 
scour the woods, but it was only the signal calling in their pickets, and 
they rode off, taking Wilburn along, without suspecting there were 
any escaped Union prisoners so near them. 

"Wilburn was one of the officers of the garrison at Salisbury, 
and knowing that I intended to make my escape at the first opportunity, 
had given me directions as to the route to take in order to reach his 
place, as well as the names and location of those who were friendly to 
the Union cause and who would assist me on my way. He had left 
the rebel service and gone home, and the rebel force we had followed 
during the night had been sent out to arrest him; but I afterwards 
learned that he made his escape again that night, but whatever became 
of him after that I never could find out. 

"We remained in the woods all that day, and at night started for 
Nick's plantation, but got lost, and started back for Wilburn's place in 
order to get our reckoning again. While we were tramping along we 
heard some one halloo to us. We were frightened, and so did not 
answer. Again we were hailed, when the party said 'it was all right,' 
and concluding there was but one person we went forward and found 
it was Squire John, the same darkey who had piloted us from Carson's 
to Bell's. He piloted us to several Union houses, avoiding the rebs, 
who were very thick, and finally took us to Nick's. But we concluded 
to go on to another Union man's place by the name of Wagner ; but 
on reaching there we were informed that it was not safe to stop there, 
and we retraced our steps back to Nick's, where we remained all night. 
We remained in this locality for a week, the rebs being so thick that 
it was unsafe to make a start. While here we met a Union man by 
the name of Smith, who was hiding from the rebs. He took us to his 
father-in-law's, a Mr. Wagner. This man had prepared for an emerg- 
ency by having a framework erected in a hay-stack out in the field, 
which was used by Smith and others as a hiding-place. To this hay- 
stack Smith conducted Mac and myself, and asked us if we could see 
anything out of the ordinary about it. We replied that we did not, 
and he said, 'Follow me.' We did so, and found ourselves in a com- 
fortable room provided with bedding. We stayed there for several 
days, endeavoring at night to get across the Big Yadkin River, but it 
was so closely guarded that it seemed almost next to impossible. 
While here we learned of a Union lieutenant named Hartley, who 
belonged to the 3d North Carolina Regiment of Mounted Infantr}-, 



l88 APPENDIX. 

commanded by Colonel Kirk, who was a native of that State. He 
was on an expedition recruiting for his regiment, and also for piloting 
refugees to Tennessee. Through the efforts of Mr. Smith, Lieutenant 
Hartley was notified that we were hiding there and endeavoring to 
get across the river. He sent us word to meet him, which we did. He 
informed us that on the following night, February nth, he was going 
to have all the recruits and refugees rendezvous at the house of a 
Union man, whose name I have forgotten, and would make an effort to 
cross the river, and would be pleased to have us join him, which we 
were only too glad to do. After the recruits and refugees had arrived, 
numbering between forty-five and fifty, at midnight we went to the 
river, but found all the boats closely guarded. Finding we could not 
get a boat, a council of war was held, and we decided to make the 
attempt to wade the river. It was a very chilly undertaking, as the 
weather was intensely cold and slush ice was running very thick. It 
was decided that Lieutenant Hartley (who, b\' the way, was one of the 
bravest men I ever met) and myself should take the lead, which we 
did, and all got over safely, which we afterwards learned was a very 
lucky hit, as the ford was a narrow one and on each side was very 
deep water. As it was, the water was up to our w^aists, and it was but 
a short time after we crossed before our clothes were frozen stiff. In 
this condition we walked on the crust of the snow some four or five 
n;iles up on a mountain, where we found friends, who soon had large 
fires going, where we got ourselves thawed out and our clothes dried, 
staying until night, when we again started on our tramp for liberty, 
which we kept up for several nights, laying by in the day-time. 

"At one time, at the crossing of one of the many rivers that we 
had to cross, we were almost surrounded by the rebs, who, as we were 
informed, intended to capture us as soon as we were located for the 
night, little thinking that we could get across the river, as it was very 
high. But we fooled them by getting an old dug-out and a Union 
man, who ferried us across the river early in the evening, under cover 
of a dense fog. As soon as we were across we started up the moun- 
tain, following a stream that came down the mountain, which was a 
very hard undertaking, as the water was deep and we had to wade it 
most of the way. On arriving at the top of the mountain we found a 
L^nion man. where we built fires and dried our clothes. Later on, 
tiring of skulking and stealing along by night, we determined to travel 
by daylight. The country around was scoured, and all the old guns, 
or anything that looked like a gun, that could be found was made to 
do duty. Under Lieutenant Hartley and a sergeant named Blackwell, 
we started on our march, whenever it was necessary representing 



APPENDIX. 



189 



ourselves as belonging to Colonel White's rebel regiment, which was 
quite notorious in that portion of North Carolina, and got along very 
well. During the clay we met a citizen, who was a very strong reb ; 
he joined in and marched with us until we got him into a dense woods, 
a long distance from where he fell in with us, when Lieutenant Hartley, 
after getting all the information from him regarding the movements 
of the rebs he was possessed of, concluded to let him know who we 
were. We took his gun and other arms from him, made him take the 
oath of allegiance to the government, and then turned him loose. If 
ever there was a surprised man that Johnny was one. 

"In the evening, during a snow-storm, we reached Lieutenant 
Hartley's native place, a little town called Boone. Here our guns, not 
one of which w^ould go off without it was carried, served us a good 
turn. There was quite a garrison of reb soldiers stationed here, and 
as we came in at one end of the town, they skedaddled out of the 
other for the woods, thinking it was the advance of Colonel Kirk's 
Union command, of whom the rebs in that vicinity stood in mortal 
fear. We marched through the main street of the town to the outer 
edge, where a halt was called. Lieutenant Hartley called myself and 
another escaped prisoner, named Joe McBride, to him, and, pointing 
to a large white house a short distance away, told us to go there and 
get provisions for the party, saying, 'Mr. Hayes lives in that house ; 
he is rich and a d— d old reb.' He then handed McBride his Spencer 
rifle, and we started for the house. While McBride stood ready with 
the rifle, in case of emergency, I went up to the door and rapped, and 
was told to come in. I opened the door, and McBride and I went in, 
and found Hayes and his two daughters alone, who were very much 
frightened till we told them that we belonged to Colonel White's com- 
mand, which greatly relieved them. Hayes asked for the colonel, and 
we told him he would be along the next day. Hayes said he was glad 
to hear that, as he thought we were from Hartley's notorious gang. 
Another instance of 'where ignorance is bliss, 'tis folly to be wise.' I 
asked him who this man Hartley was, and he replied that he was one 
of the most notorious Union guerillas in the Southern Confederacy, 
and that the Confederate government had a standing reward of $10,000 
for his head, and that he would give $1,000 for Hartley's head himself. 
I made the reply that we would try and get it for him. He asked me 
if we wanted quarters ; we told him no, but wanted provisions. He 
asked me if we wanted meal, and we replied that we had plenty of 
that, which was a fad ; we wanted meat. He lit his lantern, and we 
went out toward the smoke-house. On the way he wanted to know 
who would pay for the meat, and we told him we would give him an 



190 APPENDIX. 

order on the regimental commissary, and he would get his pay when 
the regiment came up the next day, which was satisfactory to him. 
I called a couple of men, and we got what bacon we wanted. Along 
the sides of the smoke-house hung some dried beef, and one of the 
men asked him if he would not give him a piece of it. I said, 'Let 
the boys have some of it without charging the government for it.' 
He told us to help ourselves, which we did, clearing the whole lot of 
it out. As we were leaving for the house to make out the order for 
the meat, who should we find standing by the smoke-house door but 
Lieutenant Hartley. Hayes, who was in the lead, saw him first, and 
was so frightened that he fell back against the smoke-house. Lieu- 
tenant Hartley told him to get up, that he did not intend to hurt him. 
He then made Hayes take an oath of allegiance — of his own composi- 
tion — to help all escaped prisoners, refugees, rebel deserters and 
negroes needing assistance, and not to divulge that we had been there, 
winding up by saying: 'H you do, I'll kill you; and you know, ]\lr. 
liayes, I never lie ;' to all of which Mr. Hayes readily assented. As 
to that reward for Hartley's head offered by Hayes, I did not think of 
it after Hartley made a L^nion man of him, or I should have claimed it, 
and I believe he would have paid it readily, as he was so badly scared 
by Hartley. 

"Here we left the main road, and took a path which went up a 
mountain through a dense pine woods, traveling being difficult on 
account of the snow, which was falling thick and fast. Near midnight 
we reached an old lumber camp, where a number of L^nion families had 
taken refuge. Fires were started in the unoccupied buildings, where 
we warmed our benumbed limbs and cooked and made our supper off 
of J\lr. Hayes' bacon. We remained here the balance of the night, 
and the next morning resumed our tramp again. When we reached 
Little Village, situated in the valley, we heard firing, and supposed that 
Hayes had disregarded his oath and informed on us, and that the rebs 
had got in front of our party and were firing on Lieutenant Hartley, 
who had gone on in advance to see if the road was clear. The firing 
proved to be Union and rcb scouts, who had come together and had a 
running fight. While in this place we learned of two reb soldiers who 
were home on furlough. Lieutenant Hartley suggested that IMcBride 
and myself should go and capture them. Each of us took a gun and 
went up the valley to a point where they were cutting wood, and when 
we called on them to surrender they were much surprised, little dream- 
ing that any L^nion forces were within many miles of them. We 
marched them back with us to Lieutenant Hartley, who ke])t them 
prisoners with us during the remainder of the day. Our route lay up 



APPENDIX. 191 

another mountain, through a thick wood, and when night came on we 
had reached the summit of the mountain. Here Lieutenant Hartley 
administered to the two prisoners one of his double-and-twisted oaths, 
and turned them loose to find their way back as best they could in the 
dark. Some of our party thought it was rather cruel to treat them in 
this manner, but Lieutenant Hartley said by the time they got home 
and gave an alarm, which they would most likely do, we would be so 
far in advance of them that they could not overtake us. Without 
halting we kept on, and descended the mountain into the valley, 
through which runs Big Alulberry Creek. We went to the house of 
a Union man named Wagner, whom we found sick in bed from the 
effects of the rough usage he had been subjected to at the hands of a 
party of rebs because he was a Union man and had been charged with 
aiding Union men and rebel deserters to make their way to the L^nion 
lines. When we entered the house and he found that it was Lieutenant 
Hartley, he jumped out of bed, saying, 'Thank God, the rebs did 
not kill me or get all my provisions.' He then told us where we would 
find plenty to eat, and to help ourselves, which we did, and it 
was no small amount either, as our company was very hungry and 
consisted of about seventy, as many recruits and refugees joined us 
on the way. 

"From Wagner's we continued our march toward Knoxville. over 
mountains covered with snow, the crust of which was so hard it would 
bear our weight, and in descending, many of the boys slipped and slid 
for a long distance before they could stop themselves by catching hold 
of the underbrush ; but there were no murmurings or complaints, as 
each one knew that the ascent and descent of each mountain brought 
them nearer the Union lines and further away from the hell upon 
earth from which we had escaped. After two days and nights of hard 
marching we reached Limestone Cave. Here we lay by for two days 
to rest ourselves after the fatigue occasioned by the hard work we had 
experienced in crossing the mountains. At this place, as in others 
where we had stopped, we found Union people, who supplied us with 
necessary food and shelter. Continuing our march from Limestone 
Cave, we came to Leeper's Mills, a fording-place on the Natchuckey 
River. The river was bank full and a swift current was running, and 
we were unable to ford it. While searching for something that would 
answer the purpose of a ferry, a most violent thunder-storm came on. 
Finally we found a dilapidated old dug-out, and Mac and myself 
acted the part of ferrymen, landing the entire party on the opposite 
side after several trips, the thunder and lightning at that time and place 
having no terrors for us. 



192 APPENDIX. 

''On the evening of the second day after leaving Leeper's Mills 
(nothing of a notorious character occurring during that time) we 
reached the Union lines at Strawberry Plains, Tenn. Here we found 
an Ohio regiment doing guard duty at a bridge there, and by whom 
we were most royally received. It is useless to attempt to describe 
my feelings and emotions when we first caught sight of the Stars and 
Stripes ; and could the rebel garrison at Salisbury have heard the 
cheers that went up from that little company of men, who for weeks 
had been enduring sufferings of an untold nature in order to escape 
them, they must have hung their heads for very shame, although 
shame to them w'as an unknown quantity. Here we remained over 
night, the guests of the Ohio regiment ; and night was far advanced 
when we lay down to sleep, so eager were the boys in blue to hear us 
recount the horrors of Salisbury and the many dangers we had passed 
through in making our escape. The next day we went to Knoxville, 
where we were supplied with clothing. Here adieus were said, and 
we parted company with the brave Lieutenant Hartley and his noble 
band, who had been our companions for weeks during our wanderings 
over mountains and through valleys, all actuated with one common 
desire — to escape from rebel rule. We remained in Knoxville over 
night, and the next day we were furnished with transportation and 
took a train for Nashville. On our arrival Mac and myself went to 
the Sanitary Commission, but the gentleman in charge of that institu- 
tion said that they were full and could not give us accommodations. 
I then went to commissary headquarters and was given an order to 
report to the Sanitary Commission. While at the commissary, some 
one told Mac that the provost-guard would take care of him ; and as 
he was rather indignant at the conduct of the gentleman in charge of 
the Sanitary Commission, he would not wait for my return with the 
order, and reported to the provost-marshal, where he was put under 
guard, and that was the last I ever saw of him. As for myself, not 
relishing the idea of being sent back to the regiment under guard like 
a deserter or a bounty- jumper, after my experience, I took the order 
and reported to the gentleman in charge of the Sanitary Commission. 
When he read it, he suddenly remembered that he had plenty of room, 
and had I been a major-general instead of an escaped prisoner he could 
not have been more attentive and servile. While in Nashville I reported 
to General Thomas, who was in command there, and was courteously 
received by his adjutant-general. While waiting for him to make out 
the order for my transportation, he called the headquarter's cook and 
instructed him to get dinner for me, and I had the pleasure of dining 
at his table. As soon as I obtained my order for transportation I took 



APPENDIX. 



193 



a train for Louisville, and on arrival there I did not seek out the pro- 
vost-marshal, Mac's experience in Nashville having taught me better, 
but went to the headquarters of General Lew Wallace, where I was 
furnished with transportation to Washington via Indianapolis and 
Pittsburgh, arriving at Washington some time in April. Here I re- 
ported to General Meigs, who was commissary of prisoners, and was 
furnished an order to report to my regiment, with thirty days' delay on 
the route, which I improved by making a visit to mv home, joining 
the regiment soon after Lee's surrender." 



Prison Life in Dixie. 



That portion of the regiment tliat was captvn'ed on the ist day of 
October, 1864, at Poplar Clrove Church, or, as it is sometimes called,. 
Peeble's Farm, after being- broken u]) into two or more squads, was 
sent by various routes to Salisbury, X. C, the officers being separated 
from the men and sent via Libby Prison, Richmond. After remaining 
at Salisbury until October ir;th, the ofBcers were sent to Danville, Va. 

The gloomy structure at Danville, in which the Union prisoners 
were confined, was an abandoned tobacco warehouse, built of brick, 
and three stories high, standing on the outskirts of the town, some 
two hundred yards from the banks of the Dan River. Xo other build- 
ing joined it except a small one-and-a-half-story building, about fifteen 
feet square, unoccupied, which stood joining the south side next the 
river and near the east end of the warehouse. The warehouse was 
probably thirty-five feet wide by about seventy-five feet long, and in- 
the second and third stories were confined some five hundred prisoners, 
mostly ofifiicers of the Union army and navy. There was free inter- 
course between the rooms on the second and third floors, but prisoners 
were not allowed on the first floor, except in squads of perhaps five 
or six at a time. Several sentries located on the first floor enforced 
this rule. That the prisoners were well crowded together is not hard 
to imagine. At night the men selected places along both sides and 
ends of the rooms, and in a double line, with heads inward, along 
the middle to make room to sleep. A large portion of the space on 
the west end was taken up by the stairway. Although the quarters 
were not at all comfortable, the prisoners were not disappointed and 
no complaints were heard, for they were infinitely better than the 
miserable arrangement at Salisbury, where their comrades were, even' 
then, suffering not only for food, but for shelter also. The rations 
consisted mainly of about a pint of black pea sou]:) twice a day, accom- 
panied with a very small piece of corn bread, the latter being so 
coarse and hard as to be indigestible, and the soup never nutritious 
and often filthy. Under these circumstances, many fell victims to 
disease, and as they became dangerously ill were removed to hospitals,. 
so that their comrades lost sight of them. 

194 




JiIAJOR-GENERAL ABNER DOUBLEDAV. 



APPENDIX. 195 

A number of efforts at escape were made, but, except in a few 
individual cases, they failed, owing to the close watch kept by the 
guards. The prisoners were counted twice a day. The officer in 
charge, accompanied by several guards, would enter the room on the 
second floor and order the men to "fall in" in four ranks, which was 
promptly done, the ranks extending from one end of the room to the 
other ; every man in the front rank being exactly covered by three 
men standing" behind. Then, passing from one end to the other, he 
would count the men in the front rank, and multiplying by four, would 
know how many were present in that room. Going to the third floor, 
the same process would be repeated. 

During the cold winter nights the men slept as closely together 
as possible in "spoon fashion" in order to keep warm, and when any 
one man in the line found it necessary to turn over, the whole line had 
to turn. This turning became very frequent, for the shoulders and hips 
of the men became sore from sleeping on the bare floors. Fresh water 
was plenty, owing to the fact that the prisoners were compelled to 
bring their supply as needed from the river. This was rather a pleasant 
duty ; details of from six to ten prisoners were sent under guard, each 
man carrying one or two buckets. These trips served to destroy the 
montony of prison life, and there was always a lively competition for 
the privilege of going with the detail. 

Close to the river bank was an abandoned iron furnace, which was 
passed daily in these trips, and the men were not long in appreciating 
it as a medium of escape. As time wore away, and the guards and 
prisoners became more familiar, it was noticed that in sending the detail 
out, instead of counting the men, the buckets only were counted, which 
count was repeated when they were returned. Taking advantage of 
this, while passing the furnace on the return trip, the guards being in 
friendly chat at the head of the line, as usual, and the prisoners loitering 
behind to make their excursion in the open air as long as possible, one 
of the men handed his single bucket to a comrade who had also but 
one, and then quietly slipped into the aforesaid furnace, the balance of 
the detail going on and returning the necessary number of buckets 
unchallenged. As the prisoners were counted twice every day by the 
officers in charge, it became necessary to devise some means to keep 
the count straight to conceal the fact that any one had escaped, and 
so resort was had to a system of repeating. A hole was cut through 
the floor of the third story, at the northeast corner, and that day the 
men of the third floor were unusually punctual in falling into ranks, 
so as to hide from the officer the operations about this corner. As 
he came up stairs after completing his count on the second floor, the 



ig6 APPENDIX. 

line already formed, stood between him and the hole referred to, so 
that a man was quickly pulled through without being detected, and 
this was repeated every time the men fell in to be counted. This 
arrangement worked so nicely that within the next day or two another 
had escaped by means of the furnace, and still another a day after, 
and the little game went quietly on until probably seven or eight had 
taken "French leave;" and for every one who escaped an additional 
man had to be hustled through the hole in the floor, in order to keep 
up the count. As the same men went through this latter process 
every day, they became quite proficient, and the way they got up 
through that hole was anything but convincing of the fact that prison 
life had deprived them of their former activity. Too much time could 
not be consumed in this transfer, as there was always more or less 
danger of being discovered, and the operation had to be completed 
before the main body of the prisoners had finally arranged them- 
selves in ranks ; but by some of the men shifting from place to place, 
and keeping up a general shuffling of feet, talking, coughing, etc., the 
confusion was always kept up until the shooting of blue jackets from 
the second to the third floor was completed. Finally, to the dismay 
of the prisoners, one of the men w-ho had escaped was recaptured and 
brought back, having been taken somewhere in the vicinity of Rich- 
mond. While the authorities were badly puzzled to know how he 
had escaped, they were equally puzzled to understand why the escape 
had not been discovered through the careful counting so frequently 
by the officer in charge. By a new system of counting, it was then 
discovered that the best part of a dozen Yanks had dispensed with 
prison hospitality. 

Some of the prisoners conceived the idea that a tunnel could be 
constructed from the cellar of the prison to a point under an old barn 
which stood some fifty feet distant. In order to get into the cellar and 
avoid the sentinels on the first floor, a hole was knocked through the 
brick wall just above the level of the floor of the second story, making 
entrance into the loft of the small building which stood joining the 
south side of the prison. Tearing up the floor of this building an 
entrance was made into the cellar, from which the tunnel was started, 
and, after many days of patient labor, was nearly completed; but get- 
ting too near the surface before the barn was reached, one of the rebel 
sentries broke through, and of course gave the alarm. An investiga- 
tion was made at once, although in the middle of the night, and going 
into the cellar the prison officers picked up at the mouth of the tunnel 
several articles used by the workers and left by them in their hurried 
flight, including a knife, spoon and tincup, the latter bearing the name 



APPENDIX. 197 

of its owner. When the guard came into the room all hands were in 
their proper places, and, of course, sound asleep, and there was no 
indication that any guilty parties were present. The man whose name 
was on the tincup was awakened, after several efforts, and accused of 
attempting to escape. He stoutly denied the charge, and when con- 
fronted w"ith the fact that his cup was foimd in the cellar, readily recog- 
nized the cup. and claimed it had been stolen from him several days 
before. As his story was not at all imiM-obable, it being quite likely a 
"Yank" might steal anything, it remained a mystery as to who the 
parties were. 

Another unsuccessful effort at escape was followed with sad re- 
sults. A regiment, seemingly just arrived at Danville, had stacked 
arms in the street a short distance from the prison and in full view of 
those within, the soldiers scattering, leaving the guns entirely, without 
even a single guard. It was arranged, under the lead of Colonel Duffie, 
a cavalry officer, that the prisoners, after overpowering the inside 
sentinels on the first floor, and getting the door opened from the outside, 
under pretense that a detail w^as going for water, should rush out, 
disarm the two or three sentinels around the door and seize the guns 
left unguarded. The several guards on the first floor were quietly 
disarmed. Colonel Duflie personally managing one of them and uncere- 
moniously rapping the back of his head on the floor, wath threats of 
what would be done if alarm was given. The call was given for the 
door to be opened for the detail. The door was indeed opened, but 
by some means the outside guard had been alarmed, and instead of 
finding one or two at the post, the whole guard had been mustered, 
and w"as ready to receive the jail-breakers, who were driven back with 
bayonets and a scattering volley. One life, that of Colonel Ralston, 
wlio died a day or two after the shooting, paid the penalty of this 
attempt to secure liberty. 

Ouite a large number of officers, including those of the I2ist 
Regiment, were paroled in the early part of February, and sent via 
steamer to Annapolis, Md.. the exchange being effected in time to 
enable them to reach the regiment before its return to Richmond, but 
too late to participate in the final engagements on the Appomattox. 

EXTR.\CT FROM A NARRATIVE OF OnE WhO WaS SeRIOUSLY 

Wounded at Gettysburg. 

"When the crest of the hill was reached, the regiment was ordered 

to lie down. I. on one knee, with my gun cocked and ready to fire, 

was slowly rising when I was shot through the neck, the minie ball 

entering on one side and passing out the other. I arose to my feet 



198 APPENDIX. 

and walked some fifty or one hundred yards to the rear. My strength 
soon failed and 1 lay down, thinking I was bleeding to death. Hear- 
ing some low groans, i looked up and saw Harry Gould\-, a young 
private of Company 'E.' with whom I had tented, coming towards 
me. holding his wounded arm. He passed me a step or two, then 
turned back, and pausing under fire, horrified at his friend's condition, 
urged me to 'come out of this.' I shook my head, as I could not 
speak ; I had difiiculty of breathing. The affairs of this world seemed 
to lose their importance. I had a dim thought that mother would be 
sorry. I ceased to care which way the victory went. My thoughts 
were concentrated on the hereafter ; I wanted to see how it went to 
die. When, after fainting, I opened my eyes, I did not see the angels 
and the hereafter as I had fully expected, but I saw a fence, and as I 
had never heard that fences were used in Paradise, and as I knew they 
were used on earth, I concluded that, at any rate, I was not dead yet. 
I opened my eyes on the fences and the grass and the dying day 
perhaps two hours before sunset. All was quiet. Soon a plump boy, 
a Confederate straggler, of about fifteen, came up to me and asked 
me if I wanted a drink.. I raised upon one arm and half emptied his 
canteen. He asked me if I would not give him my penknife. 1 had 
an old, cheap one, which I parted with readily, which I did not want, 
as I knew I was going home, i. c, to Philadelphia. I had changed my 
mind about dying. 

"The next that came up to me was a devil of the Wilkes Booth 
type, only infinitely worse. I didn't recognize him when I saw him — 
it took me fifteen or twenty years to do that. He looked something 
like Mephistopheles in Faust. I saved my life by an untruth ; this I 
found out about six years ago upon reading Judge Tourgee's "Bricks 
Without Straw,' etc. I did not dream of it at the time. 

"Perhaps his first words were: 'Ain't you ashamed of yourself, 
coming down here driving us from our homes?' I didn't suggest or 
think of suggesting that this was Pennsylvania. I ignored his mistake, 
knowing that he referred to the fact that our armies were ravaging 
the South. 

"Six years ago I realized how it was he made the mistake. It 
w^as a formula that he used on many a former occasion to get up his 
devilish courage to the proper point. But in 1863 I '^^'^h' regarded the 
man w ith mild surprise and wondered what the mischief was the matter 
with him. I lad one gleam of the truth quivered around the margin 
of my cnmprehension : had the slightest sign of quailing appeared in 
my mind, it would have, as with a tiger facing its foe, called forth the 
missing courage to deliver the fatal cut and leave one more to be 



APPENDIX. 199 

reported as 'killed in action;' when the truth would have been 
'murdered— murdered by a cowardly, cold-hearted, blood-thirsty 

villain. 

"When the bullet struck me, it jarred my body as a blow on the 
neck with a fist. I felt it enter my neck and I did not feel it go out, 
so I thought it was still there. This misconception saved my life for 
the second time. In reply to his question I said, 'Oh, I don't know,' 
and then came another tirade, ending with a question, to which, as he 
\vaited for an answer, I said again that I didn't know, but that I didn't 
care to talk politics with a bullet through my throat. Then he said, 
Ts the bullet still in your throat?' and I said yes; and he, after a little 
time, and after kicking my full cartridge-box contemptuously, and 
saving, 'We have plenty of these.' as well as of everything else, and 
how they were soon going to whip us, asked me if I could walk, and 
when I said I thought I could, said he would send up for me, and 
walked away. I had escaped from the tiger's jaws. He thought he 
would wait until the next morning, when the bullet would have to be 
taken out. Two of the ambulance corps came for me and I stood up 
and with each one holding an arm. I tried to walk. It was no use. 
After the first step .or two I had no legs at all, they seemed about 
as useful for walking as wet rags, so the two went away and four 
came with a stretcher. I was so spry in getting up and lying upon it, 
full length, that they were inclined to grumble and doubt my inability 
to walk. However, we reached a corner of the field where there were 
a dozen or two of our wounded, arranged in rows, and I passed the 
night comfortably enough. I do not know how it was I had a 
blanket; we had, before the fight, unslung our knapsacks, and I, of 
course, lost mine. 

"July 2, 1863.— I got up, moved around a little, and perhaps took 
a wash. ' J\Iy devilish friend was still on the watch for me. ^ He 
inquired after the bullet. I had made a discovery during the night, 
and found to my surprise two holes instead of one, one of which had, 
I knew, been made by the bullet on its exit, and when I told him he 
glared at me and asked, 'Why, I thought you told me it was still in 
vour neck.' in as savage tone as I ever heard. I would like those who 
would smile incredulously at the conclusion to which, after the fullest 
consideration. I have come, as to what was passing in his mind, to 
account for that tone and manner on au}^ other theory. It puzzled me 
for fifteen years or more, contrasting as it did with the absolute kindness 
I received on every side. Every one else could not have been kinder. 
Tudge Tourgee's works were a revelation to me and solved one of the 
problems of my life. What was the matter with that doctor, that he 



200 APPENDIX. 

should be so different from all the rest? 1 bid him and his accommo- 
dations good-bye and started out to find a hospital, as our shells began 
to fly around us. It was a most bewildering thing to be under the fire 
of your own batteries — that is, to find your front in your rear, and I 
have never been able to make up my mind as to the direction I took. 
A group of mounted officers spoke kindly to me and asked me many 
questions. One of them, in contrast with my doctor friend, risked 
his life to accommodate me. I was very weak and a short rise was 
a terror to me. I asked him to carry my blanket to the top of the 
hill. The shells were flying around them pretty lively, and as he 
leaned over to take the blanket out of my hand, we heard one coming 
low over our heads. He did not flinch, and I felt safe enough as 
long as his head remained on his shoulders. It cleared him, I am 
glad to say, passing, as I had judged it would, about three feet over 
his head and striking the ground some twenty yards away. He rode 
off and rejoined his brother officers, signalling back to me as he dropped 
my blanket when he gained the top of the hill. Over a broad expanse 
of level, the shells flew thickly and I concluded to seek shelter, choosing, 
in much doubt as to its being any good, a huge tree and lay down 
behind it. 

"Here another straggler picked me up and asked if I had any 
coffee to give him. I never used my full rations of coffee, and so had 
a bag full, which I had saved, and which I let him have. I have now 
a silver watch which was in my pocket, and which was during these 
days unmolested. He carried my load, and left me at nightfall outside 
the hospital ; I slept in the garden alongside of a fence. The next 
morning I reported in the farm-house. I w^as assigned to a second- 
story front room, bare except a bedstead minus all but the frame. Six 
or eight wounded Union men were there, one poor fellow, a sergeant, 
begging to have his leg cut off. A bullet had lodged in his ankle, but 
the rebel surgeons were working like bees cutting off the limbs of their 
own wounded. They gave us two corn cakes, baked on a griddle, 
about two inches in diameter and half an inch thick, morning and even- 
ing. Upon this and water we throve. We throve best after listen- 
ing to the dreadful cannonading of the 3d. when some of them admitted 
to us in our room that after Pickett's charge the 'stonewall" was on the 
wrong side this time. Their depression was very apparent and very 
decided. A Texan, because he had some glorious times in Philadel- 
phia when he was a medical student there, and who thought there 
were no ladies like those of Philadelphia, offered me (T being from 
Philadelphia) freely of his whiskey, which was then selling at $10 
per canteenful. He admitted that the South had been a little hastv, and 



APPENDIX. 20 1 

he regretted we could not drink together always instead of having to 
fight again on the morrow. 

"What a pleasant little time it was when, on the night of the 4th, 
by the light of a candle, some rebel officers came into our room, and 
said all who were able to walk should stand up. No one responded. 
Then he proceeded to parole us, and I asked him to certify to that fact, 
and made a list (I have it now), which he signed, and we all swore 
not to bear arms against the C. S. A. until we were exchanged. I 
soon found, upon getting home, that they had no right to administer 
such an oath, and so disregarded it. Each government agreed to 
catch a fellow before they let him go, and they were not to be con- 
sidered caught unless they were paroled at Richmond or Wash- 
ington. 

"With what happy sensations did we wake up on the morning of 
that glorious 5th of July, and find ourselves left to our own resources. 
A rebel cavalry picket was outside our windows and acting nervously, 
first galloping one way, then the other, and finally the whole party took 
to their saddles and galloped ofif down the road to the west. I set ofif 
to regain my base, regretting much at being compelled to leave the 
poor sergeant, whose ankle was becoming more painful and more dan- 
gerous constantly, and who piteously begged each one as he set out 
to send some one to his assistance." 



The First Day of the Battle of Gettysburg. 



Extract from an Address Delivered before the Historical Society of Pennsyl- 
vania, on the 8th of March, 18 SO, by Colonel Chapman Biddle. 



The failure of Hooker in the early part of the month of May of 
the year 1863 at Chancellorsville, following within a few short months 
the repulse of the Army of the Potomac at Fredericksburg, produced 
a profoundly painful impression on the public mind in the Northern 
States. F^or a second time it became necessary for the Army of the 
Potomac to recross the Rappahannock, and to seek security on the com- 
manding heights of Stafford, while it prepared itself for a renewal of 
the contest which every lover of the Union most earnestly hoped might 
lead to favorable results. Notwitlistanding his recent and signal suc- 
cess, Lee fully realized the fact that it had been achieved, to use the 
language of Longstreet, "at such a terrible sacrifice that half a dozen 
such victories would have ruined him ;" or, as Lee himself subsequently 
stated in conversation to Major Seddon : "At Chancellorsville we 
gained another victory; our people were wild with delight. I, on the 
contrary, was more depressed than after Fredericksburg; our loss was 
severe, and again we had gained not an inch of ground, and the enemy 
could not be pursued. * * * j considered the problem in every 
possible phase, and to my mind it resolved itself into the choice of one 
of two things — either to retire on Richmond and stand a siege, which 
must ultimately have ended in surrender, or to invade Pennsylvania. I 
chose the latter." For in his judgment sound military policy required 
that he should not only assume the aggressive, but that he should 
transfer the theatre of the war to the north of the Potomac, where the 
country had been almost entirely exempt from its devastation and hor- 
rors. Other considerations, too, of even greater importance were inti- 
mately connected with the military ones. The material resources of 
the South had already suffered greatly, and were scarcely adequate to 
the unintermittent demands which had been, and which were still likely 
to be made upon them if the struggle w-ere much longer protracted, 
and a successful termination of the war on their part seemed to the 
reflecting portion of the Southern people to be somewhat problematical 

202 




JOHN FULTON REYNOLDS, MAJOR-GENERAL, U. S. V. 



APPENDIX. 203 

without either the support or the countenance of England and France. 
For this latter object the recognition of the independence of the Con- 
federacy was vital, but it had from one cause or other, however, been 
postponed from time to time, chiefly, as was commonly supposed, by 
the apprehension of the governments of those countries of rashly com- 
mitting themselves to an act which might in the future involve them in 
international complications with the United States of a serious nature. 
A successful invasion of the North, however, would be succeeded by 
consequences which the Cabinet of Richmond not unreasonably believed 
would lead to the realization of their earnest desires. Hence under 
these combined political and military considerations a plan of campaign 
was prepared w'ithout delay and speedily put in execution. In his first 
or preliminary ofificial report of the battle of Gettysburg, General Lee 
thus outlines his views upon the subject: "The corresponding move- 
ments on the part of the enemy, to which those contemplated b>' us 
would probably give rise, might oiler a fair opportunity to strike a blow 
at the army of General Hooker — that in any event that army would 
be compelled to leave Virginia, that the enemy's plan of campaign be 
broken up, and that in addition to these advantages it was hoped that 
other valuable results might be obtained by military success." As one 
of these other results it has been stated with a certain degree of posi- 
tiveness in some of the Southern newspapers that it was part of Lee's 
purpose to fire and in this manner destroy the anthracite mines of 
Pennsylvania. But be this as it may, Lee in his final report of January, 
1864, of the Pennsylvania campaign, etc., makes no allusion to any 
anticipated additional valuable results. General Early, who has since, 
with a number of others, discussed the subject of the propriety of the 
invasion, considers that it was, at the time it was undertaken, "a wise 
and judicious movement, notwithstanding the fate that attended it."^ 

The first step towards the execution of the new plan was the reor- 
ganization of the Army of Northern Virginia, which was then formed 
into three corps d'aniicc, each under the command of a lieutenant-gen- 
eral. Longstreet was assigned to the First Corps, composed of the 
divisions of AlcLaws, Pickett and Hood; the second, comprising the 
divisions of Early, Rodes and Johnson, was placed under the command 
of Ewell, in accordance with a request made by Stonewall Jackson, on 
his death-bed, out of solicitude for the welfare of his veterans ;- and 
the third, whose divisions were under Anderson, Heth and Pender, 
was assigned to A. P. Hill. The cavalry, which had also been strength- 
ened by several new brigades from the South, was formed into a 



1 Southern Historical Society Papers, vol. iv., p. 56. 

2 Von Borcke, p. 399. 



204 AI'l'EXDIX. 

separate corps of three divisions, commanded by Hampton, Fitz-Hugh 
Lee and William H. F. Lee.^ Major Von Borcke, a Prussian officer, 
who was the assistant adjutant and inspector-general of (General J. E. 
B. Stuart, in referring to this body of cavalry, remarks that "the mag- 
nificent spectacle of so many thousand troopers splendidly mounted 
made the heart swell with pride and impressed one with the conviction 
that nothing could resist the attack of such a body of troops."- In 
the opinion of General Lee's military secretary, the recent victories of 
the Confederate army, "with the care bestowed on its reorganization, 
equipment and disci])linc." rendered "its spirit and efficiency unsur- 
passed by any army of modern times. "^ 

Longstreet, one of Lee's best lieutenants, and on whom great 
reliance was ])laced, doubted, however, from the first the wisdom of the 
proposed invasion from a military point of view, and urged upon his 
chief that the campaign could only be brought to a successful issue pro- 
vided it were made "ofifensive in strategy, but defensive in tactics." 
Indeed, he went so far as to present, as a substitute, an entirely different 
plan, one which contemjilated "the idea of a Western forward move- 
ment." However just or otherwise Longstreet's views may have been, 
it is not important now to discuss them, though it may be mentioned 
that Early has declared Longstreet's plan of a tactical defense to be "a 
simple absurdity."^ At all events, Lee remained fixed in and acted 
upon his opinion, and when recurring to the subject a short time before 
Grant crossed the Rapidan, in the spring of 1864, said to General Fleth, 
in the course of conversation: "If I could do so — unfortunately I 
cannot — I would again cross the Potomac and invade Pennsylvania. I 
believe it to be our true policy, notwithstanding the failure of last year. 
An invasion of the enemy's country breaks up all of his preconceived 
plans, relieves our country of his presence, and we subsist while there 
on his resources. The question of food for this anuy gives me more 
trouble and uneasiness than everything else eomhined: the absence of 
the army from Virginia gives our people an opportunity to collect sup- 
plies ahead. The legitimate fruits of a victory if gained in Pennsyl- 
vania could be more readily reaped than on our own soil. We would 
have been in a few days' march of Philadelphia, and the occu])ation 
of that city would have given us peace. "^ 

When the reorganization of the army and other preliminaries had 
been completed, Lee, on the y\ of June, commenced his Northern 

1 Von Borcke, p. 399. 

2 Idem, p. 402. 

•■' Southern Historical Society Papers, vol. iv., p. 119. 
4 Idrm, vol. iv., p. 281, note. 
•'"' Idem, vol. iv., p. 153. 



APPENDIX. 205 

movement. The division of McLaws, marching out of Fredericksburg", 
for Culpeper Court-house, followed by Ewell's corps on the 4th and 
5th ; Hood's Division and Stuart's cavalry moving at the same time. 
So that by the 8th of that month, two of the corps and Stuart's cavalry 
had concentrated at Culpeper Court-house. 

Early in June Hooker had obtained information that Lee was 
gradually withdrawing his forces from Fredericksburg in the direction 
of Culpeper Court-house. To test the accuracy of this intelligence, 
which, if true, was most important in its relation to the campaign then 
about opening, he directed a reconnoissance in force to be made by the 
cavalry, supported by two small brigades of infantry. The result of 
this reconnoissance, which, if its objects are kept in view, was altogether 
favorable, has not only been magnified into a severe repulse on the part 
of the Union forces by General Lee, but Longstreet has even censured 
Lee for failing to pursue his advantage by hurling the heavy Confed- 
erate corps then at Culpeper Court-house upon the Federal detachment. 
Assuredly the cavalry of the Army of the Potomac have no reason 
to regret the issue of the engagement at Beverly Ford, or, as it is 
sometimes termed, that of Brandy Station. It was the first occasion 
when as a body it went into action, and whilst perphaps, if the divisions 
of Buford and Gregg had been connected from the first, instead of 
having been separated by an interval of five or six miles, when crossing 
the Rappahannock on the 9th of June, at Beverly and Kelly's Fords, 
still greater results might have been achieved, yet their work was both 
faithfully and well done. Stuart's headquarters were captured, and 
from them was supplied information which enabled Hooker to keep 
pace with the invading arm\- ; Stuart's march was thereby delayed ; 
the direction of Lee's army was changed and prevented from attempt- 
ing to cross the Potomac near Washington, and Stuart held in check by 
the subsecpient brilliant engagements of Aldie, Middleburg and Upper- 
ville, on the 17th, loth and 21st days of June, until the Union army 
had moved into Maryland. At Upperville, "very many charges were 
made and the sabre used freely, but always with great advantage to''^ 
the Federal troops. The valuable services rendered by the cavalry will 
again appear when the events connected with the great battle of Gettys- 
burg are brought to notice. 

Quick to comprehend the significance of the intelligence thus im- 
parted to him by the reconnoissance. Hooker became at once convinced 
that the movement northward on the part of Lee was the commence- 
ment of a real campaign, and, as a preparatory measure, placed General 
Reynolds, on the 12th of June, in command of the right wing of the 



1 Report on the Conduct of the War, Part I., p. 2S0. 



206 APPENDIX. 

aiiny, consisting of his own (the Mrst), the Tiiird and the Eleventh 
Corps, which, after it faced about and commenced its northward march, 
became the left wing^, together with the cavalry, directed him to pro- 
ceed along" the line of the Orange and Alexandria Railroad to Manassas. 
The remaining four cor]is of the Federal army followed on the succeed- 
ing day. As soon as it was known to Hill that Hooker had withdrawn 
his forces from the heights in front of Fredericksburg, the former com- 
menced his march in the direction of Ewell, who, under his instructions, 
had proceeded down the \'alley of Virginia. Before Ewell reached 
the Potomac, Lee notified Stuart that the former would cross that river 
on a certain day ami at a certain point, that Hill was to follow, and 
that Longstreet would hold the gaps in the mountains and protect the 
crossing of those two corps. After Hill had crossed, Longstreet was to 
vacate the gaps and follow Hill. When this had been accomplished, 
Stuart was to seize the gaps and protect Longstreet's crossing; later he 
was to throw himself on the right flank of the army, watch the enemy, 
furnish information and collect supplies. To cover the two corps in 
their march through the valley, Longstreet left Culpeper Court-house 
on the T5th, pursuing the route along the easterly side of the Blue 
Ridge, occupying the gaps as occasion required, whilst Stuart, under 
his discretionary powers from Lee, moved in front and on the right 
flank of Longstreet. Meanwhile, Hooker, closely watching the move- 
ments of his adversary, skillfully manceuvred so as to guard the 
approaches to Washington, keeping himself at the same time in a 
position instantly to assail Lee whenever a fitting opportunity might 
ofifer. The intended act of invasion, however, in a dispatch of the 
15th to the President, Hooker characterized as one of desperation on 
the part of Lee, "no matter in what force he moves." 

After one or two afl'airs in the valley, by which Milroy was brushed 
away, the First and Third Corps of the Confederate army, on reaching 
the Potomac, crossed it, the former at Williamsport and the latter at 
Shepherdstown, and uniting at Hagerstown, from there marched up 
the Cumberland \'alley to Chambersburg, arriving at the latter place on 
the evening of the 27th. Ewell had entered Pennsylvania on the 22d 
with two of his divisions, preceded by Jenkin's cavalry, which num- 
bered, according to General Stuart's estimate, about 3,800^ (but which 
number Fitz-Hugh Lee regards as a misprint for 1,600-), and from 
Chambersburg had sent one of his divisions, that under the command 
of General Early, through Gettysburg to York, and the other to 
Carlisle. On the 26tli of June, Early entered Gettysburg with 5,000 



1 Southern Historical Society Papers, vol. ii., p. 76. 
- Idem, vol. v., p. 165. 



APPENDIX. 207 

infantry and a squadron of cavalry, and whilst there endeavored, in 
execution of one of Lee's general objects, to levy contributions on the 
town. His requisition for supplies, including shoes, amounted in the 
aggregate to about $6,000. To this, however, the town was altogether 
unable to respond, and being satisfied that such was the fact he made 
no effort to enforce his demand. The next day he resumed his march 
to Hanover Junction and York, intending to advance from the latter 
place upon Harrisburg. in obedience to orders which had been issued 
upon the supposition that Hooker was still on the other side of the 
Potomac. Early's advance upon Harrisburg was, however, arrested 
in consequence of intelligence having been received by General Lee 
on the night of the 28th, from a scout, to the effect that the Federal 
army had not only crossed the Potomac, but that the head of the 
column was then at Frederick City. The communications of the Con- 
federate forces being thus threatened, it became, in Lee's opinion, 
absolutely necessary — and it may be in consequence of a suggestion 
from Longstreet that the order was given — to concentrate the army 
to the east of the mountains, and thereby check any farther movement 
on the part of Hooker to the west. 

Throughout his entire march the vigilance of Hooker had been 
unceasing, so that at the moment he became convinced that his adver- 
sary had either crossed or was about to cross the Potomac he commenced 
the passage of the river some thirty-five or forty miles below Shep- 
herdstown, on the 25th and 26th, at Edward's Ferry. Without at all 
intending to enter into a discussion of Hooker's plan of campaign after 
his army reached Maryland, it is nevertheless proper to refer briefly to 
its leading features, which contemplated confining the enemy to a single 
line of invasion by seizing Turner's and Crampton's Passes of the 
South Mountain ; the cutting of their communication at Williamsport, 
and abandoning the indefensible post at Harper's Ferry, together with 
Maryland Heights opposite, which was at that time a strategic point of 
no consequence, which defended no ford in the river, and which was 
not a defense to the Cumberland Valley.^ To secure the first object 
General Reynolds was directed to send detachments to seize those 
passes in the mountain near Boonsboro, and to take position in the 
valley at Middletown with the left wing.- In connection with the 
second, the left wing at Middletown would be available for an attack 
upon Lee, in flank, in case he should attempt to turn upon the corps 
sent by Hooker from below to operate against the Confederate rear.^ 



1 Report on the Conduct of the War, Part I., p. 174. 

2 Idem, Part I., p. 169. 

3 Idem, Part I., p. 174. 



2o8 APPENDIX. 

Captain Chesiiev, of the Royal Engineers, professor of military history, 
Sandhurst College, a military critic of some reputation, in referring to 
this plan, says : "We may search the history of modern campaigns in 
vain to find a more striking example of the effect produced by operat- 
ing on the enemy's communications than that of this movement of 
Hooker's." * * * "A glance at the map will show why the little 
town of Gettysburg" was chosen by Lee, "as the most convenient point 
whereon to assemble his scattered divisions ; lying, as it does, nearly 
equidistant from the stations they occupied at Hagerstown, Chambers- 
burg, Carlisle and York."^ General Halleck, however, then general-in- 
chief of the Union army, declined to approve the abandonment of 
Harper's Ferry and Maryland Heights, although in less than two days 
thereafter he reversed his decision on this point at the request of 
General Meade, who. in the meantime, had been appointed to the com- 
mand of the Army of the Potomac. Hooker felt, and by no means 
unnaturally, that to have his plans thus interfered with on the eve of 
the important operations alx)ut to commence was calling in question his 
military capacity in such a manner as to leave him no alternative but 
to request to be at once relieved from his command. Accordingly, on 
the afternoon of the 27th he telegraphed to Washington his desire, and 
on the following morning, Sunday, he received by the hands of a special 
messenger official notification of his having been relieved, together with 
an order directing him to turn over the command to General Meade, 
then in charge of the Fifth Corps, "a brave and accomplished officer, 
who," as Hooker, in his farewell order to the army, adds, "had nobly 
earned the confidence and esteem of this army on many a well-fought 
field."^ Thus was terminated the connection of General Hooker with 
the Army of the Potomac. Whatever opinions in regard to his ability 
as a chief on the field of battle may be entertained in consequence of 
the unfortunate issue of Chancellorsville, he is, nevertheless, justly 
entitled to high commendation for strategic skill, zeal and vigilance 
while conducting that portion of the campaign of 1863 commencing on 
the return of the army to the heights of Stafford, and terminating upon 
his withdrawal from that army at Frederick City. 

On assuming his most responsible trust. General Meade, in a short 
and manly order to his army, gave expression to the almost universal 
sentiment of the people of the North by declaring that "the country 
looks to this army to relieve it from the devastation and disgrace of a 
hostile invasion." In ignorance of the exact condition of his own forces, 
as well as of the position of the enemy, he could only at the moment 

I Campaigns in Virginia, Mar>iand, etc., by Captain Chesney, R. E., vol. ii., 
p. 31. 

-' Conduct of the War, Part I., p. 294. 















'^mtt^^^m 


1 "^^1 




jS \ 








'■aHlMliiL4:M/4^ 


Ir 


■yK-. 


f 





COLONEL JAMES ASIIWORTH. 



APPENDIX. 209 

indicate a general purpose of at once moving in the direction of the 
Susquehanna, "keeping Washington and Bahimore well covered; and 
if the enemy is checked in his attempt to cross the Susquehanna, or if 
he turn towards Baltimore, to give him battle." Late in the evening 
of the same day he communicated to Halleck his intention of moving 
on the following day on three lines to Emmitsburg and Westminster. 
His headquarters at 4 p. m. on the 30th were at Taneytown, about eigh- 
teen miles in a southeasterly direction from Gettysburg, the left wing 
of his army, again under the command of Reynolds, in advance, in a 
northwesterly course from general headquarters, and considerably 
nearer to Gettysburg, whilst his right wing was to his east, two of its 
corps to the south, and the remaining two to the north of Pine Creek — 
his entire force consisting of seven corps d'ariiicc of infantry and one 
of cavalry. Buford, with the First Division of the cavalry, was cover- 
ing the left flank of the army, having been ordered for the purpose to 
move from Middletown by the way of Emmitsburg to Gett}-sburg, 
and, as appears from one authority, to hold Gettysburg "at all hazards 
until the army could support him." 

The strategic value of Gettysburg had evidently neither been over- 
looked by Lee and some of his lieutenants, nor by some of the Union 
commanders, although Major Daniel, of Early's staff, believes that Lee 
himself had no idea of the great strategic importance of the place. ^ It 
certainly offered to Lee far greater advantages for concentrating his 
troops than Chambersburg, which, under the idea of a certain immunity 
from attack, he had first selected, as supposed by some, in pursuance 
of his defensive tactical policy. General Long, Lee's military secretary, 
reports the following as the substance of his chief's remarks when the 
subject of the Northern invasion was under consideration : "Should 
we defeat General Hooker in a general engagement south of the 
Potomac, anywhere in the vicinity of Washington, his shattered army 
would find refuge within the defenses of that city, as two Federal armies 
have previously done, and the fruits of victory would again be lost. 
But should we draw him far away from the defenses of his capital and 
defeat him on a field of our own choosing, his army would be irretriev- 
ably lost, and the victory would be attended with results of the utmost 
importance. Gettysburg and York were designated as points suitable 
for such a battle."^ 

Gettysburg was, moreover, a position of vast natural strength for 
defensive operations in the opinion of General Meade,^ his assistant 



I Address of Major Daniel before the Virginia Division of the Army of North- 
em Virginia, October, 1875, p. 17. 

- Southern Historical Society Papers, vol. iv., p. 120. 
3 Conduct of the War, Part I., p. 438. 



2TO APPENDIX. 

adjutant-general, General Williams/ of General Fitz-Hngh Lee," and 
of many other officers both of experience and ability, whilst at the same 
time it afforded ready access not only to Chambersburg, but also to 
Hagerstown. Frederick, Taney town, Baltimore, Hanover, York, Har- 
risburg, Carlisle and Shippensburg, thus seeming to fulfill all the con- 
ditions which the Confederate chief needed for the realization of his 
general plan of campaign. Eleven roads, several of them well macad- 
amized, centre at Gettysburg, so that by means of some one or more 
of them he might have maintained a direct communication with his 
base at Williamsport far more easily than from Chambersburg, whilst 
for defensive battle the line from and including Wolf Hill, situate to 
the southeast of the town, and separated from Gulp's Hill by Rock 
Creek, thence pursuing a northerly direction across the depression made 
by the creek to and along the summit of Gulp's Hill to its junction with 
Cemetery Hill, thence following the crest of the latter for a short 
distance in a westerly course, and from thence in a southerly direction, 
so as to embrace a part of Cemetery Ridge, and include Liftle Round 
Top as well as Round Top itself, is one rarely equaled and not often 
excelled. Hence it may readily be inferred that when, on the night 
of the 28th, Lee was first informed in regard to the position of the 
Federal army, his whole plan of campaign was suddenly changed, and, 
in the language of his final report, "it was determined to concentrate 
the army east of the mountains, as," had been stated in his preliminary 
report, "our communications with the Potomac were thus menaced." 
* * * "Accordingly, Longstreet and Hill were directed to proceed 
from Chambersburg to Gettysburg, to which point General Ewell was 
also instructed to march from Carlisle." In mentioning the 28th as the 
date when Lee first obtained information in reference to the Union 
army, it is not to be lost sight of that in his first report he states that the 
intelligence was received from a scout "on the night of the 29tli," and 
that in this Longstreet concurs^ — the latter adding that early on the 
morning of the succeeding day he had sought his chief for the purpose 
of suggesting, if necessary, whether this report ought not to produce 
a change of direction of the head of their column to the right. But 
Lee was in error as to its being the 29th, and in his final reports he so 
admits by declaring that "the advance against Harrisburg was arrested 
by intelligence received from a scout on the night of the 28th," and in 
the same connection remarking that "Hill's corps was accordingly 
ordered to move towards Cashtown on the 29th, and Longstreet to 



1 Conduct of the War, Part I., p. 465. 

2 Southern Historical Society Papers, vol. iv., p. 

3 Annals of the "War, p. 419. 



APPENDIX. 211 

follow the next day, leaving Pickett's division at Chambersburg to 
guard the rear until relieved by Imboden. General Ewell was recalled 
from Carlisle and directed to join the army at Cashtown or Gettysburg, 
as circumstances might require." And again, "Heth's division reached 
Cashtown on the 29th." As to the earlier date, Lee is corroborated 
first by Heth, who says: '"On the 29th of June, 1863, General Lee's 
army was disposed as follows : Longstreet's corps at or near Cham- 
bersburg; Ewell's corps, which had been pushed east as far as York, 
had received orders to countermarch and concentrate on Hill's corps, 
which lay on and at the base of South Mountain ; the leading division 
(Heth's) occupying Cashtown, at the base of the mountain."^ Sec- 
ondly, by General Fitz-Hugh Lee, who, when mentioning in his "reply 
to General Longstreet" the date upon which the Federal army crossed 
the Potomac, is careful to add : "General Lee heard it on the night of 
the 28th from a scout, and not from his cavalry commander."- Thirdly, 
by General Wilcox f and, fourthl}-, by General Early, who distinctly 
says that "Lee received information on the night of the 28th of June 
that the Federal army, then under Hooker, had crossed the Potomac;"' 
and more pointedly still in his supplement or further "reply to General 
Longstreet," in which he says that the statement of Longstreet, "that 
the information of the crossing of the Potomac by the Federal army was 
received from a scout on the night of the 29th of Juae, is erroneous. 
General Longstreet's own report, as well as General Lee's detailed one, 
show that the information was received on the night of the 28th. If it 
had not been received imtil the night of the 29th, it would have been 
impossible for the order to return to reach me at York by the w^ay of 
Carlisle in time for me to begin my march back early enough on the 
30th to reach Gettysburg in time for the fight on the ist of July. The 
fact was that I received the order on the morning of the 29th, at York, 
with the information that the enemy had crossed the Potomac and was 
moving north." Longstreet has rather recently admitted, in a second 
article on "The Mistakes of Gettysburg," that "there were two or 
three trifling inaccuracies in his first account of this battle which need 
correction," and in regard to the important date adds : "The scout upon 
whose information the head of our column was turned to the right 
reported at Chambersburg on the night of the 28th of June. It is 
printed the 29th. "^ 

The suggestion on the part of Longstreet was received by Lee 
with a ready acquiescence, as at the time the Confederate army was 

1 Southern Historical Society Papers, vol. iv., p. 1.t7. 

2 Idem, vol. v., p. 166; see idem, vol. iv., p. 74. 

3 Idem, vol. iv., p. 112. 

* [dew, vol. iv., p. 242. and also p. 288; Major Daniel's Address, p. 13. 
5 Annals of the War, p. 632. 



212 APPENDIX. 

well in hand, witli the exception of Stuart's cavalry. A movement 
towards Meade's army was commenced immediately. Hill's corps, then 
lying between Chambersburg and Cashtown, west of the mountains, 
was advanced without delay ; the divisions of McLaws and Hood, of 
Longstreet's corps, following, while the division of I'ickett, of the latter 
corps, remained by order of Lee at Chambcrsburg as a rear-guard. 
Rodes and Johnson's divisions, of Ewell's corps, were recalled from 
Carlisle, and directed to unite with the remainder of the army at or 
near Cashtown, notwithstanding they had, according to Rodes, "con- 
templated with eagerness" an advance upon Harrisburg, which was to 
have been executed on the 30th. These last divisions bivouacked on 
the night of the 30th at Heidlersburg, a small village, distant some ten 
or twelve miles to the north and east of Gettysburg. Longstreet's two 
divisions were, however, only able to march as far as the village of 
Greenwood, ten miles east of Chambersburg, on the Cashtown Road, 
in consequence of the wagon trains of Ewell and Hill's corps blocking 
the road, and then encamped on the 30th. Hill's corps, consisting of 
the divisions of Anderson, Heth and Pender, and five battalions of 
artillery, was encamped on the morning of the 29th near Fayetteville, 
on the road from Chambersburg to Gettysburg. Hill had been directed 
to move on this road in the direction of York, to cross the Susquehanna, 
and thus threaten the communications of Harrisburg with Philadel- 
phia, and further to co-operate with Ewell according to circumstances. 
In consequence, Heth's division was moved on the same day to Cash- 
town, the division of Pender following on the morning of the 30th, 
and Anderson ordered to march in the same direction on the morning 
of the 1st of July. On arriving at Cashtown, Heth sent forward 
Pettigrew's brigade to Gettysburg, which there encountered Buford's 
cavalry. Intelligence of this was at once dispatched by a courier to 
Lee, and Anderson directed to make an early start ; Ewell at the same 
time was notified by Hill that he "intended to advance the next morning 
and discover what was in his front. "^ The statement published by 
Heth of the encounter with Buford's cavalry is interesting in this 
connection ;- he says : "Hearing that a supply of shoes was to be 
obtained in Gettysburg," * * '■' "and greatly needing shoes for 
my men, I directed General Pettigrew to go to Gettysburg and get these 
supi)lies. General Pettigrew, on the 30th of June, with his brigade, 
went near Gettysburg, but did not enter the town, returning the same 
evening to Cashtown. reporting that he had not carried out my orders, 
as Gettysburg was occupied by the enemy's cavalry, and that some of 



1 Southern Historical Society Papers, vol. ii., p. 222. 

2 Idem. vol. iv., p. 157. 




MAJOR-GKNERAf, G. K. WARREN. 



APPENDIX. 



213 



his officers reported hearing drums beating on the farther side of the 
town; that under these circumstances he did not deem it advisable to 
enter Gettysburg. About this time General Hill rode up, and this 
information was given him. Pie remarked : 'The only force at Gettys- 
burg is cavalry, probably a detachment of observation. I am just from 
General Lee, and the information he has from his scouts corroborates 
what I have received from mine — that is, the enemy are still at Middle- 
burg, and have not yet struck their tents.' I then said: 'If there is 
no objection, I will take my division to-morrow and go to Gettysburg 
and get those shoes !' Hill replied: 'None in the world.'" General 
Long (Lee's military secretary) states, however, that tlie first intelli- 
gence which his chief received of the movements of the enemy was 
his arrival at Emmitsburg, which is several miles northwest of Mid- 
dleburg.' Such, in brief, was the general military situation of the 
Confederate forces on the night of the 30th of June, as has been 
gathered from the various official reports of their principal generals 
and from other sources. As has already been mentioned, Hill was 
aware on the 30th that Gettysburg was occupied by a cavalry force 
of the Federal army, and had not only promptly reported the fact to 
his commander-in-chief, but had also notified Ewell, who had been 
recalled from Carlisle, of his intention to advance the next morning 
to ascertain what was in his front. The main, perhaps the only, object 
he had in view in thus communicating with Ewell, was to obtain the 
latter's assistance in his contemplated movement upon Gettysburg. In 
thus seeking to consolidate the strength of the two corps of the Con- 
federate army at that point, it is not unreasonable to suppose that Hill 
anticipated something more than the resistance which a mere cavalry 
detachment was capable of offering, and that consequently he did not 
implicitly rely upon the reports of his scouts that the enemy were 
still stationed at Middleburg. But be this as it may, the purpose of 
Lee, as disclosed in his first report, was to concentrate his army east 
of the mountains at Gettysburg. His language is: "Accordingly, 
Longstreet and Hill were directed to proceed from Chambersburg to 
Gettysburg, to which point General Ewell was also instructed to march 
from Carlisle," and which seems to admit of no other interpretation. 
It is nevertheless true that in his detailed report of January, 1864, 
prepared six months after the battle, the order to Ewell is put quite 
differently, and that officer is there given the alternative of joining 
the army either at Cashtown or Gettysburg, as circumstances might 
require.- But, at all events, it can hardly be denied that concentration 

1 Southern Historical Society Papers, vol. iv., p. 122. 

2 Idem, vol. ii., p. 39. 



214 APPENDIX. 

meant and could mean but one of three things, that is, either an offer 
of battle, or the acceptance of battle, or a retreat. In the opinion of 
General Alexander, the chief of artillery of Longstreet's corps, "the 
concentration which was ordered at Gettysburg was intended as an 
ofter of battle."^ General Early goes farther, and says expressly that 
when Meade moved his army near enough to Lee's to render con- 
centration necessary, "the only alternative left the latter was a battle 
or a retreat."- General Fitz-Hugh Lee, in considering this subject, 
remarks : "The truth is. General Lee and his army were full of fight, 
their 'objective point' was the Federal Army of the Potomac, and 
'those people' the Confederate chief had resolved to strike whenever 
and wherever the best opportunity occurred, 'strategically oflfensive 
and tacticallv defensive' to the contrary notwithstanding. An army 
of invasion is naturally an offensive one in strategy and tactics, and 
history rarely points to an instance where it has been concentrated on 
a given point to patiently await an attack. The distance from its base 
making supplies a difficult matter to procure, in itself regulates the 
whole question. An army so situated must move or fight."^ Heth 
fully concurs with Fitz-Hugh Lee as to the fighting qualities of their 
chief, saying that "Lee, not even excepting Jackson, was the most 
aggressive man in his army," and that "had he seen fit could have 
assumed a defensive position, and popular opinion in the Northern 
States would have forced the commander of the Federal army to 
attack."-* 

Whilst Ileth, as has already been mentioned, regards the battle of 
Gettysburg as "the result purely of an accident, for which he was 
probably more than any one else accountable," yet as he is sometimes 
in error upon important points, as, for example, in reporting a con- 
versation of General Lee respecting the fight at Gettysburg on the 
third day, the general is made to say : "I shall ever believe if Gen-, 
era! Pender had remained on his horse half an hour longer we would 
have carried the enemy's position,"" whereas if General Lane, of North 
Carolina, is to be relied on, "Pender was mortally wounded on the 
right of his line by an artillery shot on the afternoon of the 2d of July, 
and was taken to the rear, where he was on the 3d of July, and could 
not even mount his horse,"^ care must be exercised in accepting his 
narrative in all its particulars. Finally, in his detailed report, Lee 
admits that he was "unable to wait an attack," and that a battle had 



1 Southern Historical Society Papers, vol. iv., p. 99. 

2 Idem, vol. iv., p. 281, note. 

3 Jdem, vol. v., p. 178. 
* Idem, vol. iv., p. 156. 
6 Idem, vol. iv., p. 154. 
Idevi, vol. v., p. 387. 



APPENDIX. 215 

therefore become "in a measure unavoidable," although it had not been 
intended to deliver one "so far from his base unless attacked." 

A careful comparison between the Union and Confederate accounts 
of some of the occurrences in the respective armies shortly prior to the 
night of the 30tli of June will, as might be expected, disclose points of 
difference more or less material to be considered. Buford, as previously 
mentioned, had been directed to move with his division of cavalry from 
Middletown, by the way of Emmitsburg, to Gettysburg. In obedience 
to his order, but pursuing a more westerly course than the direct road 
between Middletown and Emmitsburg, he had reached Fountain Dale, 
a village on the wSouth Mountain, a few miles northwest of Emmits- 
burg, on the night of the 29th, when from there observing the camp- 
fires of some of Heth's division near Fairfield in the valley below, got 
his men in the saddle early the next morning and surprised the Con- 
federate detachment, which hastily fell back towards Cashtown. He 
declined, however, to press them, for the reason that the noise of the 
engagement might be heard at army headquarters, where "it might cause 
delay, uncertainty and derangement of plans." There had also been 
a slight skirmish at Fairfield on the 28th between the Confederates and 
the Union cavalry,^ information respecting both of which had no doubt 
been immediately reported to Lee at Chambersburg. After his dash, 
Buford at once countermarched to Fountain Dale, and then resumed his 
way through Emmitsburg to Gettysburg, entering the latter town 
towards noon,- as, according to one version, two of Hill's brigades were 
about to occupy Seminary Ridge f but according to another and 
probably the more accurate one,* about an hour after the Confederates 
had withdrawn to Marsh Creek, in consequence of their learning of 
the near approach of the Federal cavalry. That afternoon Buford 
encamped on high ground, a mile and a half northwest from the town, 
between Seminary Ridge and Willoughby Run, and there placed his 
artillery in position — Gable's brigade of his division going to the 
Chambersburg Pike and Devin's brigade to the east, on the Mummas- 
burg Road, covering the approaches from those directions. From 
prisoners captured by scouting parties sent from those brigades towards 
Cashtown and Hunterstown, as well as from other sources, it became 
evident that an almost immediate movement on the part of the Con- 
federates towards Gettysburg was in contemplation. During the day, 
Buford had informed General Reynolds that "the enemy in his front 
was increased," and on that night between 10 and 11 o'clock, he 

1 Notes on the Rebel Invasion of Maryland and Pennsylvania, etc., by 
Jacobs, p. 19. 

2 Idem, p. 22. 

3 The Decisive Conflicts of the Late Civil War, by De Peyster, p. 27. 

4 Notes on the Rebel Invasion, by Jacobs, p. 22. 



2l6 APPENDIX. 

further notified the latter that he was "satisfied that A. P. Hill's corps'^ 
was "massed just back of Cashtown, about nine miles from this place. 
Pender's division of this corps came up to-day, of which 1 advised 
you." -^ ■■' * "The enemy's pickets (infantry and artillery) are 
within four miles of this place at the Cashtown Road." ''•' * ''^ "A 
captured scout says, 'Ewell's corps is crossing the mountains from 
Carlisle, Rodes' division being at Petersburg in advance. Longstreet, 
from all I can learn, is still behind Hill." * * * "Should I have 
to fall back, advise me by what route. "^ In reporting to General 
Plalleck at Washington, between 4 and 5 o'clock in the afternoon of 
the 30th, General Meade states that "information seems to place Long- 
street at Chambersburg, and A. P. Hill moving between Chambersburg 
and York," and that "our cavalry drove a regiment out of Gettysburg 
this A. ]M."- 

In his circular of June 30th, to his corps commanders. General 
Meade announces that "he has received information that the enemy are 
advancing", probably in strong force, on Gettysburg." * * * "Three 
corps. First, Third and Eleventh, are under the command of Major- 
General Reynolds in the vicinity of Emmitsburg, the Third Corps 
being ordered up to that point." And in his order, issued the same day 
for the march of the army on the ist of July, whilst directing the First 
Corps to move to Gettysburg, the Eleventh to Gettysburg (or support- 
ing distance), and the Third to Emmitsburg, Meade repeats that from 
present information Longstreet and Hill are at Chambersburg. partly 
towards Gettysburg; Ewell at Carlisle and York. Movements indicate 
a disposition to advance from Chambersburg to Gettysburg," and 
being satisfied that he has relieved Harrisburg and Philadelphia, he 
desires "to look to his own army and assume position for offensive or 
defensive as occasion requires."^ In consequence of Bu ford's report 
from Gettysburg of "the appearance of the enemy on the Cashtown 
Road in some force General Reynolds was directed to occupy Gett}s- 
burg,""* whither the enemy were moving, "and where it was not im- 
probable they will reach before the command of Reynolds," * * * 
"then on its way could arrive." General Reynolds had, moreover, 
been instructed, "in the event of finding himself confronted by a 
superior force," to hold it "in check, if he was able, and to fall slowly 
back."^ On the judgment of no other officer did Meade rest greater 
dependence than on that of Reynolds ; he was the officer upon whorrt 



1 Conduct of the War, Part I., p. 352. 
2/drm, Part I., p. 483. 

3 Idem, Part I., p. 421. 

4 Meade' .s Official Report Battle of Gettysburg, by Bates, p. 237. 

5 Conduct of the War, Part I., p. 356. 



APPENDIX. 217 

he "had rehed under his instructions. "^ Indeed, Reynolds was to him, 
as he affectionately as well as eloquently expressed himself of his com- 
rade, "not only a lieutenant of the utmost importance," but a friend, a 
brother and "the noblest as well as the bravest gentleman in the army.'"- 
Amidst the confusion of the reports which crowded upon him respect- 
ing the position and the objects of the enemy, the commander-in-chief 
sought from this able lieutenant and trusted friend, advice to determine 
whether it was "his best policy to move to attack," for, as he states in 
his communication of the ist of July to Reynolds, "If the enemy is 
concentrated to the right of Gettysburg, that point would not at first 
glance seem to be a proper strategic point for concentration of this 
army. If the enemy is concentrating in front of Gettysburg or to the 
left of it, the general is not sufiiciently well informed of the nature of 
the country to judge of its character either for an offensive or defensive 
position." * * * "The general having just assumed command in 
obedience to orders," * * * "would gladly receive from you any 
suggestions as to the points laid down in this note. He feels that you 
know' more of the condition of the troops in your vicinity and the 
country than he does." * =•' * "You have all the information which 
the general has received, and the general would like to have your views. 
The movement of your corps to Gettysburg was ordered before the 
positive knowledge of the enemy's withdrawal from Harrisburg and 
concentration was received."^ 

On his route to Gettysburg Reynolds had, on the afternoon of the 
30th, encamped in the vicinity of a tavern near Marsh Creek, about 
five miles south and west of the town. At the same time the Eleventh 
Corps was to the left of Emmitsburg, and the Third between that place 
and Taneytown. At night General Howard, the commander of the 
Eleventh Corps, was resquested to report at Reynolds' headquarters, 
where immediately on his arrival Reynolds showed him Meade's "Con- 
fidential address, just issued, in which he required the officers in com- 
mand fitly to address the troops," and to appeal "to every patriotic 
sentiment to stimulate his command on the approach of a great battle." 
He also showed him "in a bundle of dispatches — the information brought 
to him during the day — evidence of the nearness, position and designs 
of the enemy. He sat down with" Howard "to study the maps of 
the country, and consulted" with him "upon these matters till 11 
o'clock at night, the last night of his life."* The notice of this inter- 

iConduct of the War, Part I., p. 348. 

- Meade's Address to the Pennsylvania Reserves, History of the Pennsyl- 
vania Reserves, by Sypher, p. 493. 

3 Conduct of the War, Part I., p. 355. 

4 Campaign and Battle of Gettysburg, by O. O. Howard, Atlantic Monthly, 
July, 1876, p. 52. 



2l8 APPENDIX. 

esting interview is altogether too slight and incomplete on the part of 
General Howard, for it is highly important to be able to determine 
what bearing it had on the operations of the succeeding day. A pro- 
tracted discussion of the probable designs of the enemy from the evi- 
dence before them must have led to some conclusion, for so accomplished 
a soldier as Reynolds was evidently during that night's study and con- 
ference considering the possibilities of the morrow, and most probably 
was preparing himself to carry into successful execution the discretion- 
ary powers with which he had been invested by his commander-in-chief. 
He had been made aware by Buford that the enemy had increased in 
numbers; that Hill's corps was massed immediately behind Cashtown; 
that Ewell was crossing the mountains from Carlisle, and that their 
infantry and artillery pickets were within four miles of Gettysburg. 
His views besides had been freely expressed, and it was known that he 
favored offering the enemy battle at the earliest suitable moment. Gen- 
eral Doubleday mentions a conversation on this subject with Reynolds, 
which took place just after the Union army had crossed the Potomac, 
in which the latter urged as a reason that if he gave the enemy "time 
by dilatory measures or by taking up defensive positions they would 
strip" Pennsylvania "of everything. Hence he was in favor of striking 
them as soon as possible. He was really eager to get at them."^ On 
the same night, close by Gettysburg, Buford was also considering wdth 
one of his brigade commanders the chances of the next day ; his opinion 
was clear that the battle would be fought at that point, but he was 
apprehensive that "it would be commenced in the morning before the 
infantry would get up. These," adds the officer who made the state- 
ment, "are his own words."- Buford further remarked that "the enemy 
must know the importance of this position, and will strain every nerve 
to secure it, and if we are able to hold it we will do well." Reynolds 
was perfectly well aware that the enemy was concentrating to the left 
of Gettysburg, and that a collision was imminent; his corps had been 
ordered to occupy the town which Buford had been instructed to hold, 
and beyond doubt, in answer to the inquiry of the latter by what route, 
in case of necessity, he should fall back, he readily promised prompt 
support so that he might strike the enemy without delay. 

There were encamped on the night of the 30th within a radius of 
eight miles from Gettysburg four of the nine divisions of the Confed- 
erate army, numbering, with the cavalry and artillery, not less than 
35,000 men, and one corps of the left wnng of the Federal army, 
besides two of the three brigades of Buford's division of cavalry (the 

1 Battle of Gettysburg, by Bates, p. 84, and Conduct of the War, Part I., 
p. 305. 

-Statement of Buford's signal -officer, De Peyster, p. 151. 




CAPTAIN GEORGE E. RIDGWAY. 



APPENDIX. 2IQ 

Other brigade being at Mechanicstown with the trains), aggregating 
about 10.400; most of the remaining corps of the Union army being 
at a greater distance, namely, two near Emmitsbnrg, one at Taney- 
town, one at Hanover and one at Manchester. As to the estimate here 
made of the opposing forces in close proximity to Gettysburg at this 
time, it seems scarcely necessary to remark that writers on both sides 
have given not only the actual but the relative numbers widely different 
from those now presented. In his letter on the relative strength of 
the two armies. Early insists that as there were no regular monthly 
returns for June, 1863, on account of Lee's army being engaged on 
the 1st, 2(1 and 3d of July at Gettysburg, the estimates made of the 
Confederate force at the commencement of the battle are unreliable.^ 
Lee's military secretary says: "Shortly after the battle of Chancellors- 
ville the Army of Northern Virginia had, by the return of absentees 
and the divisions of Longstreet, been increased to 65,000 men.'"- The 
statement made by Colonel Allen is that "frequently the Confederate 
reports included more than the effective fighting men. Thus Rodes' 
'return' at Carlisle, a few days before Gettysburg, makes his total 
strength of officers and enlisted men '8,052.' Now Rodes had about 
6,000 muskets, or less than 7,000 effectives."^ Heth says his division 
"numbered some 7,000 muskets."* Hooker testified before the Com- 
mittee on the Conduct of the War that "with regard to the enemy's 
force I had realiable information. Two Union men had counted them 
as they passed through Hagerstown, and in order that there might be 
no mistake they compared notes every night, and if their counts 
differed they were satisfactorily adjusted by compromise. In round 
numbers Lee had 91,000 infantry and 280 pieces of artillery; marching 
with that column were about 6,000 cavalry. It will be remembered 
that a portion of the enemy's cavalry crossed the Potomac below Ed- 
wards' Ferry and went into Maryland to join Ewell, between me and 
Washington ; this column numbered about 5,000 men."^ The Comte 
de Paris in giving his conclusions as to the numerical strength of both 
armies at Gettysburg expresses himself thus : "I reckon, therefore, 
the whole strength of the Army of Northern Virginia in Pennsylvania 
at about 76,000 present, out of which at least 66,000 were present for 
duty, and 268 guns."° Colonel Ta3dor, of Lee's staff, in reply to the 
Count, admits that "the three arms of service then numbered as follows : 
infantry, 53,500; cavalry, 9,000; artillery, 4,500. Total effectives of 

1 Southern Historical Society Papers, vol. ii., p. 17. 

2 Idem, vol. iv., p. 119. 

3 Idem, vol. iv., p. 39. 

4 Idem, vol. iv., p. 158. 

5 Conduct of the War, Part I., p. 173. 

6 Southern Historical Society Papers, vol. v., p. 205. 



220 APPENDIX. 

all arms, 67,000."' So that the estimate of the Confederate forces 
■encamped within a ratlins of eight miles from Gettysburg at not less 
than 35,000, on the night of the 30th, may be regarded as being sub- 
stantially correct. 

The duration of the action which was ushered in on the morning 
of the 1st of July — an action of such momentous consequences to civil 
liberty, and in some aspects the most important of the series of the 
conflicts comprehended under the general designation of the battle of 
Gettysburg — was altogether less than seven hours, during the greater 
part of which time the struggle was waged on both sides with unusual 
tenacit}- and severity. ]''rom a military point of view the operations 
of that day may be divided into four parts — first, the engagement 
between lleth and Buford; second, that between the divisions of Heth 
and Pender on the one side and the First Corps on the other ; third, that 
between the divisions of Heth, Pender, Rodes and Early and the First 
and Eleventh Corps ; and, fourth, from the repulse of the Federal forces 
to their occupation of Cemetery Hill. 

\\'ith the dawn of Wednesday, July the ist, or even later,- Fleth 
and I'endcr advanced with their divisions from Cashtown to attack the 
Federal force in their front ; at about the same time the divisions of 
Rodes and Early started from Heidlersburg, wdiere they had encamped 
the night before, for Cashtown. Two divisions of Longstreet's corps, 
near Chambersburg, followed after Hill. Pickett, in obedience to an 
order, remained at Chambersbiu-g as a rear guard. Longstreet's two 
divisions did not arrive on the field during the first day's battle, wdiilst 
the remaining divisions of Anderson and Johnson, of the other two 
corps, reached it when the action was over. Some of the Confederate 
cavalry were observed at an early hour reconnoitering Buford's force 
from the Chambersburg Pike, and towards 9 o'clock Heth's division of 
Hill's corps, consisting of four brigades of infantry and five batteries 
of artillery,'^ reached the ridge just west of Willoughby Run. a mile or 
more from Gettysburg. Several of these batteries were at once placed 
in position near the turnpike, IMarye firing the opening gun in shelling 
the woods in his front. Two brigades of infantry were then deployed 
to the right and left of the unfinished railroad, part of which was 
embankment and deep cut, immediately north of the turnpike, and 
with this railroad for their line of direction were afterwards ordered 
to advance and occupy the town. Between half after 9 and 10 o'clock* 
skirmishing commenced — the first discharge — a musket-shot, having 

1 Southern Historical Society Papers, vol v., p. 245. 

2 Idem, vol. ii., p. 223, and vol. Iv., p. 113. 

3 T(lem. Confederate Roster, vol. lii., p. 119; vol. v., p. 196, and vol. ii., p. 223. 
* Rebel Invasion, etc., by Jacobs, p. 23, and De Peyster, p. 34. 



APPENDIX. 221 

been fired against some of Gamble's brigade, of Bnford's dismounted 
cavalry. Such was the commencement of the great conflict which 
the troops on both sides had been eager to wage. Almost at once the 
artillery fire was replied to by Buford's light batteries, one of which 
was admirably directed by Lieutenant Calif, and the engagement became 
quite severe. When Buford's men were nearly overpowered, the signal- 
officer observed from the seminary steeple, in sweeping his glass over 
the field, the flag of the First Corps, and upon reporting the fact, Buford 
exclaimed: "Now we can hold the place!" 

Leaving his camp near Marsh Creek, some five miles distant from 
Gettysburg, in a southwesterly direction, early on the same morning, 
Reynolds hastened along the Emmitsburg Road with Wadsworth's 
division of the First Corps, and Hall's battery, directing General 
Doubleday to bring up the other divisions and the remaining batteries, 
except the First Brigade of the Third Division, which had been detailed 
for picket duty on the previous afternoon, from Marsh Creek in a 
westerly direction to Middle Creek, and Cooper's battery of four pieces, 
which brigade and battery followed independently, under my command, 
from the cross-roads at Ross White's along a road between the Emmits- 
burg and Hagerstown Roads, commonly known as the Gettysburg and 
Nunemaker's Mill Road. Before starting to Buford's assistance, 
Reynolds read to Doubleday his telegrams, showing the position of the 
Federal troops and what they were doing.^ From various casualties 
the total effective strength of the First Corps had at the end 6i June 
shrunk to a number not exceeding 8.200. Reynolds, from recent 
information, had most probably anticipated an early collision, and being 
thoroughly self-reliant as well as full of dash, did not in the emergency 
await additional instructions. Usually riding some distance beyond 
his corps, he was on this day with his staff considerably in advance of 
the troops. Whilst thus reconnoitering the different positions which 
might soon become the theatre of a conflict, a dispatch from Buford 
was handed to him, when less than three miles from the town, annovmc- 
ing that the enemy were then sorely pressing the cavalry. On the 
instant Reynolds sent an aide to Wadsworth with a characteristic order 
"to close up and come on," and dispatched other staff officers to Howard 
and Sickles, who were then not far from Emmitsburg, to hasten the 
movements of the former and to direct the latter to advance without 
delay. A few minutes later Reynolds, on meeting and inquiring of 
Buford if he "could hold out until his corps came up?" received from 
bim a brief assurance in the words, "I reckon I can."- Hall gives a 



1 Conduct of the War. Part I., p. 305. 

2 Statement of Buford's signal-officer, De Peyster, 153. 



222 APPENDIX. 

different aceonnt of the interview between Reynolds and Buford, as 
follows : "Reynolds and staff were dismounted and sitting near my 
guns before we hitched up for marching, when Buford, with a small 
escort of cavalry, came along, and I heard Buford say to Reynolds: 
'I have run upon a couple of regiments of infantry near Gettysburg, 
which. o\\ing to their being in the woods, I am unable to dislodge, 
and I think you had better move up and feel them.' Reynolds, in my 
liearing, dictated a message to Meade something like this: 'Buford 
just now reports that he finds a small force of the enemy's infantry 
in a point of woods near Gettysburg, which he is unable to dislodge ; 
and while I am aware that it is not your desire to force an engage- 
ment at that point, still, from the scope of instructions I have all the 
time had from you since commanding this wing of the army, I feel at 
liberty to advance to Gettysburg and develop the strength of the enemy 
at that point.' "^ 

Howard had been ordered by Reynolds, early on the morning of 
the 1st of July, to advance from Emmitsburg wdth the Eleventh Corps. 
This order w^as received at 8.30 a. m., and having been expected in con- 
sequence of Meade's order of march for the ist of July, Howard at 
once commenced to move in two columns ; Barlow's division, with a 
battery, being put on the direct road to Gettysburg, and the other two 
divisions, with the remaining four batteries, on a road leading across to 
the Taneytown Road, and thence by that road to the tow-n. The direct 
road being obstructed by artillery carriages and trains, Howard sup- 
posed that Barlow's division would not reach Gettysburg until shortly 
after i r-. m., and that the other divisions would be there about the same 
hour. As soon as the columns were started, Howard, accompanied by 
his staff, taking the shortest route, and riding rapidly, occasionally in 
the woods and fields, reached, as he states, the vicinity of Gettysburg 
about 10.30 A. M.,- but as to this being the hour of his arrival he is most 
probably in error, for the evidence on the subject almost certainly fixes 
it from a half to three-quarters of an hour earlier. Indeed, he himself 
admits noticing variations in the time that "different officers have 
recorded the same event," of from a half to three-quarters of an hour 
from that of his own watch. His chief of artillery, moreover, remarks 
in his narrative that "at 10 a. m. General Howard received notice from 
General Re}nolds that he had engaged the enemy, and was met by 
largely superior numbers, and urged General Howard to hurry his corps 
forward as rapidly as possible." * * * "I was with General How- 
ard when he received this notice from General Reynolds, but the bat- 

1 Brookline Chronicle, February 16, 1S78. 

2 Campaign of Gettysburg, by O. O. Howard, Atlantic Monthlii. July. 1876. p. 53. 



APPENDIX. 223 

teries were back." * * * "General Howard directing me to bring 
the batteries forward as rapidly as possible, rode to the front."^ Before 
this, however, when near Gettysburg, one of General Howard's aides 
reported to Reynolds the expected early arrival of the Eleventh Corps, 
upon which, and before leaving for the front, Reynolds desired the aide 
to return to his commanding officer "with orders to move on rapidly to 
Cemetery Hill, where he would be put in position."- After Reynolds 
had reached Seminary Ridge and observed the critical situation of his 
troops, he sent word to Howard to urge his corps forward, which was 
the message referred to by Howard as well as by his chief of artillery. 
Subsequently to the receipt of the order to hasten forward his corps 
Howard entered the town, and from Fahnestock's observatory had a 
partial view of what was passing on the field to the north and west in 
the distance. He there got glimpses, as he says, of Wadsworth's divi- 
sion of infantry fighting near the railroad cut at Seminary Ridge. 
"Success," he adds, "was then attending him, and prisoners in gray- 
were being conducted into the town." A few minutes later (by his 
watch about 11.30 a. m.) intelligence was received by him of the death 
of Reynolds, and that the command of the troops had, in consequence, 
devolved upon him. As he had previously sent the earnest request 
from Reynolds back to the columns of Schurz and Barlow, he then, 
with a full knowledge of what was transpiring and what had transpired 
at the front, "rode slowly" to the rear, near the cemetery gate, where 
he soon met Schurz, who had hastened on to see him.^ 

The area of the field upon which the most important operations 
of the ist of July took place scarcely exceeds two square miles. This 
small parallelogram embraces part of Willoughby Run, which flows in 
a southerly course, of a ridge between Seminary Ridge and the run, of 
Seminary Ridge, as well as parts of the Hagerstown, Chambersburg 
and Mummasburg Roads, all converging to the town. The two ridges 
extend nearly north and south. The Hagerstown Road runs in a west- 
southwesterly direction from Gettysburg, the Chambersburg Pike a 
little north of west-northwest, and the Mummasburg Road about north- 
west. The line of the First Corps, extending on its left to near the 
Hagerstown Road and on its right to the Mummasburg Road, did not 
greatlv, if at all, exceed a mile and a half in length. 

Leaving the Emmitsburg Road not far from Codori's house, near 
the town, and dashing across the fields to the west at a double-quick, 
Cutler's brigade (with the exception of the 7th Indiana, which had 
been detached for special duty), of Wadsworth's division, reached the 

1 Philadelphia Wecl:hj Times, May 31, 1879. 

2 Battle of Gettysburg, by Bates, p. 68. iS7fiT)54 

3 Campaign of Gettysburg, by O. O. Howard, Atlantic MonthUj, Jub, 1876, p. 54. 



224 APPENDIX. 

crest of Seminary Ridge just as Ruford's men were beginning to yield 
to the severe pressure of the enemy. Buford had, however, faithfully 
discliarged his whole duty in the face of heavy odds. He had tena- 
ciously kept his position, and thus rendered it possible for the Union, 
in its hour of peril, to find its deliverance through the Army of the 
Potomac. To the boldness, persistence and gallantry of John Buford, 
on this and other fields, his country owes his memory a vast debt of 
gratitude. Hardly had the first regiment of Cutler's brigade arrived 
on the ground, and taken position to the right of the Chambersburg 
Pike, before the Confederates advanced in strong force along and upon 
both sides of that road, and became engaged with the Federal line. 
The last instructions which General Doubleday had from Reynolds in 
reference to the battle were : 'T will hold on to this road," the Cham- 
bersburg Pike, "and you hold on the other," or the Mummasburg Road.^ 
In defending this main highway, leading from Chambersburg to Balti- 
more through Gettysburg, Reynolds directed the troops of Meredith's 
bridgade, of the First Division, which immediately reached the ridge 
after Cutler, as they were deploying to the left of the pike, to hurry 
forward to the parallel ridge in front, and there attack the enemy as 
they came up its western slope. Meredith's regiments, rapidly form- 
ing line of battle as they came successively on the ground, charged 
the enemy and drove them precipitately down the slope, back to and 
across Willoughby Run. Reynolds, who, with the instinct of a soldier, 
had from the first grasped the important features of the entire field, 
and who by his prompt and resolute course of action had fixed the 
site for the greater battle yet to be fought, observed whilst near these 
troops an advance to the left of a portion of the enemy through the 
wood; one of Meredith's regiments, the 19th Indiana, just then 
appearing, he ordered it to charge — leading the charge in person.^ 
Almost immediately after, and shortly before ii a. m., a minie ball, 
from one of Archer's sharpshooters, entering the back of his neck as 
he turned to look in the direction of the seminary, caused him to fall 
from his horse apparently lifeless. Pollard, in his "Southern History 
of the War," gives an altogether different version of the occurrence, 
stating that "the Confederates, distinguishing him from his uniform 
to be an officer of high rank, opened upon him with heavy volleys of 
infantry fire. He was struck by several balls, ' and died instantly 
without uttering a word."^ In the vigor of his manhood, and in the 
fullness of his well-earned military fame, perished this hero upon a 
field which his genius had fixed for the determination of one of the 

~i Conduct of the War, Part I., p. 306. 

2 De Peyster, p. 37. 

3 Southern History,' of the War, Third Year, by Pollard, p. 24. 




CAPTAIN CHARLES F. HULSE. 



APPENDIX. 225 

great and decisive conflicts of the world. "Yet," in the language oi: 
another, "where could man meet better the inevitable hour than in 
defense of his native State, his life-blood mingling with the soil on 
which he first drew breath?"^ 

The 24th Alichigan and the 19th Indiana, two regiments of Mere- 
dith's brigade, pursuing the enemy across the run, enfiladed Archer's 
brigade and succeeded in capturing Archer, together with the greater 
part of his troops. Cutler's brigade, which had gone to the right of 
the Chambcrsburg Pike, and which was extended in prolongation of 
the line of Meredith's brigade, became engaged with the enemy a little 
earlier, the opening infantry fire on the Federal side having come from 
the 56th Pennsylvania Regiment of Volunteers. This brigade, how- 
ever, meeting with a force greatly superior to its own, numerically, 
had been compelled to fall back, at first on the right and then along 
its whole line, to a position nearly perpendicular to the one which it 
had originallv assumed, thus not only exposing itself greatly, but also 
the right flank and rear of the other brigade. The 6th Wisconsin, 
Meredith's brigade, which had been held in reserve at the time of the 
charge against Archer's troops, was at once sent to the assistance of 
Cutler. Promptly changing front to the north, it, together with the 
95th New York and the 14th Brooklyn, of Cutler's brigade, impetu- 
ously charged the advancing and victorious line of Davis' Mississippi 
brigade, forced it back at the point of the bayonet to the railroad cut, 
and there, after a short but sharp resistance, captured the 2d Mississippi 
Regiment, and portions of the 42d Mississippi and another regiment 
of the same brigade. This brilliant achievement on the part of the 
Union arms held the enemy in check for a time. Shortly before 11 
A. M. Doubleday's division arrived on the ground, and a little after 
Robinson's division, of the First Corps— Robinson's division being at 
first "kept in reserve behind the seminary;"- Baxter's, one of its two 
brigades, going into position later on Seminary Ridge to the right of 
the^ Chambcrsburg Pike, north of the railroad cut, and extending as 
far as the Mummasburg Road— the nth Pennsylvania forming on the 
immediate right of Cutler ; the 97th New York, the 83d New York, 
the 88th Pennsylvania and the 12th Massachusetts successively to the 
right, all facing west, and the 90th Pennsylvania, the extreme right 
of^the line, being refused, facing to the north and stretching along 
the Mummasburg Road. Towards half after 12 o'clock a general 
firing was renewed, and some of the enemy advancing against Baxter 
were driven back by a portion of his brigade, including the nth 

1 Oration on General Meade and the Battle of Gettysburg, before the Society 
-of the Army of the Potomac, May, 1873, p. 13. 

2 Conduct of the War, Part I., p. 307. 



226 APPENDIX. 

Pennsylvania, in the face of a heavy fire, across an open field, with 
the loss, notwithstanding repeated reinforcements, of about five hundred 
prisoners from Iverson's Xorth Carolina brigade, of Rodes' division, 
of Ewell's corps, the 88th J'ennsylvania capturing the colors of the 
23d North Carolina Regiment. General Rodes, describing in his report 
this part of the engagement, says: "Iverson's left, being exposed 
thus, heavy loss was infiicted upon his brigade. His men fought and 
died like heroes. His dead lay in a distinctly-marked line of battle. 
His left was overpowered, and many of his men, being surrounded, 
were captured."^ Pollard states that Rodes, in "riding along behind 
where their line had been, thought he observed a regiment lying down 
as if to escape the Yankee fire. On going up, however, to force them 
into the fight he found they were all corpses."" A heavy skirmish 
line of the enemy then appearing, supported by lines of battle, caused 
the Federal brigade, its ammunition being nearly exhausted, to fall 
back to its original position. Paul's, the other brigade of the division, 
was moved from the rear of the seminary, where it had been massed,, 
across the railroad cut towards 2 p. m., the troops loading as they 
advanced, and when they had reached the foot of the ridge, pushed 
up the next slope at the double-quick, encountering at the summit of 
that ridge the first line of the enemy, who at once threw down their 
arms and surrendered. But the second line coming up quickly to the 
support of the first, and reinforcements being also steadily poured in, 
caused a desperate struggle to ensue, in which the slaughter was not 
only terrible, but the Union forces, suffering severely, were driven 
back. Paul's brigade consisted of the i6th Maine, the 13th Massa- 
chusetts, the 94th x\ew York, the 104th New York and the 107th 
Penna. Vols. 

Stone's brigade, of Doubleday's division, composed of three Penn- 
sylvania regiments, namely, the 143d, the 149th and 150th, after it 
came upon the field took position at a little before noon on the ridge 
immediately beyond Seminary Ridge, under a heavy fire, with the 
right resting on the Chambersburg Pike, and the left almost reaching 
the wood occupied by Meredith's brigade — its skirmishers thrown 
forward down the next slope, the pike being held by a number of 
sharpshooters. 

This disposition continued unchanged until between 12 and i 
o'clock, when an enfilading fire from a Confederate battery compelled 
its right regiment (the 143d) to fall back to Seminary Ridge. Imme- 
diately the 149th was faced to the north, and thrown out on the pike,. 



1 Southern Historical Society Papers, vol. ii., p. 147. 

2 Southern Histoi-y of the War, Third Year, by Pollard, p. 25. 



APPENDIX. 227 

and between 1.30 antl 2 o'clock, as the enemy's infantry moved forward 
in force, the 143d was ordered to take position on the pike to the right 
of the former regiment, thus deploying these two regiments at right 
angles with the 150th, which remained to the right of and near Mere- 
dith's brigade, facing west. It was to one of the officers of the 150th 
Pennsylvania Volunteers that John Burns, of Gettysburg, then an old 
man of seventy years of age, first applied for permission to fight with 
the Union troops, and obtaining that permission, fought chiefly with 
the 7th W'isconsin until the Federal forces were driven back in the 
afternoon. As he was falling back with the rest, having already 
received three wounds, one of them through the arm, a final wound in 
the leg disabled him. Helpless, and almost bleeding to death, he lay 
upon the field until early the next morning, when his wounds were 
dressed by a Confederate surgeon. His heroic conduct met with a 
suitable recognition both by the United States Congress and the Legis- 
lature of Pennsylvania, and the pensions which his valor won him he 
lived to enjoy until the month of Februar}^, 1872. An instance of the 
bravery of an Emmitsburg lad, akin to that of Burns, is recorded by 
one of the soldiers of the 12th Massachusetts Volunteers. As Baxter's 
brigade was marching through Emmitsburg it was followed by the 
village boys, one of whom continued to the camp at Marsh Creek, 
where he offered to enlist. His offer, however, was ridiculed, and he 
was sent away. On the morning of the ist of July he reappeared, 
and so earnestly entreated the colonel of the 12th Massachusetts to 
be allowed to join his regiment that a captain of one of the companies 
was instructed to take him on trial for a day or two. When the regi- 
ment halted near the seminary, the boy was hastily dressed in a suit of 
blue. Afterwards, during the action, he fought bravely until a bullet 
striking his musket split it in two pieces, one of which lodged in his 
hand and the other in his thigh. The unknown boy was taken to the 
brick church in the town to be cared for, but nothing was afterwards 
seen or heard of him.^ 

As the enemy pressed forward to attack, the 143d and the 149th 
Pennsylvania \'olunteers, on the pike, were sent to occupy the railroad 
cut about one hundred yards distant to the north. The advance of the 
enem}^ from the north having, after a spirited contest, been repulsed, 
the attack was resumed in force from the west, which was also success- 
fully resisted — a vigorous bayonet charge driving them back. After 
retreating a short distance, however, they moved by their right flank 
and occupied, towards 2.45 p. m., a w^ood in front of Meredith's brigade. 
Not long after 3 o'clock, Meredith's troops having retired to the crest 
1 Brookllne Chronicle, February 16, 1878. 



228 



APPENDIX. 



of the next ridg-e. the hrigadc, then under the command of Colonel 
Langhorne Wister, in danger of being surrounded, gradually fell back 
to Seminary Ridge, where a new position was taken, and for a time 
stubbornly maintained. But finally being outflanked by vastly superior 
numbers, it fell back through the town to Cemetery Hill, where it was 
reformed, and rested in line during the night. 

The I'^irst 1 brigade of Doubleday's disvision was under my com- 
mand, and consisted of the I2ist, I42d and 151st Regiments of Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers, and the 20th New York State Militia. Cooper's 
Battery "B," First Pennsylvania Artillery, had on the morning of the 
1st of July been attached to the brigade. On that morning, as soon 
as the pickets of the 121st could be withdrawn, the infantry and artillery 
were marched from the cross-roads at Ross White's, which lie between 
Marsh and Middle Creeks, along the Nunemaker Mill Road to Gettys- 
burg, a distance of about seven miles. 

When within a mile of the town the sound of heavy firing to the 
northwest indicated that a sharp engagement was already in progress. 
The brigade was in consequence rapidly pushed across the fields to 
open ground, a short distance north of the Hagerstown Road, and about 
a third of a mile west of the seminary, and there formed, a little before 
II A. M., on the extreme left of the general line of battle. The battery 
was immediately placed in position, and its fire directed towards the 
northwest, to the left of the woods in which the First Division was 
then engaged. Upwards of three-quarters of a mile in front were 
woods nearly parallel with the line of battle and between, somewhat to 
the left, a house and large stone barn, the latter of which was after- 
wards used as a cover for the enemy's shari)shooters. To protect the 
battery from the annoyance which the sharpshooters occasioned, a 
company of skirmishers was sent from the 20th New York, who readily 
driving the men off, occupied their shelter. Later in the day, towards 
3 p. M., Pettigrew's brigade of North Carolina troops, Heth's division. 
Hill's corps, advancing in two lines and in perfect order, commenced 
a vigorous attack on the extreme left of the Federal line held by the 
First Brigade. Of the four small regiments composing the latter 
brigade, one — the 151st — had been detached about 2.30 o'clock to be 
held in reserve, and was posted near the Seminary Grove until it was 
subsequently sent forward to occupy the gap between Meredith's and 
my brigade. Notwithstanding the great disparity in numbers between 
the contending forces, and that the left of the Federal line was 
greatly outflanked, the position was maintained with spirit for a con- 
siderable time under a severe direct and oblique fire, and until, being 
without support, the fragments of the four regiments were compelled 



APPENDIX. 229 

to retire— towards 4 p. m.— to a partial cover on the edge of the town, 
close to and west of the seminary, where they continued to resist the 
progress of the enemy until the batteries and most of the Union troops 
had withdrawn to Cemetery Hill ; then, as the enemy were swarming 
in on the left, they fell back to the same point, reforming in the rear of 
its crest. The admirable behavior of the men and officers of the 
brigade may to some extent be inferred from the fact that out of 1.287 
officers and men who went into action as the First Brigade of the Third 
Division of the First Corps, 440 were either killed or wounded and 457 
missing, leaving as its effective strength at the close of the first day's 
battle 390 officers and men. '-^ * :^ .^ -^ 

The main features of the determined resistance oft'ered by the First 
Corps having thus at some length been presented, the part taken in the 
battle of the ist of Tnlv bv the Eleventh Corps remains to be described. 
Shortlv after the death of Reynolds, General Schurz, who had assumed 
the command of the Eleventh Corps, met the Third Division, the head 
of that part of his column which had moved by the Taneytown Road, 
near Cemetery Hill. This was probably a little after i p. m., although 
General Howard suggests that it may have been as early as 12.45 ?■ ^-Z 
whilst his chief of artillery states that at 10 a. m. "the head of the 
Eleventh Corps had * * * jnst come in sight of Gettysburg."- 
The narrative of this last-mentioned officer does not, however, agree 
in several important particulars with the reports of other officers. For 
instance, both Howard and Schurz speak of Barlow's division (the 
First) as marching on the direct road from Emmitsburg, and the other 
two bv cross-roads leading into the Taneytown Road, Howard adding 
that one battery was with the First Division and the remaining four 
batteries with the other two divisions; whereas the chief of artillery 
represents it that one batterv was marching with Schurz's division (the 
Third) and one with Steinwehr's (the Second), and that "the remaining 
three were together between the two rear divisions. "'^ It would cer- 
tain! v have been quite easy to arrange these five batteries so that one 
should have been at the head of the Third, one at the rear of the Second 
and the remaining three between those two divisions, but such an 
arrangement would not have allowed a battery to the First Division, of 
which Schurz speaks. Be this as it may, however, his statement as to 
the time when the batteries reached the town, and which is of far more 
consequence, is by no means clear. After mentioning that Howard had 
intelligence of the death of Reynolds at 11.30 a. m., he remarks: "I 
reached Gettysburg in an hour after receiving General Howard's order 
Tc^piTgrror Gettysburg-, by O. O. Howard, Atlantic Monthly, July, 1876, p. 55. 

2 Philadelphia Wrrkln Times, May 31. 1879. 

3 Idem, May 31, 1879. 



230 APPENDIX. 

with tlie batteries, and as the infantry moved through the town to the 
front I sent with them four batteries — Wheeler and Heckman to the 
left, on the Seminary Road, and Dilg'er and Wilkinson to the right, 
with General Barlow's division. The remaining battery, Captain 
Weidrich, I left at Cemetery llill. with General Steinwehr." Schurz 
advanced the Third, now become Schimmelpfennig's division, directing 
it to be deployed on the right of the First Corps in two lines. Shortly 
afterwards Barlow's division, arriving by the Emmitsburg Road, 
passed through the town to the north at 1.30 o'clock p. m., and, halting 
at the Almshouse, on the Ilarrisburg Road, to remove knapsacks, was 
then ordered to form at the double-quick on the right of the Third 
Division, in order to dislodge the enemy from a piece of woods to the 
right of the Eleventh Corps. Meanwhile, says Howard, as Schurz 
"was conducting his Third Division to battle I left orders for Stein- 
wehr and Osborne (his chief of artillery) to halt and form upon Ceme- 
tery Ridge." Accompanying Barlow's division, Howard, upon reach- 
ing the right of the Eleventh Corps, turned and rode along the line 
to Doubleday's division on the left, and there seeing General Wads- 
worth, about 2 o'clock gave him orders to hold the position as long 
as he could and then retire. The rest of Howard's description, namely, 
that part of it respecting the disposition of the troops on the left of 
the line, differs so radically from all the other accounts and from the 
fact, that it seems to be a creation of the imagination. He says : "The 
left of Doubleday's line, resting on a small stream, called Willoughby's 
Run, extended to an elevation north of the Chambersburg Road, and 
was then refused. Then there was an interval occupied after i p. m. by 
Wheeler's and Dilger's batteries, belonging to the Eleventh Corps. 
From this place to Rock Creek, almost at right angles with the First 
Corps line, were the two divisions of the Eleventh Corps — Barlow's 
and Schimmelpfennig's. Such was the position of the troops."^ The 
account of the disposition of the troops on the right is also very inac- 
curate, for it will be remembered that the 90th Pennsylvania, of 
Baxter's brigade, which was the flanking regiment at the right of the 
line when Robinson's division took position on Seminary Ridge, was 
refused and stretched along the Mummasburg Road. Schimmelpfen- 
nig's division went to the right of the 90th Pennsylvania in prolonga- 
tion of its line, but. not connecting with it. left a dangerous break 
between. The Second Brigade, of Schimmelpfennig's division, was in 
a field farther to the right, near to and east of the Carlisle Road. 
Schurz was directed to move forward and seize a wooded height in 
front of his left, but before he had advanced any distance, information 
1 Campaign of Gettysburg, by O. O. Howard, Atlantic Monthly, July, 1876, p. 56. 




CAPTAIN JOSHUA L. CHILDS. 



APPENDIX. 231 

having been brought shortly before 3 o'clock that part of Ewell's corps 
was coming in towards the right of the Federal line, between the Har- 
risburg and York Roads, the order was countermanded by Howard. 
The enemv was thus enabled to occupy this important height in force 
without material opposition. Hill fixes the time that the right wmg 
of Ewell's corps (Rodes' division) made its appearance on his left, and 
was formed at right angles with his line, at about 2.30 o'clock.^ ^ The 
correct time was probably sooner, for Early states that Rodes ''came 
down on the road from Alummasburg about 2 o'clock p. m., and became 
engaged on Heth's left," and that he "arrived about an hour after 
Rodes got up,"^ or at 3 p. m. Heth, on seeing Rodes thus engaged, 
"sought for and found General Lee, saying." as he narrates, "to the 
general, 'Rodes is verv heavily engaged; had I not better attack? 
General Lee replied: 'No; I am not prepared to brmg on a general 
engagement to-day; Longstreet is not up.' Returning to my division, 
I soon discovered that the enemv were moving troops from my front 
and pushing them against Rodes. I reported this fact to General Lee, 
and again requested to be permitted to attack. Permission was given. ' 
\Miilst Rodes was thus engaged Early's division had been brought into 
action on his left with great success. The movements of his brigades 
had been very prompt and rapid, which brought his troops m the rear 
and flank of the force then confronting Rodes.'' Early's batteries, 
posted on a slope between the Carlisle and Harrisburg Roads, were 
replied to bv three of the batteries of the Eleventh Corps at the front, 
and bv W^eidrich's v^nch rifled guns on Cemetery Hill. The shot from 
the latter, however, only reaching the line of the cavalry, Buford com- 
plained of the firing; but, as Howard naively remarks, "fortunately 
uobodv on our side was killed by this fire." The attack of the enemy 
was at this time proceeding simultaneously along the whole line. 
Schimmelpfennig's division speedily gave way, falling back most prob- 
ably before 3 o\^lock. Wadsworth. in his report, says about 2.30;^ 
and according to the testimony of some, retreating "before the enemy's 
skirmishers.''" T.arlow's division, on the extreme right, forming 
behind Rock Creek to lueet a charge from Gordon's, Hays' and Avery's 
brigades, of Earlv's division, was next struck. In a moment the open 
fields bevond were filled with the disordered troops of Howard's corps 
flving in confusion. "Where Barlow was aligned lay a line of wounded 
and ""dead men who had fallen as they stood, and in their midst lay 

1 Southern Historical Society Papers, vol. ii., p. 223. 

2 Idem, vol. iv., p. 253. 

3 Idem, vol. iv., p. 158. 

4 /dewi, vol. iv., p. 254. 

5 Conduct of the War. Part I., p. 30*. 

6 Idem, Part I., p. 308. 



232 APPENDIX. 

Barlow himself, sorely stricken."^ Major Brady, of the 17th Con- 
necticut, Barlow's division, speaks of "the rush to the rear of troops 
directly in advance" of part of his regiment.- "The Federal flank," 
according to Major Daniel, of Early's stafif, "had been shriveled up 
as a scroll, and the whole force gave way."'"* The troops from Rodes' 
front moved towards the town, followed by Early's division ; Ha}s' 
brigade, of the latter division, alone entering it."* Howard himself 
corroborates the general features of the foregoing account b}' stating 
that "soon the division of the Eleventh Corps nearest Doubleday was 
flying to the shelter of the town, widening the gap there, and the 
enemy in line pressed rapidly through the interval. Of course Robin- 
son and Wadsworth had to give way."^ After the Eleventh Corps had 
been driven from the field, but one alternative remained to the First. 
It had been successfully resisting the heavy shocks directed against 
its front by a force twofold greater than its own, but now there were 
superadded the blows on its flank from another force at least numerically 
equal to the first. The limit of human endurance had been reached, 
and it fell back, fighting as it went. 

Howard was already on Cemetery Hill when Von Amsburg's 
regiment, of his corps, the first to arrive, reached there. Leading the 
way with his corps flag, he placed the regiment on the right of Stein- 
wehr's line. General Ames, who succeeded Barlow after the latter had 
been severely wounded, came to him about the same time and said : 
" T have no division ; it is all cut to pieces,' to which Howard replied : 
'Do what you can, Ames, to gather the fragments and extend the line 
to the right.' He did so, and succeeded better than he had feared."*^ 
Yet it has been asserted that about 1,500 men of this corps were col- 
lected some miles in the rear of the field by the provost guard of the 
Twelfth Corps. The First Corps, compelled to yield to the severe 
pressure on their front and flanks, were still maintaining a position near 
the seminary, as they had received no orders to withdraw altogether, 
"although the enemy were marching on the town, and something had 
to be done immediately."^ The line of the Second Brigade, of the 
Third Division, had begun to give w^ay not long after 3 p. ^r.. and had 
fallen back slowly under a severe fire to a position which ^leredith's 
brigade had taken shortly before, but the new line having been forced 
to give way on all sides, the whole of it shortly after withdrew to 



1 Addre.sis by Major Daniel, p. 20. 

~ Rebellion Record, vol. x., p. 181. 

3 Address by Major Daniel, p. 20. 

* Southern Historical Society Papers, vol. iv., p. 254. 

5 Campaign of Gettysburg-, by O. O. Howard, Atlantic Monthly, July, 1876, p. 58. 

6 Idem, July, 1876, p. 58. 

" Conduct of the War, Part I., p. 310. 



APPENDIX. 233 

Cemetery Hill. The First Brigade, of the Third Division, forming 
the left of the corps line, was in like manner obliged, about 4 p. m., to 
retire from the field to the slight cover immediately west of the semi- 
nary, where it remained for a short time, until the batteries and most 
of the troops had moved through the town, when it retreated to Ceme- 
tery Hill * '''■ * * -.5: ***** * 

In the spirited account of the battle by Bates, it is stated^ that 
Steinwehr saw that "however powerful and efifective his own guns 
might prove while unassailed," '^ * * "they would be unable to 
live long when attacked unless protected." * * * "He accord- 
ingly threw up lunettes around each gun;" * -'' * " not mere 
heaps of stubble and turf, but solid works, of such height and thick- 
ness as to defy the most powerful bolts which the enemy could throw 
against them, with smooth and perfectly level platforms on which the 
guns could be worked." Upon whose authority this statement is based 
does not appear, but Hancock- characterizes it as "a great error ; 
there were no works of the kind above described on that field when" 
he "arrived there, and all that" he "saw in the way of 'works' were 
some holes (not deep) dug to sink the wheels and trails of the pieces." 
Three regiments of the First Brigade, of Steinwehr's division, under 
the command of Colonel Costar, which had been ordered forward to 
the support of Schimmelpfennig's and Barlow's divisions, and were 
posted on the right of the Harrisburg Road, just north of the town, 
were borne down by Early's advancing troops, and most of them were 
taken prisoners. The remaining regiment of that brigade, as the 
Federal soldiers were retiring through the town, occupied the houses 
on either side of the Baltimore Pike, near its junction with the Emmits- 
burg Road and a stone wall just below the cemetery. From their 
cover they checked the advance of the enemy and protected the can- 
noniers on the heights above. '^ The retreat, while trying to the troops 
of the First Corps, in consequence of their becoming entangled with 
the Eleventh in the streets of the town, was yet conducted by the 
former with some regard to order, the men frequently making a stand, 
until they finally reached the heights. * ***** 

In view of all the evidence which has been presented, is not the 
conclusion fairly warranted that to the stubborn resistance of the First 
Corps of the Army of the Potomac on the first day of July, 1863, the 
ultimate defeat of Lee's invading army is, in a very large measure, to 
be attributed? A defeat which carried with it the utter destruction of 
the high hopes formed at the moment Lee commenced the execution 

1 Battle of Gettysburg, by Bates, p. 76. 

2 Southern Historical Society Papers, vol. v., p. 172. 

3 History of the Pennsylvania Volunteers, vol. ii., pp. 865-66. 



234 APPENDIX. 

of his plan. So terminates the story of the first day's conflict — a strug- 
gle marked with more than ordinary bravery, coohiess and endurance 
on the part of a hirge number of the troops engaged, and whose valor 
rendered possible the splendid victory which finally crowned the Union 
arms. An achievement, the moral eiTect of which was instantaneous ; 
for men at once realized that at length a decisive victory had been won, 
and that henceforth the days of the Confederacy were numbered. 

Impartial critics of the operations of the succeeding days consider 
that several grave mistakes were committed by the Confederates both 
as to a portion of their plan and to much of its execution. These 
errors have been the subject of acrimonious discussion on the part of 
some of the officers of high rank in the late Confederate service. The 
mistakes may be summed up as follows: want of co-operation or har- 
mony of action on the 2d of July, it being asserted by Early and others 
that Longstreet was to commence the attack on the right at an early 
hour in the morning, and that he failed to make it until late in the 
afternoon. That on the 3d, the attack was to have been renewed at an 
early hour by Pickett and the other two divisions of Longstreet's corps, 
while a simultaneous assault was to have been made from the left by 
Ewell. That Longstreet again delayed until the afternoon, although 
the advance on the left had been begun at the proper time. Again, 
that the Federal position should have been turned by the south on the 
third day by extending the Confederate right so as to endanger Meade's 
communications with Washington. Again, that the tactical ofifensive 
course of Lee on the 2d of July was at variance with the plan of cam- 
paign settled upon before leaving Fredericksburg.^ And again, that 
the assault of Pickett on the third day should not have been attempted, 
"the hopelessness" of which had been foreseen by Longstreet.- The 
repulse of this "hopeless" assault is thus graphically described by 
Longstreet :^ Pickett "swept past our artillery in splendid style, and 
the men marched steadily and compactly down the slope. As they 
started up the ridge, over one hundred cannon from the breastworks of 
the Federals hurled a rain of canister, grape and shell down upon 
them ; still they pressed on until half-way up the slope, when the crest 
of the hill was lit with a solid sheet of flame as the masses of infantry 
rose and fired. When the smoke cleared away Pickett's division was 
gone. Nearly two-thirds of his men lay dead on the field, and the 
survivors were sullenly retreating down the hill. Mortal man could 
not have stood that fire. In half an hour the contested field was cleared 
and the battle of Gettysburg was over." The grand part which the 

1 Annal-s of the War, p. 421. 

2 Tdrm, p. 429. 

3 Idem, p. 431. 



\PPENDIX. 235 

Union artillery took "in this death-struggle with the Confederacy" is 
here recognized. Hunt, its chief, and Tyler, his able assistant, opened 
upon Pickett's magnificent assaulting column with their guns from 
Cemetery Hill to the Round Tops, "tearing vast gaps in the advancing 
ranks and almost annihilating that proud array of eighteen thousand of 
the best Southern infantry."^ Whilst Pickett's men were falling back 
within the Confederate lines, Lee rode toward them, and upon meeting 
General Wilcox, who was almost in tears at the condition of his brigade, 
said: "Never mind, general, all this lias been my fault — it is / that 
have lost this fight, and you must help me out of it the best way you 
can."2 

Thus the great battle was ended. Brilliant success had rewarded 
the valor of the men of the Army of the Potomac, directed by the 
heroism and skill of its chief. Then when the loud cheers of the 
victorious troops proclaimed the work accomplished, the good and 
gallant Meade, reverently uncovering his head, gave utterance in the 
solemn words, "Thank God !" to the profound gratitude which filled 
his heart. 



1 Memoir of General Robert O. Tyler, p. 15. 

2 "Three Months in the Southern States," by Lieutenant-Colonel Freemantle, 
p. 269. See also Southern Historical Society Papers, vol. iv., p. 109. 



Extract from a Memoir of Chapman Biddle 



Read before the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, March 13, 1882, by 
Charles Godfrey Leland. 



"Him of whom 1 would speak to-night, no titles could make nobler 
than he appeared in the eyes of all who knew him. And so deeply 
do I feel that Chapman Biddle was truly one of nature's noblemen, 
that I recognize it as one of the brightest honors of my life to be called 
on to speak of him before this distinguished body of gentlemen and 
scholars. By your invitation, you have testified to the fact that he 
was one among thousands, and that his name will ever remain in this 
community, inscribed in its golden book. Whoever shall in future days 
write the history of this city, will not fail to give his name prominent 
place amongst her greatest sons. 

"It was said by Sir Thomas Browne, that our fathers find their 
graves in our brief memories, as though they sank at once to oblivion 
in the first wave of the ocean of death. But there are names which do 
not sink ; they are borne from billow to billow, to the shore where 
they remain eternally. And I speak from my soul when I say that, 
measured by merit. Chapman Biddle is one of these. * * * An 
ofif-shoot of the Biddulphs, the wolf-killers of the Saxons in the time 
of the Conqueror, many Biddies were citizens of London, towards the 
close of the seventeenth century. Among them was William Biddle, 
a Quaker merchant, who had, before his conversion, served as a major 
in Cromwell's army, and that William Biddle was the lineal ancestor 
of all the Biddies of Philadelphia. In every generation they have stood 
high. As soldiers, sailors, scientists, statesmen and lawyers, they have 
graced every profession they have adopted. Owen, the astronomer ; 
Edward, the legislator, and Nicholas, whose name and fate are known 
to every school-boy, and who sank beneath the wave that engulfed the 
'Randolph,' live still in our memories of the old wars. Clement was 
one of the quartermasters-general of the arrny of the Revolution, with 
the rank of colonel, and was the intimate friend of Washington, whose 
last letter, it is said, was written to him. Clement Cornell Biddle was 
his son; he served his country as a colonel in the War of 1812, and 

236 



APPENDIX. 237 

it is unnecessary to recount before you, and at this time, how he 
acquitted himself as a civihan. The Philadelphia Savings Fund 
Society is a more enduring monument to his memory than 
any eulogium which can be pronounced. He married ]\Iary 
Searle, daughter of John Barclay, in the year 1814, and three 
sons were born of this union— John Barclay, George Washington 
and Chapman. Two of these are no more ; I am about to speak of 
the youngest. 

"Chapman Biddle was born at his father's house, on Spruce street, 
on the morning of the 22d of January, 1822. In 1835 he was sent to 
Saint Alary's College, a well-known seat of learning in Baltimore, 
where his brothers had studied before him. He profited well by his 
advantages; and many prizes which were conferred on him for pro- 
ficiency in various studies bear witness to his diligence and zeal. 
* * * He was graduated from Saint Mary's well fitted even at his 
then early age to study a profession, but a fondness for travel prompted 
him to take a long voyage to South America and to visit the West 
India Islands. He remained away for a considerable time, and not 
without advantage, for no study offers such results to him who is 
diligent in its research as the observation of men and things as they 
present themselves in dift'erent countries and in different phases. And 
Chapman Biddle, as I have had ample opportunity to remark, in his 
later years, when I saw him almost annually in Europe, was, or had 
become, an exceptionally keen observer ; one who read men and man- 
ners like books, and forgot nothing that he read. He cultivated the 
art of observation as some cultivate a science. He was shrewd as 
lawyers alone are shrewd— in observation— and seemed born to the 
profession which he adorned, thus giving unto his natural gift. In 
1848 he was admitted to the bar. What a position he achieved at a 
bar whose members have been famous throughout the country and 
whose learning and acumen have given rise to the world-wide saying, 
'as clever as a Philadelphia lawyer," you all have heard, you, gentlemen 
of the robe, best can tell. It was said in one of the many obituary 
notices which appeared relative to him, that, while he was principally 
a consulting counsel, when, later in life, his practice called him into 
the courts, it was there that he became most widely known; that m 
preparing his cases and presenting them to the court and jury he w^as 
unexcelled ; that everything was marked by forethought, and that all 
could comprehend his arguments.^ Though not an orator in the 
popular, much-abused sense of the word, meaning actor, not speaker, 
he was ready and fluent, and his every word was the most appropriate 

1 The Times, December 10, 1880. 



238 APPENDIX. 

to tlie thought that lie wished to express. Some hold that the standard 
of perfect handwriting is legibility, and I confess I am of them. 
J^dourishes and the most elaborate ornamentation of the caligraphical 
art constitute excellence in the eyes of others ; to compare oratory 
w ith iK'nmanship, 1 may say that Chapman Biddle's speaking was ideally 
legible. 

"Physiology has of late declared that our ancestors live in us far 
more literally than we suppose. When, for instance, a man distinguishes 
himself by antiquarian tastes, we are almost certain to find that some 
of his famil}- have been antiquaries, even if in searching for them we 
go back several generations ; and it is wonderful when we remark 
around what a small number of names the great lawyers of England 
grouped. William Biddle, to whom I have referred, the ancestor six 
generations back of the Biddies of to-day, w^as a very eminent mem- 
ber of the Society of Friends, and came to New Jersey from England 
in 1 68 1. The principles of his belief were guarded by his descendants 
until the time of the Revolutionary War. Then many withdrew from 
the faith which had been held by their ancestors for a few generations, 
and following the bent of their inclinations, dormant for a time, 
appeared as militants. The love of the army, regenerated after the 
lapse of a century, has remained with most of the family ever since ; 
and Chapman Biddle, the son of the organizer and first captain of the 
State Fencibles, in whose ranks, in 1812, marched such men as Joseph 
R. Ingersoll, Henry J. Williams — both now in the other world- — and 
the venerable James J. Barclay, still actively useful and self-sacrific- 
ingly industrious, was pre-eminent as a disciplinarian and an officer. 
During the 'Native American' riots in 1844, under John Cadwallader, 
his cousin, the late Judge of the United States District Court, Air. 
Biddle served as an orderly sergeant. The organization was known 
as 'Company I, unattached,' and subsequently became a part of the 
ist Regt. Penna. Artillery. When it passed out of existence, J\Ir. 
Biddle w^as the lieutenant commanding. He aided to reorganize the 
old body in 1849, ^^^> ^^ captain, commanded it during the disturb- 
ances which agitated the city in that year. For a long time before the 
breaking out of the war, the militia, and in fact all things military, 
had fallen into such ridicule and disrepute throughout the country that 
it required men vastly superior to vulgar prejudice to take practical 
interest in them, and such an interest Chapman Biddle unvaryingly 
took. I speak with pleasure of these citizen officers, and these matters 
of the past, for it was with the Honorable John Cadwallader that I 
studied law, and I served during the 'Emergency' in what was then 
still called Chapman Biddle's Company, of which I am about to speak ; 




CAPTAIN SAMUEL ARRISON. 



APPENDIX. 239 

and at Carlisle the young" men who were there with it, raw and untried, 
but filled with the spirit of their former captain, only a week absent 
from their homes, stood for a whole night under a fierce fire of shell 
and grape, without even the excitement of being permitted to return it, 
and without fiinching. This I witnessed, and that night, at our gun 
and standing by my side, my brother received a wound from which he 
eventually died. 

"In the month of April, 1861, some days after the firing upon 
Fort Sumter, a few gentlemen, original members of Company T,' met 
together in Mr .Biddle's office to discuss the most advisable manner 
of forming a company of artillery to aid in the protection of the city. 
From this little gathering originated what has been called 'as fine a 
body of uniformed militia as had ever been seen,' and Chapman Biddle 
was by acclamation named its captain. It adopted at first the name 
of the old organization, 'Company I ;' but shortly after it became 
'Company A, First Regiment of Pennsylvania Artillery.' Two hun- 
dred and sixty young men, of the best and oldest names of Philadel- 
phia, were rapidly enrolled, and the discipline and bearing of its mem- 
bers were so noticeable that the command appeared like a body of 
professional soldiers. 

"I remember that on July the 4th, in 1861, when a parade of the 
militia and of the United States troops stationed in or near Philadel- 
phia was taking place, the people along the route, whenever Company 
'A' appeared, shouted, 'Look, here come the Regulars !' 

"An epitome of the history of Chapman Biddle's service in the 
field was given in an article in an evening paper at the time of his 
death. In speaking of such a subject, I cannot do better than to quote 
from that sketch ; for while the topic is most worthy of detail, amplify- 
ing it would cause me to transgress the limits of my time : — 

" 'Mr. Biddle remained at the head of this battery until the late 
summer of 1862, when the disastrous ending of General Pope's cam- 
paign and that in the Peninsula showed the urgent necessity of greatly 
increasing the strength of the Union armies. President Lincoln had 
by proclamations following each other in rapid succession, summoned 
more than 600,000 men to arms ; and it was in consequence of the call 
of August the 9th that Mr. Biddle set about the task of raising a regi- 
ment of infantry. His cousin, Colonel Alexander Biddle, aided in the 
undertaking. When about 600 men had been enlisted, the arrival of 
a contingent of two companies and a half from the western part of 
Pennsylvania placed the regiment in a condition to take the field. It 
was mustered into the service of the United States as the 121st Penna. 
A'^ols., with Chapman Biddle as colonel, Elisha W. Davis (who had 



240 AITENDIX. 

come with the western companies), Heutenant-colonel, and Alexander 
Biddle, major. 

" 'On the 5th day of September the regiment left Philadelphia, 
numbering upwards of 800 men, and when arrived at Washington, 
went into camp near that city, while waiting for arms. From that 
time forward the untiring energy of, and the steady discipline main- 
tained by. Colonel Biddle made his command remarkable for its effi- 
ciency. It was attached to the First Army Corps so long as the latter 
had existence, and fought in it at the battles of Fredericksburg, Chan- 
cellorsville and Gettysburg.' * * ''' 'The hardships of 1862, of 
which this engagement (Fredericksburg) was the culmination, were 
discontinued by the regiment going into winter quarters. There it 
remained continuously until the spring of 1863, excepting when it 
took part in the memorable attempt to ford the Rappahannock before 
Fredericksburg, in January, which the vigilance of Lee rendered 
ineffectual, and which thenceforward was known as "Burnside's Mud 
March." 

" 'Colonel Biddle, whose sedentary occupations rendered him 
scarcely fitted to endure the hardships of army life, had for some time 
been suffering from disorders arising from exposure, and was finally 
obliged to avail himself of a leave of absence for sixty days. He 
returned to his home to recruit his health, and, after an irksome con- 
finement, reassumed his duties in the field in the month of March, 1863. 

" 'At Gettysburg Colonel Biddle w-as in command of the First 
Brigade of the Third Division, formed of the 121st, 151st and I42d 
Penna. Regts., the 20th New York and a battery of four guns. The 
night of the 30th of June was passed seven or eight miles from the 
town. On the morning of July the ist the brigade was put in motion, 
and was marched to take up its position on the field. It was in action 
all day on the extreme left of the line, about a third of a mile west of 
the theological seminary. The 121st was posted on the left of the 
brigade, and consequently was on the extreme left of the Union force. 
The enemy's line overlapped ours by from one to two regiments, which 
placed Colonel Biddle's command under an oblique as well as a fierce 
direct fire. The loss was terrible. Of the. 1,287 officers and men of 
whom the brigade was composed on the morning of the first day, but 
390 were left at night. Seven officers and 256 men formed the regi- 
ment when the action commenced ; two officers and 82 men answered 
to the evening call. Colonel Biddle, while leading his men, had his 
horse shot under him, and later in the day was himself wounded in 
the head; as the injury was not serious, he still remained in command. 
Colonel Alexander Biddle escaped unhurt, and his preservation was 



APPENDIX. 241 

the more remarkable, as his horse received five balls. Towards even- 
ing the brigade fell back through the town, and took up its position 
close to the cemetery. The second and third days it was occupied 
principally in supporting the advance, and thus sutfered but little during 
the remainder of the engagement. From that time until the following 
winter he remained with the army, but then, influenced by important 
considerations, he was compelled to tender his resignation, and was 
honorably discharged from the service December 10, 1863.'^ 

"Here ends my extract from the short report of a daily paper, of 
Chapman Biddle and his regiment. When the Bar of Philadelphia 
met together in tribute to the memory of its illustrious representative, 
lawyers who like him had served their country in her hour of need, 
spoke in language earnest and affectionate of their comrade and their 
friend. 'There was no period of responsibility or danger,' said one, 
'in which Colonel Biddle was not as calm, as cool, as courageous, as 
considerate as he was in his office, or as we all know he was in the 
trial of a case. In a driving storm of snow, at midnight, on a march, 
you would find him just the same courteous, cool, perfectly self- 
possessed gentleman, taking care of his men — thinking of others and 
not of himself. * * * j know how brilliant a record he made at 
Gettysburg in the handling of the First Brigade of the Third Division 
of Reynolds" corps, in the first day, when our corps was practically 
subjected to the attack of half the Southern army, and only late in the 
afternoon fell back slowly through the town of Gettysburg. Yet during 
all that time, Colonel Biddle's brigade, stationed immediately to the 
left of the Iron Brigade, as it was called, commanded by General 
Solomon Meredith, in Wadsworth's corps, held its position with per- 
fect strength and resolution, and was drawn back at the end of that 
disastrous first day's fight in perfect order, after having lost in killed 
and wounded, I think, over two-thirds of those engaged. There is 
probably no instance showing more complete discipline and masterli- 
ness of management than the bringing back of such a command after 
such a contest, in such perfect condition and without a semblance of 
disorder.' These were the words of one who knew him and who 
deemed him 'as firm as a rock to lean on ; as firm and true a friend in 
civil life as in military.'- An officer who had served under him told 
how his brigade at Gettysburg, in the language of military men, was 
'in the air,' its left without support of any kind. 'It bore the shock 
of an attack from a verv large force, overwhelming in its numerical 



1 The Evening Telegraph, December 10. 1880. 

2 From the address of Richard L. Ashhurst. Esq. Mr. Ashhurst, admitted to 
the Bar in 1859 entered the army August 30 1862 as first lieutenant and 
adjutant of the 150th Penna. Vols. He was promoted after Chancellorsville to 
the brevet rank of captain, and after Gettysburg to that of brevet major. 



242 APPENDIX. 

superiority, yet it stood that attack with wonderful courage and per- 
sistency, and that it did so was due in a large measure to the skillful 
handling of that small body of men by Colonel Biddle, to his great 
personal gallantry and the inspiring effect of his splendid courage. 
He was wounded, but remained in the field without regard to his own 
condition.' That same officer, with every opportunity to judge, 
spoke of his indifference to his own health, when hardship and 
exposure had broken him down, and that 'for all his services and 
all his sacrifices he received no acknowledgment other than the 
affection of his fellow-soldiers and the gratitude of his fellow- 
citizens.'^ 

"In a letter from Boston, dated March 14, 1881, to the Philadelphia 
Times, Colonel John B. Bachelder relates an incident of Mr. Biddle's 
conspicuous courage, and the great danger in which he unhesitatingly 
placed himself at Gettysburg. Colonel Biddle was in command of the 
extreme left brigade of the Union army, when General Pettigrew's 
brigade of North Carolinians swept forward in the final Confederate 
advance, vastly outnumbering and outflanking Colonel Biddle's com- 
mand. The contest was desperate and bloody. The right of Petti- 
grew's brigade advanced more rapidly than the rest of his line, and,, 
being unopposed, poured in its fire by 'left oblique' upon Biddle's troops. 
The men of one of the regiments wavered, and seemed about to break 
before the heavy front of the Southerners and their withering oblique 
volleys. Colonel Biddle pressed into the bending ranks, seized the 
colors in his hand and rode to the front and shook them above his head. 
Some 3'ears after, the writer of that letter made the acquaintance of 
Captain Davis, who commanded a company in the 47th Xorth Carolina 
Regiment on the occasion spoken of, and entered into conversation with 
him upon different details of the great battle. Captain Davis finally 
said : 'At what part of the field was General Reynolds killed ?' Colonel 
Bachelder answered : 'In the woods, at your left, while engaging 
Archer's brigade, in the morning, at the very opening of the battle.' 
'Are you sure he was not killed in front of Pettigrew's brigade?' 'As 
sure as one can be who did not see the act,' was responded. 'Thank 
God ; I have always feared I was responsible for his death,' said Cap- 
tain Davis, and added: 'What general officer was killed on my front?' 
'None.' 'But,' he continued, 'I saw him. colors in hand, dash into his 
disordered ranks to rally his troops, and calling to Frank Escue, a 
sharpshooter of my command, I directed the shot and saw him fall, 
and I have always feared that in the heat and excitement of battle, I 

1 FYom the address of Joseph G. Rosengarten, E.sq., who entered the 121st 
Reginn-nt at its formation as first lieutenant, and, being promoted to the rank 
of brevet major, served at Gettysburg- on the staff of General Reynolds. Mr. 
Rosengarten was admitted to tlie ar in 1856. 



APPENDIX. 243 

had been the direct cause of the death of a gallant officer.' 'Yoit can 
set your mind at rest on that point,' said Colonel Bachelder, 'for there 
was no general officer killed in your front ; but if you would like to 
see the man you thought dead, you can do so when you are in Phila- 
delphia, by calling on Colonel Chapman Biddle.' I have selected this 
incident in the life of Air. Biddle as tending to illustrate his most strik- 
ing quality — calm intrejiidity. Ask the comrades of his boyhood, and 
the friends of his later years, if this instance is isolated? And yet, 
naturally, and with a feeling akin to veneration, I cite this story of 
the intellectual lawyer, whose name will be forever associated, by this 
act of pre-eminent valor, as well as by his scholarly address before 
this society, with 'The First Day of the Battle of Gettysburg.' Out 
of that storm of conflict, never to be forgotten while the records of 
bravery endure, and never to become a dull story while courage and 
gallant leadership shall be held as glorious — of the 121st Regiment 
only eighty men came back. It had borne the brunt of the fight and 
stood stubbornly with its wasted ranks against the solid battalions of 
the enemy. And the steady withdrawal of the First Brigade, under 
Chapman Biddle, stemmed the tide that was swelling to a torrent and 
made a masterly retreat of an incipient panic. I have spoken of him 
as a soldier; I have recalled him to you as a lawyer. As a man, as 
a friend ; in the intercourse of daily life, in all the domestic relations, 
he was irreproachable. On the same solemn occasion that I have 
spoken of, at the meeting of the Bar convened in memory of him who 
was no more, eloquent words spake his praise. 'He lived a life pure, 
upright and without reproach,' said a deeply-read lawyer, who reflects 
honor upon our judiciary ;^ 'and now that the influence of a life so well 
rounded and so well spent is hereafter to speak to us only from the 
grave, and by reminiscences which we shall gladly recall, let us cherish 
his memory with gratitude because of the legacy he has bequeathed to 
each one of us, striving to emulate his virtues, and to grow better because 
of the example which he has set before us.' A brilliant and accom- 
plished advocate, now standing in a representative professional position, 
in the eye of the nation,^ declared : 'In the whole course of my experi- 
ence, in my profession, and out of it, I have not seen one man who 
excelled him in some of the most beautiful and attractive features of 
manhood. He M-as calm, he was cheerful, he was reasonable, he was 
kind ; he was the soul of honor. His presence spoke for him. x\t 
a glance it could be seen who and what he was. He was no "counter- 
feit presentment." His life was so clean and clear and blameless that 

Trhe^ Honorable Joseph Allison, President Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas No. 1. 

2 The Honorable Benjamin Harris Brewster, Attorney-General of the United 
States. 



244 APPENDIX. 

we should strive to imitate him.' Another friend, professional and 
personal, a man upright and profound, gave forth the feelings of his 
heart when he said : 'It is not so much ujjon his well-earned reputa- 
tion as a great lawyer that I like to dwell upon the memory of Chap- 
man Biddle. It is rather upon those amiable traits which rounded 
and completed a beautiful character. He was kind and gentle as a 
young girl, a true friend, and so delicate and considerate in his treat- 
ment of all who came within the sphere of his influence, that he was 
universally beloved by those who were thrown into immediate contact 
with him.'^ And then how touching are the harmonious words of 
another Judge :- 'We have to-day to regret that he has fallen while 
his sun was yet in its zenith, while he was still in possession of the 
unimpaired powers of his mature luanhood ; and to regret, as we all 
do, that he could not have lived many years to have perpetuated the 
beneficial inRuence which he always exercised upon all who came within 
the sphere of his usefulness. But, except for that, and the great per- 
sonal loss which his friends have sustained, we have little to regret. 
The record is closed. The book is shut up. There is not a blot or 
a stain to be seen anywhere upon it. It is radiant all over with all 
those graces and benevolences and admirable traits of character which 
in so high a degree characterized the man during his life. It is a 
record to which his family, his brethren in the profession and his friends 
may always ]:)oint, not only with satisfaction, but with a just pride.' 
A broad-minded and large-hearted member of the same profession, 
moved and thrilled his auditors by the sweetness of his unstudied 
phrases. 'We mourn to-day for Chapman Biddle. None of us can 
either truthfully regret or complain that his was an incomplete and 
unfinished life. It is true he had not lived out the threescore years 
and ten allotted to man ; but he has lived so long that all his seniors 
honor his memory, and all his juniors can safely follow his example. 
Who would wish to live longer? His duty to his country, his duty 
to the community in which he lived, his duty to his clients, have all 
been well and faithfully met. It was not my privilege to have known 
him in his early years, as many of you have known him, but for the 
past five years my professional association with him has been of the 
closest character ; and I come here to-day to pay my tribute to his 
virtues ; to say that I confided and trusted in him as a lawyer and a 
counsellor ; that I honored him as a gentleman ; that I loved him living', 
and that T mcnu-n him as my departed friend.'^ 

1 From thp Afldre.ss of Charles Hart, Esq. 

- Then Honorable M. Russell Thayer, President Judge of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas No. 4. 

•"• From the Address of the Honorable John Scott, General Solicitor of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad. Mr. Scott sat in the United States Senate from 1869 
to 1875. 





CORroKAL GEORGE S. DEDIER. 



FIRST SERGEANT WILLIAM M GOV. 




COLOR-SERGEANT LOUIS CLArPER. 



APPENDIX. 245 

"In all that pertained to culture, Chapman Biddle's taste was per- 
fect ; and by his advice and with his liberality, he encouraged all works 
whose object was to elevate the artistic standard. At the time of his 
death he was the chairman of the Committee on Works of Art of the 
Fairmount Park Art Association. Himself an excellent draughts- 
man, his practical knowledge aided him at once to detect the false or 
meretricious in art, whether of color or design ; and to his suggestions 
Philadelphians are mainly indebted for that lovely fountain whose 
misty spray gladdens our eyes in the long summer days, which stands 
near Woodford, in the Park. I observed when we used to meet abroad 
that his great pleasure was to frequent galleries and the repositories of 
art ; to rest for hours in the great library of the British Museum and in 
the exhibition halls of the South Kensington. The character of his 
written composition was, as would become such a man, clear, concise 
and faultlessly logical. The only work, I believe, he ever published 
elevates him at once to the rank of an historian. That short but deep- 
studied and minutely accurate history of 'The First Day of the Battle 
of Gettysburg,' which, as an address, was read before you upon the 
occasion of the presentation to this society of the portrait of General 
Reynolds, is one of the most valuable contributions to the literature 
of "the war. And be it remembered that in its half-hundred pages 
the author makes no mention of himself, or of the services which on 
that day he rendered to his country by his valor, his prudence and 
his skill. 

"Personally, Mr. Biddle impressed me as being a man of strong; 
feelings and quick impulses, which were under perfect control. Self- 
control springs only from a brain whose functions are performed with 
entire precision. That harmonious working of the great engine of 
thought, blended with a heart welling over with sympathy, inade him a 
remarkable man. Self-possessed, refined and subtle of perception, a 
great lawyer and an ideal soldier, his was a character such as we 
meet in romance, but rarely see in daily life. We cannot understand 
it, for such men adapt themselves so happily to existence; they glide 
so easily through its devious ways, that, like Abraham, we recognize 
not the unearthly beauty of the visitant until his departure in celestial 
light. * * '' 

'Tn January, 1880, he relinquished his connection with the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company, whose solicitor he had been from March, 
1871, until his appointment in 1877 as the general counsel. The many 
important trusts which he administered, and his large chamber practice 
occupied his time until well nigh the close. On the afternoon of Sat- 
urday, the 27th of November, 1880, he returned wearied and in pain 



246 APPENDIX. 

to his home. From across its threshold he never stepped again. 
Paragraphs in the daily prints told that he was lying seriously ill, that 
he was resting somewhat easier, that but slight hope was entertained 
of his recovery, and then — that there was none. At length came the 
dire announcement of death, the due notices, and finally, the many 
obituary histories which anticipate in the chronicles of the time the 
last sad chronicle — the epitaph on the tomb. 

"He did not die in the war, but he died of it. The almost imper- 
ceptible germ of his only constitutional defect, developed by torrid 
heat and strengthened by pestilential air, grew to be the poison-tree 
whose branches at length overshadowed his life. When I look back 
on the days of the great struggle, it seems as if I, and all who were 
busy then, whether as soldiers, poets, editors or partisans, must have 
lived through centuries. A new generation of men has stepped into 
the arena of life, and the contests of the day obliterate the recollections 
of the past. We are forgetting the story of the great Rebellion; we 
are forgetting how men like Chapman Biddle once listened to the 
answering names of the survivors of the great battle ; and we remem- 
ber only that his name has been stricken from the roll of life that he 
might answer to the roll-call of the immortals. In the history of the 
Church it is not those alone who died by sword and flame whom we 
revere as martyrs ; it is those as well who for the faith lingered upon 
the cross, and whose pains were prolonged by rack and wheel. An- 
nually we decorate the graves of the dead who fell beneath the battle- 
flags of the Republic. They are scattered over the country — north 
and south, east and west — from where the linnea borealis loves the 
six months' snow to the sun-bathed land of the palm. But there are 
graves not yet filled, though the dread Angel of Death has allotted 
them already, and with relentless eye is watching the shattered survivors 
of the War of Emancipation. There are thousands, who, like Chap- 
man Biddle, suffered, lingered and died. You all have known such 
men. It may be that many present bear upon their breasts scars 
received from the advancing foe, and that others amongst you still 
languish from the fevers of the Wilderness, or the unmentionable 
agonies endured at Libby or Belle Isle. Let them not depart without 
honor; for when they arise to share the radiance which falls on the 
Elect, we know that then, in remembrance of how and for what cause 
they died, they shall stand foremost in the 'bright ranks that guard 
the Eternal Throne.' 

"It is to the type of this class that I offer my tribute in the name 
of all present — that I offer it to the memory of a 'brave, honorable 
man.' " 



Roster of the 121st Regt. Penna. Vols. 



FIELD AND STAFF. 

Colonel Chapman Biddle, enrolled August i, 1862; slightly 
wounded at Gettysburg; honorably discharged December 10, 1863. 

Fieutenant-Colonel Elisha W. Davis, enrolled August i, 1862; 
resigned April 20, 1863. 

Major Alexander Biddle, enrolled August i, 1862; promoted to 
lieutenant-colonel April 20, 1863; promoted to colonel December 11, 
1863 ; honorably discharged January 9, 1864. 

Adjutant Thomas M. Hall, enrolled August i, 1862; promoted to 
major December 11, 1863; promoted to lieutenant-colonel February ii, 
1864; honorably discharged on account of disability. May 27, 1864. 

*Sergeant-Major West Funk, enrolled September 3, 1862 ; pro- 
moted to second lieutenant of Company "G" December 13, 1862; to 
first lieutenant Company "G" October 20, 1863; to major September 
7, 1864; wounded at Dabney's Mills, February 6, 1865; brevet lieuten- 
ant-colonel, April I, 1865. 

Quartermaster William C. Atwood, enrolled August i, 1862; 
resigned January 3, 1863. 

Surgeon H. P. Hottenstein, enrolled September 3, 1862; resigned 
October 23, 1862. 

^Assistant Surgeon J. A. Ramsey, enrolled September 3, 1862; 
promoted to surgeon November 7, 1862. 

Assistant Surgeon John J. Comfort, enrolled August 18, 1862; 
promoted to surgeon of 13th Pennsylvania Reserves December 17, 1862. 

Assistant Surgeon Charles E. Cady, enrolled August 20, 1862 ; dis- 
charged by special order September 2, 1862. 

Assistant Surgeon Pressly M. Kerr, enrolled December 15, 1862; 
resigned January 9, 1863. 

Assistant Surgeon Alex. M. Wilson, enrolled January 14, 1863 ; 
discharged July 27, 1863. 

^Assistant Surgeon Francis F. Davis, enrolled August 27, 1863. 

Chaplain William C. Ferriday, enrolled September 14, 1862; 
resigned December 23, 1862. 

Quartermaster-Sergeant William H. Atlee, enrolled August 5, 
1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate January 31, 1863. 



* Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1865. 

247 



248 



APPENDIX. 



COMPANY "A." 



Captain George E. Ridgway; age, 33; enlisted August 28, 1862, at 
Franklin, Venango Co., Pa. ; wounded December 13, 1862, at Fred- 
ericksburg, Va. ; discharged for disability March 24, 1863. 

First Lieutenant George W. Brickley; enlisted August 28, 1862, at 
Franklin, Venango Co., Pa. ; killed December 13, 1862, at Fredericks- 
burg, Va. 

^Second Lieutenant James S. Warner; age, 21; enlisted August 
29, 1862, at Franklin, Venango Co., F'a. ; promoted to first lieutenant 
December 13, 1862; promoted to captain March 25, 1863; promoted to 
lieutenant-colonel May 28, 1864; taken prisoner October 1, 1864, at 
Poplar Grove Church. 

SERGEANTS. 

* First Sergeant Philander R. Gray ; age, 25 ; enlisted August 23, 
1862, at Franklin, Venango Co., Pa. ; promoted to second lieutenant 
December 13, 1862; promoted to first lieutenant March 25, 1863; pro- 
moted to quartermaster October 10, 1863. 

^Second Sergeant Moore Bridges; enlisted ^August 23, 1862, at 
Franklin, Venango Co., Pa. 

Third Sergeant Julius A. Dunham; enlisted August 23, 1862, at 
Franklin, Venango Co., Pa.; discharged for disability February 2^, 
1863. 

Fourth Sergeant Alexander McDowell; age, 17; enlisted August 
2^, 1862, at Franklin, Venango Co., Pa.; taken prisoner July i, 1863, 
Gettysburg, Pa. ; wounded May 5, 1864, Wilderness, Va. ; transferred 
to Veteran Reserve Corps December, 1864. 

'''Fifth Sergeant Henry H. Herpst ; age, 27 ; enlisted August 23, 
1862, at Franklin, Venango Co., Pa. ; promoted to first sergeant ; pro- 
moted to second lieutenant March 25, 1863 ; promoted to first lieutenant 
October to, 1863; promoted to captain ]\Iay 28, 1864. 

CORPORALS. 

First Corporal John B. Allender; enlisted August 2t„ 1862, at 
Franklin, Venango Co., Pa. ; wounded July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. ; 
wounded, with loss of left arm, at Spottsylvania Court-house, May 12, 
1864; honorably discharged September 18, 1864. 

Second Corporal Dennis D. Moriarity ; enlisted August 23, 1862, 
at Franklin. \^enango Co., Pa. ; promoted to sergeant December 13, 
1862 ; wounded July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. ; transferred to Veteran 
Reserve Corps May 2, 1864. 

* Mustered out with re^ment June 2, 1S65. 



APPENDIX. 249 

Third Corporal Emanuel Widle ; enlisted August 23, 1862, at 
Franklin, Venango Co., Pa. ; honorably discharged for disability May 

20, 1863. 

Fourth Corporal Francis H. Hilliard; enlisted August 23, 1862, 
at Franklin, Venango Co., Pa.; wounded July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, 
Pa. ; died August 2, 1863. 

*Fifth Corporal Benjamin F. Baldwin; enlisted August 23, 1862, 
at Franklin, Venango Co., Pa. 

Sixth Corporal John B. Manson ; enlisted August 23, 1862, at 
Franklin, Venango Co., Pa.; killed December 13, 1862, at Fredericks- 
burg, Va. 

^Seventh Corporal John M. Bingham; age, 19; enlisted August 
23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango Co., Pa.; promoted to first sergeant; 
wounded at Fredericksburg December 13, 1862, and at Chancellorsville, 
also at Gettysburg and Cold Harbor ; promoted to first lieutenant July 
19, 1864; taken prisoner October i, 1864. 

Eighth Corporal John Burns ; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Frank- 
lin, Venango Co., Pa. ; killed December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. 

PRIVATES. 

Jacob Allebach; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa.; promoted to corporal November 25, 1862; wounded July i, 
1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. ; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps April 

I, 1864. 

*Henry Aten; age, 18; enlisted August 23, 1862; promoted to 

corporal January i, 1865. 

John Aten; enlisted February 15, 1864; transferred to Company 
"E," 191st Regt. Penna. Vols., June i, 1865. 

James Bailey; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango Co., 
Pa.; taken prisoner; died January 28, 1865, at Annapolis, Md. 

George W. Barnes; enlisted March 19, 1864; transferred. 

James B. Brown ; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa. ; died December 30, 1862. 

Orin S. Babcock; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa.; killed December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. 

Calvin D. Bingham; age, 15; enhsted March 21, 1864; taken 
prisoner May 5, 1864, at Wilderness, Va. ; died November 15, 1864, 
at Florence, S. C, while a prisoner. 

William J. Bingham; age, 21 ; enlisted August 23, 1862; died Feb- 

ruarv 20, 1863. 

'^Jonathan W. Brink; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, 
Venango Co., Pa. ; promoted to corporal. 
* Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1865. 



250 APrENDIX. 

Warren J. Brink; enlisted August 23, 1862. 

Nathaniel Brink; enlisted I-'ebruary 15, 1864; died March 19, 1864, 
at Baltimore, Md. ; buried in Loudon Park, National Cemetery. 

*James D. Black; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa. 

^William Beck; enlisted Au.gust 2t„ 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa. ; promoted to sergeant. 

Henry A. Cornwell ; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, 
Venango Co., Pa. ; promoted to corporal December 14, 1862 ; wounded 
July I, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; died July 8, 1863. 

Charles C. Connelly; age, 24; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Frank- 
lin, Venango Co., Pa.; promoted to corporal December 29, 1862; pro- 
moted to sergeant May 23, 1863; promoted to sergeant-major October 
2^, 1863 ; wounded and missing in action on May 5, 1864, at Wilder- 
ness, Va. 

*Abraham L. Cosway ; age, 24; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Frank- 
lin, Venango Co., Pa, 

Samuel G. Crawford; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, 
Venango Co., Pa. ; honorably discharged July 27, 1865. 

William J. Connelly; enlisted April 23, 1864; transferred to Com- 
pany "E," 191st Regt. Penna. Vols., June i, 1865. 

John R. Donnelly; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa. ; in hospital at muster-out. 

*William G. Dickey; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, 
Venango Co., Pa.; promoted to corporal November 4, 1863; promoted 
to sergeant; wounded April 6, 1865; promoted to sergeant-major Mav 
I, 1865. . 

*James F. Dawson; age, 18; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, 
Venango Co., Pa. 

William R. Dawson; age, 17; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Frank- 
lin, Venango Co., Pa.; wounded July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; 
prisoner July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. ; transferred to Veteran Re- 
serve Corps November 23, 1864. 

Sylvester L. Durham ; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, 
Venango Co., Pa. ; missing May 5, 1864, Wilderness, Va. 

*Philip H. Dillon ; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa. 

William M. De Woody; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, 
Venango Co., Pa. ; honorably discharged July i, 1863. 

Garrett De Mill ; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa. ; honorably discharged February 28, 1863. 
* Mustered out \\ith regiment Jiuie 2, 1S65. 




CAPTAIN JOSEPH G. ROSENGARTEN. 



APPENDIX. 251 

Thomas W. Eaton; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa. ; honorably discharged December 2, 1862. 

Solomon Engle; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa.; promoted to corporal February i, 1863; killed July i, 1863, 
at Gettysburg, Pa. 

*Thomas Fair; age, 18; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, 
Venango Co., Pa. 

*Samuel Fair; age, 20; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, 
Venango Co., Pa.; promoted to corporal; wounded July i, 1863, at 
Gettysburg, Pa. 

Augustus Funk; enlisted August 2^, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa. ; wounded; honorably discharged June 5, 1865. 

*Moses Funk; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa. 

Levi Grimm; age, 44; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, 
Venango Co., Pa.; wounded December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, 
Va. ; honorably discharged for disability July 25, 1863. 

Wal. W. Gilleland; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa. ; honorably discharged February 25, 1863. 

*x\ndrew J. Gibbons; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, 
Venango Co., Pa. 

=^Jacob Gibbon; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa. 

Francis Gray; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa. ; wounded at Fredericksburg, Va. ; in hospital at muster-out. 

Henry E. Ginter ; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa. ; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps March 14, 1864. 

Joseph B. Hart; enlisted x^ugust 2^, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa.; honorably discharged for disability December 24, 1863. 

Daniel Hoxworth ; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa.; honorably discharged for disability April i, 1863. 

Sidney Heckard ; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa.; wounded December 13, 1862, Fredericksburg, Va. ; taken 
prisoner December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; died December 
21, 1862, at Richmond, Va. 

John F. Hughes; age, 19; enlisted August 23, 1862, at FrankHn, 
Venango Co., Pa.; wounded December 13, 1862, Fredericksburg, Va. ; 
wounded July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; taken prisoner July i, 1863, 
Gettysburg, Pa. ; discharged February 25, 1865. 

Solomon D. Hughes; enlisted August 23. 1862, at Franklin, 
Venango Co., Pa. ; died January 9, 1864. 

* Mustered out with reg-iment June 2, 1S65. 



252 APPENDIX. 

George Hesler; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa. ; discharged July 18, 1865, by general order. 

Aaron H. Harrison; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa.; promoted to corporal June i, 1864; killed June 18, 1864, at 
Petersburg, Va. 

*James W. Ingham; enlisted August 2"], 1862, at Franklin, 
Venango Co., Pa. 

Fbenezer H. James; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, \cnango 
Co., Pa.; wounded July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; died July 16, 1863. 

Joseph Kellerman ; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa.; honorably discharged for disability February 28, 1863. 

William H. Kelly ; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa.; killed July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. 

Chambers Lawrence ; age, 22 ; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Frank- 
lin, Venango Co., P'a. ; wounded December 13, 1862, Fredericksburg, 
Va. ; died of wounds December 17, 1862. 

John E. Lapsley ; age, 20; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, 
Venango Co., Pa.; taken prisoner July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; 
honorably discharged May 13, 1865. 

Owen Lyons ; enlisted April 20, 1864 ; transferred to Company "E," 
191st Regt. Penna. \'ols., June i, 1865. 

*Henry H. Mull; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa. 

* Jesse ]\L IManson ; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa. 

George R. ^lorris ; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa.; wounded July i, 1863, at Gettysburg; honorably discharged 
May 29, 1864. 

Thomas A. Morrison ; age, 22 ; enlisted August 29, 1862, at Frank- 
lin, Venango Co., Pa.; wounded December 13, 1862, at Fredericks- 
burg, Va. ; honorably discharged April 22, 1863. 

James M. Manson ; enlisted August 23, 1862; wounded at Fred- 
ericksburg December 13, 1862, and died from effects of wounds De- 
cember 25, 1862. 

Alexander McKinley ; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, 
Venango Co., Pa.; wounded July i, 1863. at Gettysburg, Pa.; trans- 
ferred to Veteran Reserve Corps April i, 1864. 

Prior Mc]\Iurray ; enlisted August 23. 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa.; killed December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. 

William A. McKenzie ; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, 
Venango Co., Pa. ; killed December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. 
♦ Mustered out with regiment June 2, I860. 



APPENDIX. 253 

William McKenzie; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa. ; killed June 18, 1864, at Petersburg, Va. 

John JNlcCool; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa. ; killed July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. 

'■'Israel T. Phelps ; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, \ enango 
Co., Pa. 

Almiron Parker; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa.; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps November 15, 1863. 

David E. Perry; enlisted Alarch 2, 1864; transferred to Company 
"E," 191st Regt. Penna. Vols., June i, 1865. 

*William H. Potter; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, 
Venango Co., Pa. ; wounded July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; promoted 
to first sergeant. 

*Newton B. Riddle; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa. 

^Abraham Rhodebarger ; age, 24 ; enlisted August, 23, 1862, at 
Franklin, Venango Co., Pa. 

Robert B. Rodgers ; enlisted February 15, 1864; discharged by 
general order June 2, 1865. 

* Franklin F. Sands ; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, 
Venango Co., Pa. 

^William M. Stover; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, 
Venango Co., Pa. 

George Shawgo ; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa. ; wounded April 2, 1865, Five Forks, Va. ; in hospital at muster- 
out. 

*George Shingeldecker ; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, 
Venango Co., Pa. 

John B. Shaner; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa. ; wounded December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; dis- 
charged April 6, 1863. 

W. A. Shingeldecker; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, 
Venango Co., Pa.; w^ounded July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; dis- 
charged February 20, 1864. 

Henry D. Shaner; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, A^enango 
Co., Pa. ; discharged April 10, 1864. 

George Savage; enlisted February 15, 1864; transferred to Com- 
pany "E," 191st Regt. Penna. Vols., June i, 1865. 

Orpheus W. Scott; enlisted March 12, 1864; transferred to Com- 
pany "E," 191st Regt. Penna. Vols., June i, 1865. 

♦Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1S65. 



254 APPENDIX. 

John H. Stroop; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa.; killed December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. 

T. C. Shelmerdine; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa. ; died December 6, 1863. 

Nicholas Thompson; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, 
Venango Co., Pa. ; wounded July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. ; honorably 
discharged June i, 1864. 

David W. Tripp; enlisted August 22, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa. ; wounded July i, 1863. at Gettysburg, Pa.; died July 6, 1863. 

David C. Tyrell ; enlisted August 22, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa. ; taken prisoner December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Ya.. ; 
died in Libby Prison, Richmond, Va. 

Joel C. Usher; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa.; wounded December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; trans- 
ferred to Veteran Reserve Corps September i, 1863. 

*Jonathan Wygant; age, 21 ; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, 
Venango Co., Pa. 

John Wygant; age, 20; enlisted February 15, 1864; transferred to 
Company "E." 191st Regt. Penna. Vols., June i, 1865. 

James Withneck; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa. ; died December 22, 1862. 

Henry D. Weaver; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa. ; killed by lightning April 20, 1865. 

William C. Waits ; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Franklin, Venango 
Co., Pa. ; killed July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. 

COMPANY "B." 

Captain Alexander Faurie ; age, 35; enlisted September 5, 1862, at 
Philadelphia, Pa.; resigned July 21, 1863. 

First Lieutenant Charles F. Flulse ; age, 20 ; enlisted September 4, 
1862, at Philadelphia, Pa. ; promoted to captain June 22, 1863 ; hon- 
orably discharged November 8, 1864. 

Second Lieutenant John lungerich ; age, 19; enlisted September 5, 
1862, at Philadelphia. Pa. ; promoted to first lieutenant June 22, 1863 ; 
promoted to adjutant December 11, 1863; wounded May 25, 1864, ^^ 
North Anna. Va. ; died of wounds June 23, 1864. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant Edward Scheerer ; age, 40; enlisted August 15, 
1862, at Philadelphia, Pa. ; killed December 13, 1862, at battle of 
Fredericksburg, Va. 

* Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1865. 



APPENDIX. 255 

Second Sergeant Adam F. Zinnel ; age, 24; enlisted August 15, 
1862, at Philadelphia, Pa.; promoted to first sergeant December 14, 
1862; promoted to first lieutenant December 11, 1863; promoted to 
captain November 9, 1864; honorabW discharged January 5, 1865. 

Third Sergeant George Keen; age, 42; enlisted September 3, 1862, 
at Philadelphia, Pa. ; wounded December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, 
Va.; died of wounds January 5, 1863. 

Fourth Sergeant Thomas Wheeler; age, 19; enlisted August 11, 
1862, at Philadelphia, Pa.; wounded December 13, 1862, at Fredericks- 
burg, Ya. ; honorably discharged March 24, 1863. 

*Fifth Sergeant Thomas F. Clarke; age, 21; enlisted August 13, 
1862, at Philadelphia, Pa.; promoted to third sergeant; promoted to 
second sergeant. 

CORPORALS. 

First Corporal William Hardy; age, 32; enlisted August 21, 1862, 
at Philadelphia, Pa. ; promoted to sergeant February, 1863 ; promoted 
to color-sergeant February, 186^; killed May n, 1864, at Laurel 
Hill,Va. 

Second Corporal Edward Wheeler; age, 22; enlisted August 11, 
1862, at Philadelphia, Pa.; promoted to sergeant January 22, 1864; 
transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps January 9, 1865. 

Third Corporal Reath M. Snodgrass ; age, 18; enlisted August I5> 
1862, at Philadelphia, Pa. ; killed December 13, 1862, at Fredericks- 
burg, Va. 

Fourth Corporal Edward W. Steffan ; age, 21; enlisted August 
29, 1862, at Philadelphia, Pa.; promoted to sergeant May 13, 1864; 
taken prisoner October i, 1864; honorably discharged May 31, 1865. 

*Fifth Corporal William H. Whaland ; age, 21; enlisted August 
13, 1862, at Philadelphia, Pa.; promoted to sergeant May 13, 1864; 
taken prisoner October i, 1864. 

Sixth Corporal Alexander Cummings ; age, 19 ; enlisted August 
13, 1862, at Philadelphia, Pa.; promoted to sergeant December 14, 
1862; discharged October 27, 1863. 

*Seventh Corporal Joseph Rylands ; age, 25; enlisted August 21, 
1862, at Philadelphia, Pa.; promoted to corporal October 17, 1862; 
wounded December 13. 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; promoted to ser- 
geant April T, 1863; wounded May 7, 1864; promoted to first sergeant 
June 22, 1864; promoted to first lieutenant November 9, 1864; pro- 
moted to captain January 6, 1865. 

Eighth Corporal James Slyofif ; age, 42 ; enlisted August 20, 



* Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1865. 



256 



APPENDIX. 



1862; promoted to corporal October 30, 1862; honorably discharged 
May 31, 1865. 

MUSICIAN. 

Kilian Grimm; age, 20; enlisted August 20, 1862, at Philadelphia, 
Pa.; wounded December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; absent in 
hospital at muster-out. 

PRIVATES. 

John B. Armstrong; enlisted August 29, 1862; deserted August 
30, 1862. 

*Simon Berg; age, 44; enlisted August 15, 1862, at Philadelphia, 
Pa. 

John Behler; age, 20; enlisted August 15, 1862, at Philadelphia, 
Pa. ; transferred to Invalid Corps September 26, 1863. 

*Frederick Bergner; age, 21; enlisted August 15, 1862; wounded 
May 25, 1864. 

Valentine Becker; enlisted August 12, 1862; deserted October 20, 
1862. 

Bernard Calliday; enlisted September 3, 1862; deserted October 
30, 1862. 

Edward Coil ; enlisted August 29, 1862 ; deserted October 30, 1862. 

Thomas B. Cave; age, 33; enlisted August 21, 1862, at Philadel- 
phia, Pa. ; promoted to corporal December 14, 1862 ; transferred to 
United States Navy April 19, 1864. 

John Develin; age, 22; enlisted August 13, 1862; wounded De- 
cember 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; transferred to Invalid Corps 
September 26, 1863. 

Peter Dorsey; age, 27; enlisted August 20, 1862; killed May 5, 
1864, at Wilderness, Va. 

Charles Dunlap ; age, 35 ; enlisted August 20, 1862 ; sick at muster- 
out. 

*George A. Echenwick ; age, 42; enlisted August 12, 1862. 

*John Ehrlick; age, 38; enlisted August 19, 1862; wounded Mav 
25. 1864. 

Frank Frdman ; enlisted August 15, 1862; deserted October 30, 
1862. 

Jacob Fostner ; enlisted August 12. 1862 ; deserted October 29. 1862. 

*William dcigcr ; age, 22; enlisted August 13, 1862. 

Andrew Grunn ; age. 31; enlisted .August 28, 1862; wounded and 
missing December 13, 1862. at Fredericksburg. Va. 

*John F. Graff; age. 26; enlisted August 12, 1862. 
* Mustered out with regiment June 2. 1S65. 




JOSHUA GARSEL), QUARTERMASTER. 



APPENDIX. 257 

Henry Geiger; age, 18; enlisted August 14, 1862; honorably dis- 
charged September 26, 1864. 

Charles Gross ; enlisted August 12, 1862 ; deserted October 26, 1862. 

Charles C. Hauseman; age, 33 ; enlisted August 21, 1862 ; wounded 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; transferred to Invalid 
Corps November 13, 1863. 

Charles Hille; age, 39; enlisted August 15, 1862; wounded De- 
cember 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; died j\Iarch 5, 1863. 

Samuel B. Haines; age, 21; enlisted August 16, 1862; promoted 
to commissary sergeant August 16, 1862; promoted to quartermaster 
January 5, 1863; died February 23. 1863. 

Jacob Hoeleiter; enlisted August 15, 1862; deserted September 
4, 1862. 

John Heinivick; enlisted August 15, 1862; deserted October 19, 
1862. 

Henry T. Johns; enlisted August 29, 1862; deserted August 30, 
1862. 

John Kinkade; enlisted August 20, 1862; deserted October 28, 
1862. 

Charles Katz ; age, 29; enlisted August 15, 1862; wounded May 5, 
1864, at Wilderness, Va. ; honorably discharged May 15, 1865. 

^George Koch; age, 21; enlisted August 19, 1862; promoted to 
corporal. 

William Klemet ; age, 34 ; enlisted August 16, 1862 ; taken prisoner 
December 13. 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; transferred to Invahd 
Corps March 14, 1864. 

JMichael Kirchner ; age. 18; enlisted August 21, 1862; wounded 
February 5. 1865. at Dabney's Mills, Va. ; honorably discharged May 
16, 1865. 

Victor Kneblher ; age, 23 ; enlisted August 28, 1862 ; wounded and 
prisoner December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; died January 6, 
1863, at Richmond, Va. 

Patrick Kinsella ; age, 20; enlisted August 14, 1862; wounded 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; transferred to Invalid Corps 
November 13, 1863. 

Jacob Lentz ; age. 40; enlisted September 3, 1862; transferred to 
Invalid Corps, 1864. 

Harvev Lewis; enlisted August 20, 1862; deserted October 28, 
1862. 

John McKenna; age. 18; enlisted August 14, 1862; honorably dis- 
charged June 7, 1865. 



♦Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1865. 



258 APrENDIX. 

Christopher Alcier ; age, 33; enHsted August 22, 1862; wounded 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; transferred to Invalid Corps 
September 26, 1863. 

John Miller; age, 22; enlisted August 21, 1862; wounded Decem- 
ber 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; honorably discharged May 5, 
1863. 

*Bernard Van Leer Markward ; age, 33 ; enlisted August 20, 
1862; promoted to corporal April 10, 1864; taken prisoner October i, 
1864; iri Libby Prison and Tobacco Warehouse, Richmond, Va., and 
Salisbury prison-pen. North Carolina. 

John Murphy ; enlisted August 28, 1862 ; deserted October 29, 1862. 

Thomas Murphy ; enHsted August 7, 1862 ; deserted August 9, 1862. 

Charles Peters; enlisted August 12, 1862; deserted September i, 
1862. 

James Rutherford; enlisted August 20, 1862; deserted October 
28, 1862. 

Frederick Reochard ; enlisted August 19, 1862 ; deserted October 
30, 1862. 

William Sellers; age, 21; enlisted August 20, 1862; wounded De- 
cember 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; in hospital at muster-out. 

*Joseph Schafter; age, 28; enlisted August 12, 1862; promoted to 
corporal December 14, 1862. 

Edward C. Shannon; age, 23; enlisted August 12, 1862; wounded 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; killed June 18, 1864, Peters- 
burg, Va. 

"''Henry Sasse; age, 33; enlisted August 13, 1862. 

Paul Schefz; age, 40; enlisted August 19, 1862; honorably dis- 
charged May 15, 1865. 

John Smith ; enlisted September 2, 1862 ; deserted. 

Pliilip C. Smith; enlisted August 20, 1862; deserted October 22, 
1862. 

William Sullivan; age, 26; enlisted August 5, 1862; died January 
I, 1865. 

Alfred Taylor; age, 27; enlisted August 13, 1862; died November 
7, 1863, in hospital at Alexandria, Va. 

*William Trefz ; age, 28; enHsted August 22, 1862. 

James Wright; age, 28; enHsted August 19, 1862; wounded De- 
cember 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; transferred to Invalid Corps 
November 13, 1863. 

\Mlliam Wilhclm ; enlisted August 20, 1862; deserted August 31,. 
1862. 



* Mustered out with reg-imcnt June 2, 1S65. 



APPENDIX. 259 

Alfred Wrigley; age, 21; enlisted August 13, 1862; wounded 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; wounded May 9, 1864; 
killed February 6, 1865, ^^ Dabney's Mills, Va. 

Israel Young; age, 36; enlisted August 9, 1862; died in hospital 
at Culpeper, Va., January 8, 1864. 

*John Zinnel ; age, 19; enlisted August 29, 1862; promoted to 
corporal January 22, 1864; wounded May 5, 1864, at Wilderness, Va. ; 
prisoner October i, 1864, ^t Poplar Grove Church. 

COMPANY "C." 

Captain J. Frank Sterling; age, 35; enlisted September 4, 1862; 
wounded July i, 1863, Gettysburg, Pa.; honorably discharged Novem- 
ber 6, 1863. 

First Lieutenant Benjamin H. Pippett; age, 36; enlisted September 
4, 1862; wounded December 13, 1862, at battle of Fredericksburg, Va. ; 
transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps August 18, 1863. 

Second Lieutenant George W. Powell ; age, 24 ; enlisted August 
4, 1862 ; promoted to first lieutenant September 30, 1863 ; died Novem- 
ber 9, 1863. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant William McCoy ; age, 23 ; enlisted August 8, 1862 ; 
killed July i, 1863, ^^ Gettysburg, Pa. 

Second Sergeant Andrew O. Sullivan ; age, 30 ; enlisted August 
7, 1862 ; honorably discharged May 2, 1863. 

Third Sergeant William McCaffrey; age, 31; enlisted August 15, 
1862; killed July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. 

Fourth Sergeant William H. Bennett ; age, 24 ; enlisted August 20, 
1862; promoted to sergeant October 21, 1862; taken prisoner July i, 
1863, Gettysburg, Pa. ; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps January 
10, 1865. 

Fifth Sergeant Charles L. Atlee; age, 29; enhsted August 5, 1862; 
wounded July i, 1863, ^t Gettysburg, Pa. ; promoted to second lieutenant 
September 30, 1863; promoted to first lieutenant October i, 1863; pro- 
moted to captain July 19, 1864; honorably discharged December 21, 
1864. 

CORPORALS. 

First Corporal Joseph L. Minster; age, 20; enlisted August 5, 
1862; died April 12, 1863. 

^Second Corporal Joshua L. Childs ; age, 29; enlisted August 18, 
* Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1865. 



26o APPENDIX. 

1862; promoted to corporal September 4, 1862; promoted to sergeant 
April 22, 1863; wounded at Gettysburg July i, 1863; promoted to first 
sergeant February 29, 1864; promoted to first lieutenant July 19, 1864; 
taken prisoner October i, 1864, at Poplar Grove Church; promoted to 
captain December 22, 1864. 

Third Corporal George S. Dedier; age, 19; enlisted August 13, 
1862; wounded December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; taken 
prisoner July i, 1863, ^^ Gettysburg, Pa.; promoted to sergeant March 
9, 1864; taken prisoner October i, 1864; honorably discharged May 
26, 1865. 

Sixth Corporal Parry B. Holland; age, 37; enlisted August 18, 
1862; taken prisoner July i, 1863, ^t Gettysburg, Pa.; taken prisoner 
June 2, 1864; died January 2, 1865, at Andersonville, Ga. 

Seventh Corporal Daniel B. Cummings ; age, 44 ; enlisted August 
7, 1862; wounded July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; deserted January 
9, 1864. 

*Eighth Corporal Jacob B. Allen; age, 21; enlisted August 23, 
1862; promoted to sergeant November i, 1864. 

MUSICIAN. 

William Allen; age, 27; enlisted August 18, 1862; taken prisoner 
July I, 1863, ^t Gettysburg, Pa.; transferred to United States Navy 
March, 1864. 

PRIVATES. 

James B. Alexander; enhsted September 13, 1862; transferred to 
Company "B," 95th Regt. Penna. Vols. 

Henry Allen; age, 18; enlisted August 13, 1862; honorably dis- 
charged December 21, 1862. 

William Atlee ; age, 18; enlisted August 7, 1862; promoted to 
quartermaster-sergeant; honorably discharged December i, 1863. 

Benj. F. Baker; enlisted August 30, 1862; prisoner May 4, 1863, to 
February 14, 1865; discharged June 12, 1865. 

Martin Berger; age, 41 ; enlisted August 22, 1862; honorably dis- 
charged June 15, 1863. 

John Barry; age, 29; enlisted August 8, 1862; honorably dis- 
charged December 27, 1862. 

Andrew Bosch; age, 42; enlisted August 20, 1862; died Tune 16, 

1863. 

William H. Bishop; age, 18; enlisted August 21, 1862; wounded 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; honorably discharged April 
II, 1863. 
* Mustered out with regriment June 2, 1S65. 



APPENDIX. 261 

Peter Callahan; enlisted August 4, 1862; transferred to Company 
"B," 1 14th Regt. Penna. Vols. 

William D. Cobb; enlisted August 19, 1862; deserted October 30, 
1862. 

Andrew Culbertson ; age, 44; enlisted August 5, 1862; returned 
to the 114th Regt. Penna. Vols. 

Charles C. Clair; age, 21 ; enlisted August 5, 1862; honorably dis- 
charged March 14, 1863. 

*Louis Clapper; age, 18; enlisted August 8, 1862; promoted to 
corporal March i, 1865; promoted to color-sergeant March 24, 1865. 

*John Cummings ; age, 18; enlisted August 18, 1862. 

Philip Coleman ; age, 39 ; enlisted August 8, 1862 ; honorably dis- 
charged April T, 1863. 

Robert Culbert ; age, 18; enlisted August 18, 1862; wounded July 
I, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. ; honorably discharged May 5, 1865. 

* James Culbertson ; age, 23 ; enlisted August 23, 1862 ; promoted 
to corporal April 22, 1863; promoted to sergeant November i, 1864; 
promoted to first lieutenant December 22, 1864. 

* Joseph Crumbie ; age, 18 ; enlisted August 18, 1862 ; taken prisoner 
May 5, 1864, Wilderness, Va. 

Thomas M. Carr ; age, 21; enlisted August 18, 1862; promoted 
to corporal February 8, 1864; taken prisoner October i, 1864; died 
March 9, 1865. 

^William H. Davis; age, 19; enlisted August 13, 1862. 

*William C. Davis; age, 19; enlisted August 20, 1862; wounded 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; taken prisoner May 4, 
1863, at Wilderness, \^a. 

Elias Diffenbaugh ; age, 30; enlisted August 13, 1862; wounded 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; honorably discharged 
]\Iarch 25, 1863. 

John Dubois; age, 40: enlisted September i, 1862; promoted to 
corporal April 22, 1863 ; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Justice Dunbar ; age, 2j ; enlisted August 18, 1862 ; in hospital at 
muster-out. 

Nathan C. Dutton; age, 43; enlisted August 29, 1862; in hospital 
at muster-out ; discharged by general order June 24, 1865. 

William Edinger ; age, 22; enlisted August 28, 1862; discharged 
on writ of habeas corpus January 23, 1863. 

*Michael Fritz; age, 44; enlisted August 5. 1862. 

William Flanery ; age. 44; enlisted August 28, 1862; honorably 
discharged December t, 1862. 



* Mustered out with reg-iment June 2, 1S65. 



262 



APPENDIX. 



Irvin Given; age, 22; enlisted August 18, 1862; wounded July i, 
1863, at Gettysburg-, Pa.; deserted September 18, 1864. 

Robert Graham; age, 44; enlisted x^ugust 23, 1862; honorably 
discharged January 24, 1863. 

Arnold Gilhouse ; age, 39; enlisted August 9, 1862; wounded July 
I, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; wounded May 12, 1864; honorably dis- 
charged June 12, 1865. 

Francis Gibbon; enlisted August 14, 1862; deserted September 
5, 1862. 

Benjamin Gross; age, 19; enlisted August 19, 1862; wounded 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. 

Christopher Hagner; age, 29; enlisted August 8, 1862; sergeant, 
reduced to the ranks October 21, 1862; wounded September 4, 1863; 
transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps January 9, 1865. 

Henry B. Hart ; enlisted August 28, 1862 ; discharged June 29, 1865. 

Howard R. Johnson ; enlisted August 23, 1862 ; deserted September 
5, 1862. 

William Jones ; age, 28 ; enlisted x\ugust 20, 1862 ; transferred to 
Veteran Reserve Corps April 26, 1864. 

*David Lockard ; age. 32 ; enlisted August 18, 1862 ; promoted to 
sergeant September 23, 1863; promoted to first sergeant November i, 
1864; promoted to second lieutenant December 22, 1864. 

James Lyle ; age, 36; enlisted August 23, 1862; wounded June 10, 
1864; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps IMarch 4. 1865. 

'''James ]\TcDevitt; age, 38; enlisted August 28, 1862; wounded 
March 4. 1864, at Culpeper Court-house, Va. 

John Magner; age. 25; enlisted August 13, 1862; supposed killed 
May 4, 1863, at Chancellorsville, Va. 

Francis P. Maguire; age, 18; enlisted August 19, 1862; wounded 
July I, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. ; in hospital at muster-out. 

William Mahr; age, 34; enlisted x\ugust 24, 1862; honorably dis- 
charged January 7, 1863. 

Fred'k Miley ; enlisted August 18, 1862; deserted October 30, 1862. 

Thomas Mclntyre ; enlisted August t8, 1862 ; deserted July 12, 1863. 

*John J. R. Mortt; age, 28; enlisted August t8, 1862; promoted 
to corporal May 15, 1865. 

Charles B. Newman; age, 19; enlisted August 18. 1862; wounded 
and prisoner December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; died December 
21, 1862, at Richmond. Va. 

*Bartholomew O'Shea ; age. 33 ; enlisted August 8, 1862. 



* Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1S65. 



APPENDIX. 263 

Holland B. Parry; enlisted August 18, 1862; prisoner; died at 
Andersonville, Ga., January 2, 1865. 

*Samuel T. Plum; age, 33; enlisted August 28, 1862; wounded 
May 25, 1864. 

John Reynolds; enlisted August 18, 1862; deserted July 10, 1863. 

Gottleib Rennelly; enlisted August 22, 1862; deserted September 
S, 1862. 

John Ridgway; age, 40; enlisted August 15, 1862; killed May 
10, 1864. 

Charles E. Smith; age, 19; enlisted x\ugust 18, 1862; promoted 
to corporal February 8, 1863; promoted to sergeant February 10, 1864; 
taken prisoner July i, 1863, Gettysburg, Pa.; honorably discharged 
December 15, 1864. 

Robert B. Smith; age, 19; enlisted August 23, 1862; transferred 
to Veteran Reserve Corps October 21, 1864. 

Frederick Smith; age, 23; enlisted x^pril 14, 1864; transferred to 
Company "E," 191st Regt. Penna. Vols., June, 1865. 

*George Simmington ; age, 18; enlisted August 18, 1862; pro- 
moted to musician. 

Charles E. Silver; age, 18; enlisted August 18, 1862; killed De- 
cember 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. 

William H. Stong; age, 18; enlisted August 18, 1862; wounded 
May 10, 1864. at Laurel Hill, Va. ; died May 18, 1864. 

Stephen Shipps ; age, 30; enlisted August 18, 1862; wounded De- 
cember 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; honorably discharged Jan- 
uary 14, 1863. 

James Smith ; enlisted August 15, 1862 ; deserted September 5, 1862. 

Francis Skellinger; enlisted August 7, 1862; deserted October 
26, 1862. 

Charles Schartz ;• enlisted September i, 1862; deserted September 
5, 1862. 

Thomas Soden ; age, 22; enlisted August 20, 1862; killed July i, 
1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. 

^Ananias Taylor; age, 21; enlisted August 19, 1862; wounded 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; wounded July i, 1863, ^^ 
Gettysburg, Pa.; promoted to corporal May 15, 1865. 

John Vickeny; enlisted August 29, 1862; deserted September 5, 
1862. 

Joseph Wilkins ; age, 22; enlisted September i, 1862; killed July i., 
1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. 

Walton M. Wilson; age, 19; enlisted August 18, 1862; wounded 



* Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1865. 



264 APPENDIX. 

December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; honorably discharged Feb- 
ruary 17, 1863. 

Martin Wise; age, 44; enlisted August 18, 1862; honorably dis- 
charged February i, 1863. 

John A. Wetherill; age, 21 ; enlisted August 18, 1862; transferred 
to United States Navy Alarch, 1864. 

*William W. Wolff; age, 18; enlisted September 2, 1862; wounded 
May 5, 1864, at Wilderness, Va. ; taken prisoner October i, 1864, at 
Poplar Grove Church. 

*Charles F. Wright; age, 19; enlisted September 2, 1862; taken 
prisoner October i, 1864, at Poplar Grove Church. 

William Yardley; age, 18; enlisted August 23, 1862; died Novem- 
ber 9, 1863. 

*Isaac Yocum ; age, 20; enlisted August 18, 1862; wounded De- 
cember 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. 

John W. Yearsley; age, 24; enlisted August 18, 1862; honorably 
discharged June 5, 1865. 

COMPANY "D." 

Captain T. Elwood Zell ; age, 31; enlisted September 2, 1862; 
resigned IMarch 14, 1863 ; after restoration to health, after leaving the 
i2Tst Penna. Vols., he entered service again in command of a battalion 
of infantry, and after the expiration of this term of service was tendered 
the command of another regiment by the Secretary of War, Mr. 
Stanton. 

First Lieutenant Joseph G. Rosengarten ; age, 26 ; enlisted Sep- 
tember 2. 1862; appointed by General Reynolds in December, 1862, 
ordnance ofificer and A. A. D. C, serving in that capacity at Chancellors- 
ville and Gettysburg; promoted to captain and was honorably dis- 
charged September 16, 1863. 

^Second Lieutenant Charles E. Etting; age, 19; enlisted August 
4, 1862; promoted to captain March 15, 1863. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant Samuel P. Jones ; age, 30 ; enlisted August 18. 1862 ; 
wounded and prisoner December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, \'a. ; 
honorably discharged on surgeon's certificate December 3, 1863. 

Second Sergeant A\'illiam W. Horner; age, 25 ; enlisted August 18, 
1862 ; honorably discharged on surgeon's certificate September 14. 1863. 

Third Sergeant Robert F. Bates; age. 19; enlisted August 13, 
1862; promoted to first sergeant February 25, 1863; wountled julv i, 
• Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1S65. 




MAJOR-GENERAL JAMES S. WADSWORTH. 




'MAJOR-GENERAL JOHN NEWTON. 



APPENDIX. 265 

1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; promoted to second lieutenant March 15, 
1863; promoted to first lieutenant September 17, 1863; promoted to 
adjutant July 9, 1864; taken prisoner October i, 1864, Peeble's Farm, 
Va. After being mustered out was commissioned in the regular U. S. 
Army, in which he is still serving. 

Fourth Sergeant Erskine Hazard, Jr. ; age, 35 ; enlisted August 18, 
1862; promoted to color-sergeant; killed December 13, 1862, at Fred- 
ericksburg, Va. 

Fifth Sergeant Samuel C. Thomas; age, 21; enlisted August 19, 
1862; wounded December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; honorably 
discharged on surgeon's certificate May 12, 1863. 

CORPORALS. 

First Corporal Charles B. Duncan; age, 31; enlisted August 18, 
1862; wounded and prisoner December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, 
Va. ; promoted to first lieutenant Company "E," 203d Regt. Penna. 
Vols., September 9, .1864. 

Second Corporal Robert W. Dickson; age, 21; enlisted August 
II, 1862; honorably discharged by special order February 17, 1863. 

Third Corporal William B. Graham; age, 21 ; enlisted August 21, 
1862; promoted to color-sergeant; killed May 5, 1864, at Wilderness, 
Va. 

Fourth Corporal Jesper H. Holman ; age, 24; enlisted August 11, 
1862; promoted to second lieutenant Company "G," 112th Regt. Penna. 
Vols., 2d Penna. Artillery, December 12, 1862. 

*Fifth Corporal William T. McDanel ; age, 23 ; enlisted August 
13, 1862. 

*Sixth Corporal Thomas Duncan; age, 29; enlisted August 18, 
1862; promoted to sergeant April 28, 1865. 

Seventh Corporal John L. Trasel ; age, 32 ; enlisted August 23, 
1862; wounded July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; in hospital at muster- 
out. 

*Eighth Corporal John L. Harvey; age, 23; enlisted August 15, 
1862 ; promoted to first sergeant ; promoted to first lieutenant July 19, 
1864; taken prisoner October i, 1864, ^t Peeble's Farm, Va. 

MUSICIANS. 

*Henry Barger ; age, 18; enlisted .\ugust 22, 1862. 

*James H. Elliott; age, 22; enlisted August 23, 1862; taken 
prisoner May 5, 1864, at Wilderness, Va. ; promoted to principal 
musician September 7, 1864. 



* Mustered out with regriment June 2, 1S65. 



266 



APPENDIX. 



PRIVATES. 



George W. Alcorn ; enlisted August 30, 1862 ; deserted September 
5, 1862. 

Matthias Bctz ; age, 21; enlisted August 20, 1862; transferred to 
Veteran Reserve Corps March 15, 1864. 

*GottIeib Bender; age, 28; enlisted August 21, 1862. 

James Blee ; enlisted August 20, 1862; deserted September 5, 1862. 

August F. Claus ; enlisted August 13, 1862 ; deserted June 12, 1863. 

James Collins; enlisted September i, 1862; transferred to Com- 
pany "E," 191st Regt. Penna. Vols., June i, 1865. 

^Frederick Charles; age, 18; enlisted August 19, 1862; wounded 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; promoted to first sergeant. 

Patrick Doherty; enlisted August 18, 1862; deserted September 
26, 1862. 

Cornelius Dougherty; age, 19; enlisted August 20, 1862; killed 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Ya.. 

Charles Edwards; enlisted September i, 1862; deserted December 
16, 1862. 

B. Fenneberger ; enlisted August 30, 1862 ; discharged on surgeon's 
certificate March 18, 1863. 

William Ford; age, 35; enlisted August 30, 1862; honorably dis- 
charged on surgeon's certificate January 27, 1863. 

*John Galbraith; age, 18; enlisted September i, 1862; wounded 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. 

John Green; age, 21; enlisted September i, 1862; wounded May 
25, 1864, at North Anna River, Va. ; honorably discharged by general 
order May 26, 1865. 

*Jacob Guggenheim; age, 19; enlisted x\ugust 28, 1862. 

Patrick Gannon; enlisted August 14, 1862; deserted September 
9, 1862. 

Joseph Gunthner; enlisted August 20, 1862; deserted September 
5, 1862. 

James B. Graham; age, 18; enlisted December 21, 1863; promoted 
to color-sergeant June, 1864; promoted to second lieutenant Company 
"G," 2T4th Regt. Penna. Vols., April i, 1865. 

Alexander Hardy; age, 33; enlisted September 2, 1862; trans- 
ferred to A^eteran Reserve Corps March 13, 1865. 

Samuel TTorn; age, 40; enlisted August 14, 1862; honorably dis- 
charged on surgeon's certificate January 3, 1863. 

Timothy Haggerty; age. 21 ; enlisted August 30, 1862; transferred 
to Company "E," 191st Regt. Penna. Vols., June i, 1865. 

* Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1S65. 



APPENDIX. 



267 



^Samuel Huff; age, 19; enlisted August 20, 1862. 

Thomas B. Hillier; age, 27; enlisted August 21, 1862; honorably 
discharged on surgeon's certificate October 20, 1863. 

William Hudson; age, 27; enlisted August 21, 1862; promoted 
to sergeant; wounded February 6, 1865, at Hatcher's Run, Va. ; died 
February 22, 1865, at Baltimore, Md. 

Bernard Heiss; age, 36; enlisted August 23, 1862; discharged on 
surgeon's certificate May 19, 1863. 

Patrick Hassett ; enlisted August 23, 1862; deserted February ii, 
1863. 

Thomas B. Jefferson; enlisted August 23, 1862; deserted Septem- 
ber 5, 1862. 

*Mangus Jochman ; age, 40; enlisted August 20, 1862; wounded 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. 

Henry C. James;- age, 18; enlisted August 23, 1862; killed July i, 
1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. 

*Elan Kellenberger ; age, 18; enlisted August 19, 1862; wounded 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. 

John Kenny; age, 31; enlisted August 23, 1862; promoted to 
corporal; killed July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. 

Christian Kimmel; age, 23; enlisted August 21, 1862; honorably 
discharged on special order February 11, 1863. 

*John Kreiger; age, 32; enlisted August 23, 1862. 

Christian Kohler ; age, 27; enlisted August 29, 1862; in hospital 
at muster-out. 

Adolphus Kroppe; enlisted August 21, 1862; deserted October 8, 
1862. 

Cormick Logan; enlisted August 30, 1862; deserted September 
6, 1862. 

* Francis Lukens ; age, 23 ; enlisted August 29, 1862. 

James Lynch; age, 16; enlisted August 28, 1862; wounded July i, 
1863, at Gettysburg. Pa. ; discharged on surgeon's certificate July 29, 

1863. 

John Lamb; age, 44; enlisted August 23, 1862; honorably dis- 
charged on surgeon's certificate February 19, 1863. 

John Metzger; age, 18; enlisted August 19, 1862; taken prisoner 
October i, 1864, at Peeble's Farm, Va. ; discharged by general order 
June 30, 1865. 

*Arthur Monighan; age, 26; enlisted August 20, 1862; wounded 
Mav 23, 1864, at North Anna River, Va. ; promoted to corporal Feb- 
ruary TO, 1864; to sergeant May 15, 1864. 



* Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1S65. 



268 



APPENDIX. 



John G. Alahn; enlisted August 13, 1862; deserted September i, 
1862. 

Joseph ]\Ieir ; enhsted August 23, 1862 ; deserted September 4, 1862. 

Henry T. McGrath; enhsted August 13, 1862; deserted September 
5, 1862. 

Charles McGinley; enlisted August 20, 1862; deserted September 
5, 1862. 

William M. McCollough ; enlisted August 2t„ 1862; deserted Sep- 
tember I, 1862. 

Frank Miller; age, 21; enlisted August 20, 1862; honorably dis- 
charged on surgeon's certificate February 18, 1863. 

*Henry Miles; age, 21 ; enlisted September i, 1862. 

Patrick McNamee; age, 35; enUsted September i, 1862; killed 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. 

Charles W. Perkins; age, 21 ; enlisted August 15, 1862; promoted 
to corporal; taken prisoner July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; died Sep- 
tember 18, 1863, at Philadelphia, Pa. 

Charles Pettinger; age, 39; enlisted August 15, 1862; wounded 
and prisoner December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; wounded 
June 18, 1864, at Petersburg, Va. ; in hospital at muster-out. 

Henry S. Ruth; age, 31 ; enlisted August 16, 1862; in hospital at 
muster-out. 

Charles Ragleman ; age, 22; enlisted August 20, 1862; wounded 
February 5, 1865, at Dabney's Mills, Va. ; died April 29, 1865, at Balti- 
more, Md. ; buried in National Cemetery, Louden Park. 

Frederick Rindfrey; age, 32; enlisted August 22, 1862; honorably 
discharged by special order March 12, 1863. 

Henry T. Ranch ; enlisted August 20, 1862 ; deserted June 12, 1863. 

Jacob Schorker ; enlisted August 23, 1862; deserted September 5, 
1862. • 

John Slemons ; enlisted September 2, 1862; deserted September 5, 
1862. 

Robert Scidmore ; age, 25; enlisted August 14, 1862; wounded 
and prisoner July i, 1863, at Gettysburg. Pa.; died October 5. 1863, at 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Alexander B. Stewart ; age, 22 ; enlisted August 18, 1862 ; wounded 
May 4, 1864, at Wilderness, A'a. ; honorably discharged. 

Aaron Shallow; age, 36; enlisted August 23, 1862; wounded May 
10, 1864, at Spottsylvania Court-house. Va. ; died May 24, 1864, at 
Washington, D. C. ; buried in \ational Cemetery, Arlington, Va. 



* Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1865. 



APPENDIX. 269 

William F. Smith; age, 24; enlisted August 23, 1862; missing 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. 

Martin Schloss; age, 26; enlisted August 20, 1862; honorably 
discharged on surgeon's certificate December 22,, 1862. 

Charles Schultze; age, 44; enlisted August 22, 1862; honorably 
discharged by special order September 24, 1862. 

William H. Taylor; age, 18; enlisted August 13, 1862; transferred 
to Veteran Reserve Corps February 18, 1864. 

Charles Thomas; age, 26; enlisted August 23, 1862; wounded 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; honorably discharged on 
surgeon's certificate August 12, 1863. 

Thomas Thornley; age, 35; enlisted August 18, 1862; transferred 
to Veteran Corps February 16, 1864. 

Benjamin H. Wisler; age, 23; enlisted August 15, 1862; wounded 
July I, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; promoted to corporal; transferred to 
Veteran Reserve Corps March 15, 1864. 

Charles P. Wittmyer ; age, 22 ; enlisted August 28, 1862 ; honorably 
discharged on surgeon's certificate January 10, 1863. 

William Ziegler; age, 18; enlisted August 19, 1862; honorably 
discharged on surgeon's certificate March i, 1863. 

Martin Ziegler ; enlisted August 30, 1862 ; deserted October 8, 1862. 

COMPANY "E." 

Captain Samuel T. Lloyd; enlisted September 2, 1862; wounded 
at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862; promoted to lieutenant- 
colonel May 28, 1864; discharged as captain July 14, 1864. 

First Lieutenant Charles F. Robertson; enlisted September 2, 1862; 
wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862 ; honorably dis- 
charged for disability August 10, 1863. 

Second Lieutenant Geo. W. Plumer; enlisted September 2, 1862; 
promoted to first lieutenant August 11, 1863; honorably discharged for 
disability January 16, 1864. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant William Strong; age, 45; enlisted August 18, 1862; 
died within the rebel lines December 14, 1862, of wounds received at 
Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862. 

Second Sergeant Samuel C. Miller; age, 18; enlisted August 15, 
1862; killed at Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863. 

Third Sergeant John W. Chittick ; age, 27; enlisted August 18, 
1862; wounded at Bethesda Church June 3, 1864; promoted to first 



2/0 APPENDIX. 

lieutenant January 17, 1864; to captain June 11, 1864; honorably dis- 
charged January i, 1865, for disability. 

Fourth Sergeant Frank H. Evans; age, 20; enlisted August 15, 
1862; severely wounded through neck and taken prisoner at Gettys- 
burg, Pa., July I, 1863; discharged October 13, 1863, to receive com- 
mission in the United States Regular Service. 

Fifth Sergeant William G. Meigs; age, 19; enlisted September i, 
1862; discharged for disability May, 1863. 

CORPORALS. 

First Corporal John H. Flopkins ; age, 36; enlisted August 16, 
1862; discharged for disability January 7, 1863. 

*Second Corporal William W. Strong; age, 21; enlisted August 

19, 1862; taken prisoner at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862; 
promoted to sergeant September 23, 1863, 3-^d to first lieutenant June 
II, 1864; taken prisoner at Poplar Grove Church, Va., October i, 1864, 
remaining in captivity until February, 1865 ; promoted to captain Jan- 
uary I, 1865. 

Third Corporal Jacob Clay; age, 30; enlisted August 13, 1862; 
promoted to sergeant ; wounded at Dabney's Mills, Va., February 6, 
1865, and discharged for disability May 16, 1865. 

"^'Fourth Corporal Richard A. Dempsey; age, 25; enlisted August 
23, 1862; promoted to sergeant December 13, 1863; to first sergeant 
September 6, 1864; taken prisoner at Poplar Grove Church, Va., Octo- 
ber I, 1864; escaped from captivity January 25, 1865; promoted to 
first lieutenant January i, 1865. 

Fifth Corporal William C. Ryall ; age, 23; enlisted August 21, 
1862; died February 18, 1863, of wounds received at Fredericksburg, 
Va., December 13, 1862. 

Sixth Corporal Reuben McConnell ; age, 27 ; enlisted August 30, 
1862 ; killed at Spottsylvania Court-house, Va., May 13, 1864. 

Seventh Corporal Edward F. Tindall ; age, 20 ; enlisted August 

20, 1862; deserted December 14, 1862. 

PRIVATES. 

*]Vratthew Adams; age, 18; enlisted September i, 1862; promoted 
to corporal. 

James Adams; age, 19; enlisted August 16, 1862; wounded at 
Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps 
September 2, 1864. 



* Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1S65. 



APPENDIX. 271 

Charles Aikens ; age, 23 ; enlisted August 14, 1862 ; deserted August 
15, T862. 

*John Anderson; age, 27; enlisted August 23, 1862. 

William Andrews; age, 44; enlisted August 15, 1862; transferred 
to Veteran Reserve Corps June, 1864. 

John Baker; age, 23; enlisted September i, 1862; prisoner at 
Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862; left parole camp at Annapolis, 
Md., and never returned to company. 

*Jacob Benedick; age, 31 ; enlisted August 30, 1862; promoted to 
corporal and sergeant; wounded at Petersburg, Va., June 18, 1864. 

'•'Francis Black; age, 26; enlisted August 22, 1862. 

George Blackburn ; age, 43 ; enlisted August 20, 1862 ; killed at 
Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863. 

*Samuel S. Brutsche; age, 24; enlisted August 19, 1862. 

James Clarey ; age, 30 ; enlisted August 20, 1862 ; prisoner at 
Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863 ; deserted July 8, 1863. 

Edward T. Collins; age, 21; enlisted August 23, 1862; deserted 
September 4, 1862. 

John Costello; age, 23; enlisted August 18, 1862; discharged for 
disability October 8, 1862. 

*William K. Curtis; age, 19; enlisted August 23, 1862; wounded 
at Laurel Hill, Va., May 11, 1864, and wounded at Dabney's Mills 
February 6, 1865. 

*Merrick Davidson; age, 19; enlisted August 23, 1862; promoted 
to corporal April, 1864. 

Peter Denver; age, 23; enlisted August 16, 1862; died January 
13, 1863, of wounds received at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 
1862. 

Frank Dougherty; age, 20; enlisted August 13, 1862; killed at 
Dabney's Mills, Va., February 6, 1865. 

James Doyle ; enlisted August 23, 1862 ; deserted September i, 1862. 

John F. Dugan ; age, 32; enlisted August 19, 1862; discharged for 
disability February 18, 1864. 

*Adam Duncan ; age, 25 ; enlisted August 23, 1862. 

John Fae ; age, 25; enlisted August 20, 1862; deserted August 
21, 1862. 

H. Fenstimacher ; age, 35; enlisted September i, 1862; deserted 
September 4, 1862. 

*Oscar Fisher ; age, 30 ; enlisted August 23, 1862. 

John Fitzgerald ; age, 25 ; enlisted August 23, 1862 ; wounded at 



* Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1865. 



'2.'J2 APPENDIX. 

Gettysburg, J'a., July i, 1863; discharged for disability February 16, 
1865. 

Thomas Foley; age, 22; enlisted August 18, 1862; promoted to 
corporal; wounded at Laurel Hill, Va., May 8, 1864; discharged for 
disability December 31, 1864. 

Charles hord ; age, 23; enlisted September i, 1862; deserted Octo- 
ber 9, 1862. 

John H. Ford; age, 18; enlisted August 18, 1862; transferred to 
Veteran Reserve Corps December, 1863. 

Stephen W. Frost; age, 18; enlisted August 14, 1862; died of 
pneumonia May 15, 1864. 

Henry Gouldy; age, 19; enlisted August 13, 1862; promoted to 
corporal; prisoner at Poplar Grove Church October i, 1864, and died 
while in captivity at Salisbury, N. C, January, 1865. 

jNIalcolm Graham; age, 43; enlisted August 18, 1862; killed at 
Fredericksburg December 13, 1862. 

Robert G. Green; age, 23; enlisted August 23, 1862; discharged 
for disability September, 1863. 

Charles H. Hallock; age, 29; enlisted August 23, 1862; deserted 
October 9, 1862. 

Michael Hays; age, 32; enlisted August 18, 1862; wounded at 
Laurel Hill May 8, 1864; discharged for disability December 2, 1864. 

John Haywood; age, 42; enlisted September 2, 1862; deserted 
September 3, 1862. 

John Hendricks; age, 18; enlisted August 29, 1862; deserted No- 
vember 29, 1862. 

James Higgins ; age, 29; enlisted August 22, 1862; transferred to 
United States Navy April 19, 1864. 

♦Stephen T. Hight; age, 20; enlisted August 28, 1862; wounded 
and taken prisoner at Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863. 

James G. Johnson; age, 19; enlisted August 20, 1862; transferred 
to Veteran Reserve Corps December, 1863. 

Jessie Kirk; age, 17; enlisted August 17, 1862; deserted November 
29, 1862. 

Richard Kyle; age, 30; enlisted August 13, 1862; deserted October 
I, 1862. 

Isaac Landis; age, 39; enlisted August 13, 1862; deserted October 
I, 1862. 

William Landis; age, 34; enlisted August 13, 1862; deserted Octo- 
ber I, 1862. 



♦ Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1S65. 




CAPTAIN JAMES H. WATSON. 



APPENDIX. 273 

Henry Lees; age, 24; enlisted September i, 1862; died January 
10, 1863, at White Oak Church, Va. 

Richard Lehenthaler; age, 18; enlisted August 23, 1862; promoted 
to corporal ; wounded at Jericho Ford May 25, 1864 ; prisoner at Poplar 
Grove Church October i, 1864, and died while in captivity at Salisbury, 
N. C, January, 1865. 

Thomas Long; age, 34; enlisted September i, 1862; missing since 
May 5, 1864. 

^Thomas Mackey; age, 18; enlisted August 18, 1862; wounded 
at Gettysburg July i, 1863. 

Charles Malcolm; age, 26; enlisted August 11, 1862; deserted Sep- 
tember 21, 1862. 

]\Iichael Mannin ; age, 26; enlisted August 30, 1862; deserted Sep- 
tember 3, 1862. 

James R. McClintock ; age, 26; enlisted August 23, 1862; dis- 
charged for disability July, 1863. 

William McDermon; age, 21 ; enlisted August 16, 1862; killed at 
Gettysburg July i, 1863. 

Charles McAIenamin ; age, 26; enlisted August 11, 1862; deserted 
December 8, 1862. 

*George W. Miley; age, 21 ; enlisted August 22, 1862. 
Christopher Montgomery ; age, 42 ; enlisted August 18, 1862 ; trans- 
ferred to Veteran Reserve Corps May 20, 1864. 

Frank Moore ; age, 32 ; enlisted August 23, 1862 ; deserted Septem- 
ber 6, 1862. 

AVilliam Xaylor ; age, 19; enlisted August 23, 1862; discharged 
for disability July, 1862. 

*John L. Ott; age, 21 ; enlisted August 16, 1862. 
^William Pendleton; age, 24; enlisted August 18, 1862; wounded 
and taken prisoner at Gettysburg July i, 1863. 

Albert Prest ; age, 18; enlisted August 18, 1862; transferred to 
17th Penna. Cavalry June 17, 1863. 

Charles Rogers; age, 25; enlisted August 22, 1862; deserted 
August 23, 1862. 

*Abram Sahm ; age, 23; enlisted August 23, 1862; prisoner at 
Poplar Grove Church October i, 1864. 

Elias Schaffer; age, 22; enlisted August 23, 1862; transferred to 
Veteran Reserve Corps May 3, 1864. 

John Shaffer, Jr., age, 29 ; enlisted August 23, 1862 ; died December 
20, 1862, of wounds received at Fredericksburg December 13, 1862. ^ 
*William Sinclair; age, 18; enlisted August 20, 1862; prisoner at 



* Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1865. 



274 APPENDIX. 

Gettysburg- July i, 1863; prisoner at Poplar Grove Church October i, 
1864, and remained in captivity until February 27, 1865. 

*Alonzo Smith; age, 17; enlisted August 23, 1862. 

Jacob Smith ; age, 40; enlisted August 30, 1862 ; wounded at Laurel 
Hill May 8, 1864; discharged for disability May 15, 1865. 

John B. Smith ; age, 20; enlisted August 22, 1862 ; deserted Decem- 
ber 14, 1862. 

'''John Stevenson; age, 22; enlisted August 23, 1862; promoted to 
corporal and sergeant ; wounded at Jericho Ford May 25, 1864. 

Edward J. Sweeney ; age, 22 ; enlisted August 19, 1862 ; transferred 
to Veteran Reserve Corps August, 1863. 

Washington Tarr; age, 26; enlisted August 23, 1862; died with 
fever at White Oak Church, Va., June, 1863. 

*John W. Terrill ; age, 29; enlisted August 23, 1862; wounded at 
Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862. 

Charles IT. Thompson; age, 31 ; enlisted August 15, 1862; deserted 
August 15, 1862. 

*John S. A'erner; age, 29; enlisted September i, 1862; wounded 
at Laurel Hill May 10, 1864. 

Charles H. Walker; age, 27; enlisted August 27, 1862; deserted 
December 5, 1863. 

Hugh Wauls; age, 18; enlisted August 22, 1862; prisoner at raid 
on Weldon Railroad; died in hospital in Germantown ]\Iay 30, 1865. 

*Daniel H. Weikel ; age, 23; enlisted August 23, 1862; promoted 
to corporal December 14, 1862, and sergeant February 10, 1864 j 
prisoner at Poplar Grove Church October i, 1864; in captivity until 
February 27, 1865. 

*Albanius Wenzel ; age, 21 ; enlisted August 15, 1862. 

Augustus Wenzel; age, 19; enlisted August 15, 1862; wounded 
at Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863; died September 28, 1864. 

Alfred West; age, 32; enlisted August 13, 1862; promoted to 
corporal; deserted October i, 1862. 

COAIPANY "F." 

Captain John ]\L Clapp ; age, 27; enlisted September 3, 1862; sun- 
stroke while on march from Bealeton, Va., to Manassas Junction, Va., 
June 14, 1863; honorably discharged at Rappahannock, Va., August 7, 
1863, on surgeon's certificate of disability. 

First Lieutenant Joseph K. Byers ; age, 23 ; enlisted September 3, 
1862; wounded with loss of right arm and taken prisoner at Fredericks- 
burg, Va., December 13, 1862; honorably discharged October 14, 1863, 
• Mustered out with re^ment June 2, 1865. 



APPENDIX. 275 

and appointed first lieutenant in 15th Regiment Veteran Reserve Corps 
October 5, 1863; was regimental and post adjutant at Camp Douglas, 
Chicago, 111., 1864 and 1865, and quartermaster I5tli Regiment Veteran 
Reserve Corps at Chicago, 111., and Springfield, 111. ; brevet captain U. S. 
Volunteers July 12, 1866; first lieutenant 426. Regiment U. S. Infantry 
March 7, 1867; brevet captain U. S. A. March 7, 1867; brevet major 
U. S. A. March 7, 1867; placed on retired list of U. S. A. as first lieu- 
tenant December 15, 1870; died of consumption at St. Louis, Mo., 
November 30, 1878. 

Second Lieutenant Charles H. Raymond; age, 30; enlisted Sep- 
tember 3, 1862; wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862; 
honorably discharged at Philadelphia, Pa., July 23, 1863, on surgeon's 
certificate of disability. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant Nathaniel Lang; age, 27; enlisted August 29, 1862; 
second lieutenant July 24, 1863; captain October 16, 1863; honorably 
discharged from January 20, 1865. 

^■^Second Sergeant Daniel B. Levier ; age, 23 ; enlisted August 29, 
1862; first sergeant ]\Iay 20, 1863; first lieutenant October 16, 1863; 
captain January 21, 1865. 

Third Sergeant Solomon Rugh ; age, 22 ; enlisted August 29, 1862; 
sent to hospital at Wind Mill Point, Va., January 18, 1863; discharged 
at Finley Hospital, Washington, D. C, May 25, 1863. 

^Fourth Sergeant Ouimby C. Hays; age, 21 ; enlisted August 29, 
1862; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863; died near Franklin, 
Pa., April 30, 1884. 

Fifth Sergeant Nathaniel L. Kahl ; age, 26; enlisted August 29, 
1862; sent to hospital at Wind Mill Point, Va., January, 1863; trans- 
ferred to Veteran Reserve Corps April 6, 1864; discharged at Pitts- 
burgh, Pa.. July 3, 1865 ; died at Elk Township, Clarion Co., Pa., 
March 23, 1885. 

CORPORALS. 

=^First Corporal James J. Douglass ; age, 28 ; enlisted August 29, 
1862 ; sergeant December i, 1863 ; detailed with sharpshooters' battalion 
August I, 1864, and remained there until mustered out with regiment. 

Second Corporal Thomas Service; age, 22; enlisted August 29, 
1862; sergeant February 10, 1864; killed near Laurel Hill, A'a., May 
10, 1864. 

Third Corporal Blair C. Hood ; age, 23 ; enlisted August 29 ; sent 

* Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1S6.5. 



276 APPENDIX. 

to hospital at Wind Mill Point, Va., April 27, 1863; died of typhoid 
fever at Wind Mill Point (Va.) Mospital April 30, 1863. 

Fourth Corporal Jacob Shawkey; age, 23; enlisted August 29, 
1862; killed at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862. 

Fifth Corporal Joseph Weaver; age, 21 ; enlisted August 29, 1862; 
deserted October 26, 1862. 

Sixth Corporal John Phipps ; age, 23; enlisted August 29, 1862; 
died at Washington, D. C, January 15, 1863, of wounds received at 
Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862. 

Seventh Corporal Jeremiah Johnson, Jr.; age, 29; enlisted August 
29, 1862; died at Washington, D. C, January 15, 1863, of wounds 
received at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862. 

Eighth Corporal John W. H. Smiley ; age, 28 ; enlisted August 29, 
1862 ; sent to hospital from Brooks Station, Va., December 8, 1862 ; 
transferred to T4th Company, 2d P)attalion, Veteran Reserve Corps, in 
1863 ; discharged at Washington, D. C, June 30, 1865. 

MUSICIANS. 

Alvy C. Amon ; age, 19; enlisted August 29, 1862; discharged at 
Frederick City, Md., October 4, 1862. 

*Elias Harmon; age, 35; enlisted August 29, 1862; died of apo- 
plexy at Elkhart. Ind., IMarch 24, 1882. 

PRIVATES. 

'^'John W. Adams; age, 31 ; enlisted August 29, 1862; taken pris- 
oner at the battle of the Wilderness, Va., May 5, 1864, and returned to 
the regiment May — , 1865. 

Solomon Albaugh ; age, 24; enlisted August 30. 1862; sent to 
hospital at Frederick, ]\Id., October 8, 1862; discharged at Convalescent 
Camp, near Alexandria, Va., May 4, 1863 ! killed at Tidioute August 27, 
1892, by the falling of a bank of earth while digging a sewer. 

Henry B. Anderson; age, 18; enlisted August 29, 1862; wounded 
at North Anna River, Va., May 25, 1864; discharged at Readville, 
Mass., July 8, 1865. 

'•'William S. Anderson ; age, 20 ; enlisted August 29. 1862 ; wounded 
at Hatcher's Run, Va., October 2.^, 1864. 

Dallas Bailey; age, 18; enHsted August 30, 1862; died of typhoid 
fever at Stanton Hospital, Washington, D. C, December 15, 1862. 

James R. Bell; age, 19; enlisted August 29, 1862; killed at Gettys- 
burg, Pa., July I, 1863. 



• Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1865. 



APPENDIX. 277 

John B. Bell; age, 20; enlisted August 29, 1862; discharged at 
camp near Belle P^lains, Va., March 21, 1863. 

William Bell ; age, 18 ; enlisted August 29, 1862 ; wounded at Get- 
tysburg, Pa., July I, 1863 ; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps March 
16, 1864; discharged July 10, 1865. 

Daniel Bly, Jr.; age, 18; enlisted August 29, 1862; wounded at 
Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863; taken prisoner at Peeble's Farm, Va., 
October t, 1864; died at Salisbury Prison, N. C., December 2, 1864. 

Samuel T. Borland; age, 21; enlisted August 29, 1862; corporal 
December 14, 1862; on recruiting service from March 25, 1864, to Sep- 
tember 10, 1864; sergeant October i, 1864; wounded at Boydton Plank 
Road, Va., A'larch 31, 1865; discharged at Philadelphia, Pa., June 24, 
1865. 

Henry Borts ; age, 31 ; enlisted August 29, 1862; sent to hospital 
May 3, 1864; discharged at Philadelphia, Pa., May 15, 1865; killed 
by the falling of a bank on Allegheny Valley Railroad near Foxburg, 
Pa., November i, 1868. 

*Abram Carbaugh ; age, 27 ; enlisted August 29, 1862 ; died of con- 
sumption at Payne's Mills, Forest Co., Pa., August 19, 1877. 

James A. Clark ; age, 24 ; enlisted August 29, 1862 ; taken prisoner 
at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862, and was released and 
returned to regiment in August, 1863; wounded by a piece of a shell 
near Laurel Hill, Va., May 10, 1864; transferred to Veteran Reserve 
Corps August 3, 1864; discharged at Elmira, N. Y., July 14, 1865. 
*George W. Confer; age, 18; enlisted August 29, 1862. 
David Cribbs ; age, 35 ; enlisted August 29, 1862 ; died in Libby 
Prison, Richmond, \^a., December 23, 1862, of wounds received at Fred- 
ericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862. 

John S. Culbertson ; age, 20; enlisted August 29, 1862; wounded 
at Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps 
January 15, 1864; discharged August 17, 1865. 

Hiram M. Dale; age, 20; enlisted August 29, 1862; wounded at 
Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps 
February 15, 1864; discharged at Convalescent Camp near Alexandria, 
Va., April 3, 1864. 

*James Davison; age, 24; enlisted August 29, 1862; first sergeant 
August I, 1864; first lieutenant January 21, 1865. 

Samuel J. Dodd ; age, 25; enlisted August 29, 1862; wounded at 
Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862; absent — sick at muster-out of 
regiment; died at Richland Township, Venango Co., Pa., September 
5, 1885. 



* Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1865, , J, 



278 APPENDIX. 

George Douglass; age, 23; enlisted August 29, 1862; wounded, 
with loss of eye, at Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863; discharged at Phila- 
delphia, Pa., September 11, 1863. 

^William Douglass; age, 18; enlisted August 29, 1862; wounded 
at Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863; wounded at Wilderness, Va., May 5, 
1864; wounded near Petersburg, Va., August 19, 1864. 

Edward M. Dowling; age, 19; enlisted August 29, 1862; wounded 
at Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863 5 discharged at Philadelphia, Pa., March 
5, 1864; died of wounds (received July i, 1863,) at Richland Township, 
Venango Co., Pa., March 21, 1864. 

*Jacob G. Downing; age, 20; enlisted August 29, 1862; detailed 
with sharpshooters' battalion August i, 1864, and remained there until 
mustered out with the regiment. 

John Elliott; age, 18; enlisted August 29, 1862; corporal Feb- 
ruary 10, 1864; sergeant March 25, 1864; wounded near Petersburg, 
Va., August 19, 1864; discharged at Alexandria, Va., June 5, 1865. 

*Samuel W. Farmer; age, 40; enlisted August 29, 1862. 

David W. Farmer; age, 19; enlisted August 29, 1862; sent to 
hospital from Berlin, Md., October 30, 1862 ; discharged at Carver 
Hospital, Washington, D. C, December 15, 1862; died of consumption 
at Elkhart, Ind., March 22, 1878. 

Ernest E. Fichte; age, 29; enlisted August 29, 1862; sent to hos- 
pital August 20, 1863; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps in 1864; 
discharged at Philadelphia, Pa., May 13, 1865. 

*FIenry Frain ; age, 18 ; enlisted August 29, 1862. 

* Isaac W. Fry; age, 18; enlisted August 29, 1862; taken prisoner 
at Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863 5 ^^as a prisoner about one month. 

*Augustus J. Glass; age, 28; enlisted August 29, 1862; wounded 
at Chancellorsville, Va., May 5, 1863, but remained with the regiment; 
corporal May 25, 1864; detailed with sharpshooters' battalion August i, 
1864, and remained there until mustered out with the regiment. 

*Frederick Glass; age, 21 ; enlisted August 29, 1862. 

Adam Harmon ; age, 25 ; enlisted August 29, 1862 ; wounded at 
Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., 
July I, 1863; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps May i, 1864; date 
of discharge unknown. 

William H. Hawn; age, 19; enlisted February 15, 1864; trans- 
ferred to Company "G," 191st Regt. Penna. Vols., about June i, 1865; 
discharged at Harrisburg, Pa., July 4, 1865. 

Samuel M. Hays; age, 18; enlisted August 29, 1862; sent to Wind 



* Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1865. 



APPENDIX. 279 

IMill Point Hospital April 20, 1863 ; died of typhoid fever at Armory 
Square Hospital, Washington, D. C, April 27, 1863. 

William P. Hayes; age, 17; enlisted February 9, 1864; wounded 
near Petersburg, Va., June 19, 1864; transferred to Veteran Reserve 
Corps March 19, 1865 ; discharged at Annapolis, Md., July 27, 1865 ; 
died at New Lebanon, Mercer Co., Pa., July 11, 1882. 

Abram Heckathorn; age, 27; enlisted August 29, 1862; wounded 
at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862; died in field hospital at 
City Point, Va., February 9, 1865, of wounds received at Dabney's 
Mills, Va., February 6, 1865. 

Charles Heckathorn ; age, 29; enlisted August 29, 1862; in hospital 
from May 4, 1864; absent from regiment at time of muster-out, and 
afterward discharged. 

James H. Heckathorn; age, 21 ; enlisted August 29, 1862; sent to 
hospital at Berlin, Md., October 30, 1862 ; discharged at Fifth Street 
Hospital. Philadelphia, Pa., January 12, 1863; died at Edenburg, Pa., 
May 5, 1876. 

^ *William A. Hopkins ; age, 20; enlisted August 29, 1862 ; wounded 
at Gettysburg July i, 1863; died of consumption at Pine Grove Town- 
ship, Venango Co., Pa., August 4, 1890. 

*FIenry Karns ; age, 19; enlisted August 29, 1862; wounded and 
taken prisoner at Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863; prisoner about three 
months. 

James Karns, Jr. ; age, 27 ; enlisted August 29, 1862 ; corporal Feb- 
ruary 10, 1864; killed near Laurel Hill, Va., May 10, 1864. 

Jacob M. Keefer ; age, 19; enlisted August 29, 1862 ; discharged at 
Finlev Hospital, Washington, D. C, March 6, 1863 ; re-enlisted in Com- 
pany "G," 155th Penna. Vols., February 25, 1864; transferred to Com- 
pany "C," 191st Penna. Vols., June 2, 1865 ; mustered out June 28, 1865. 
*Henry Keely ; age, 36; enlisted August 29, 1862; detailed with 
sharpshooters' battalion August i, 1864, and remained there until mus- 
tered out with regiment. 

William Kennedy; age, 34; enhsted August 29, 1862; died in field 
hospital near Fredericksburg, Va., December 21, 1862, of wounds 
received at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862. 

Amos C. King; age, 21 ; enlisted August 29, 1862; discharged at 
camp near Belle Plains, Va., April i, 1863. 

*Alfred Koch; age, 20; enlisted August 29, 1862; corporal May 
25, 1864; detailed with sharpshooters' iDattalion August i, 1864, and 
remained there until mustered out with the regiment. 

*Cvrus R. Levier; age, 18; enHsted August 29, 1862; detached 



* Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1865. 



28o 



APPENDIX. 



duty at City Point, Va., August 4, 1864; remained there until after 
Lee's surrender, 

*Solomon McBride; age, 22; enlisted August 29, 1862; died of 
inflammatory rheumatism at Canal Township, Venango Co., Pa., 
March 25, 1870. 

*Thomas H. B. McPherson ; age, 19; enlisted August 19, 1862; 
wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862; wounded and 
taken i:)risoner at Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863; detailed with sharp- 
shooters' battalion August i, 1864, and remained there until mustered 
out with regiment ; died at Bradford, Pa., February 13, 1879, of injuries 
received from a boiler explosion at Sawyer City, Pa. 

'^' Peter W. jMohney ; age, 22; enlisted August 29, 1862. 

Daniel Aloran ; enlisted February 24, 1864; sick in hospital from 
August 12, 1864; transferred to , organization and date unknown. 

John Myers; age, 20; enlisted August 29, 1862; killed at Dabney's 
Mills, Va., February 6, 1865. 

William Nellis; age, 18; enlisted August 29, 1862; killed near 
Petersburg, Va., June 23, 1864. 

Charles Nunemacher; age, 20; enlisted August 29, 1862; wounded 
at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862; corporal May 25, 1864; 
taken prisoner at Peeble's Farm, Va., October i, 1864; released Feb- 
ruary 28, 1865, ^t Wilmington, N. C, and returned to the regiment;, 
discharged at Annapolis, Md., June 28, 1865. 

Daniel Persing; age, 36; enlisted August 29, 1862; wounded at 
Fredericksburg, \^a., December 13, 1862; discharged at Washington, 
D. C. April 27, 1863, 

James R. Ray ; age, 24 ; enlisted August 29, 1862 ; discharged at 
Frederick City, Md., October 4, 1862 ; re-enlisted in Company "B," 
184th Penna. Vols., and was mustered into service May 12, 1864; taken 
prisoner and died at Andersonville, Ga., August i, 1864. 

John W. Ray; age, 22; enlisted August 29, 1862; sick in hospital 
from June 10, 1864; absent from hospital on furlough and died at 
French Creek Township, Venango Co., Pa., December 26, 1864. 

'^Robert Reece ; age, 25 ; enlisted August 29, 1862. 

Branson D. Robison; age, 26; enlisted August 29, 1862; sent to 
hospital at Berlin, Md., October 30, 1862; discharged at Providence, 
R. I., March 16, 1863. 

John Sager, Jr.; age, 22; enlisted August 29, 1862; wounded at 
Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862; taken prisoner at Peeble's 
Farm, Va., October i, 1864; released at Wilmington, N. C, February 



* Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1S65. 




SERGEANT ALEXANDER m'dOWELL. 



appejStdix. 281 

28, 1865, and returned to the regiment; discharged at Annapolis, Md., 
June 29, 1865. 

John Saulsgiver ; age, 30 ; enlisted August 29, 1862 ; died of typhoid 
fever in camp near Belle Plains, Va., April 7, 1863. 

Alfred Say; age, 17; enlisted August 29, 1862; wounded at Fred- 
ericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 
I, 1863; discharged at Pittsburg, Pa., March 4, 1865; died at Salem 
Township, Clarion Co., Pa., April 26, 1887. 

Leslie L. Say ; age, 25 ; enlisted August 29, 1862 ; killed at Fred- 
ericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862. 

George A. Showers; age, 23; enlisted August 29, 1862; deserted 
October 16, 1862. 

Obadiah Simpson; age, 24; enlisted August 29, 1862; wounded at 
Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863; wounded near Petersburg, Va., June 20, 
1864; died in field hospital. City Point, Va., February 14, 1865, of 
wounds received at Dabney's Mills, Va., February 6, 1865. 

William H. Slonaker; age, 18; enlisted February 9, 1864; sick in 
hospital from December 2, 1864; discharged at Washington, D. C, June 
5, 1865. 

Samuel Stewart; age, 24; enlisted August 29, 1862; wounded at 
Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862; wounded at Wilderness, Va., 
May 5, 1864; sick in hospital at time of muster-out of regiment; date 
of discharge unknown. 

*John H. Stoke; age, 18; enlisted August 29, 1862. 

John Stone, Jr.; age, 31; enlisted August 29, 1862; wounded at 
Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862; discharged at Annapolis, Md., 
August 28, 1863. 

Reuben Swab; age, 2)Z\ enlisted August 29, 1862; killed at Fred- 
ericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862. 

Simon P. Swab ; age, 22 ; enlisted August 29, 1862 ; died at Gettys- 
burg, Pa., July 7, 1863, of wounds received at Gettysburg, Pa., July 
I, 1863. 

Daniel Swaney; age, 17; enlisted August 29, 1862; wounded, with 
loss of right arm, at Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863; discharged at York, 
Pa., November 26, 1863. 

Chester W. Tallman ; age, 22; enlisted August 29, 1862; killed at 
Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863. 

John F. Tucker; age, 21; enlisted August 29, 1862; died of 
typhoid fever in camp near Belle Plains, Va., February 22, 1863. 

Wesley G. Tucker; age, 19; enlisted August. 30, 1862; died of 
gastric fever in Corps' Hospital, near Culpeper, Va., January 4, 1864. 

* Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1865. 



282 APPENDIX, 

Samuel P. Weaver ; age, 24 ; enlisted August 29, 1862 ; discharged 
at camp near Belle Plains, Va., April i, 1863. 

*John S. Wilson; age, 18; enlisted August 29, 1862; wounded at 
Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863; detailed with sharpshooters' battalion 
August I, 1864, and remained there until mustered out with regiment. 

*Henry Wise; age, 27; enlisted August 29, 1862; corporal Decem- 
ber 10, 1862; sergeant May 25, 1864; detailed with sharpshooters' bat- 
talion August I, 1864, and remained there until mustered out with 
regiment ; died of heart disease at President, Venango Co., Pa., Novem- 
ber 19, 1879. 

COMPANY "G." 

Captain William M. Wooldrige; age, 28; enlisted September 12, 
1862; resigned February 24, 1863. 

First Lieutenant James Alfred Kay; age, 28; enlisted September 
5, 1862 ; resigned March 24, 1863. 

Second Lieutenant Mark W. C. Barclay; enlisted August 4, 1862; 
killed December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. 

* Second Lieutenant West Funk ; promoted from sergeant-major 
of the regiment to second lieutenant Company "G" December 13, 1862; 
promoted to first lieutenant March 25, 1863 ; promoted to captain July 
19, 1864; promoted to major September 7, 1864; to brevet lieutenant- 
colonel April I, 1865; wounded February 6, 1865, at Dabney's 
Mills, Va. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant William H. H. Coats ; age, 22 ; enlisted August 18, 
1862; in hospital at muster-out. 

*Second Sergeant James H. Watson; age, 19; enlisted August 11, 
1862; promoted to first sergeant; wounded July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, 
Pa. ; wounded May 10, 1864 ; promoted to captain December 7, 1864. 

Third Sergeant Edward Humphreville ; age, 24; enlisted August 
18, 1862; wounded December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; honor- 
ably discharged on surgeon's certificate December 25, 1862. 

Fourth Sergeant Joseph A. Bastien; age, 37; enlisted August 18, 
1862; commissioned first lieutenant December 7, 1864; honorably dis- 
charged by general order May 19, 1865. 

*Fifth Sergeant James D. Curry; age, 33; enlisted August 23, 
1862 ; wounded and prisoner December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. 

CORPORALS. 

First Corporal Edward Wells; age, 21 ; enlisted August 13. 1862; 



* Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1865. 



APPENDIX. 283 

wounded December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; transferred to 
Signal Corps January 22, 1864. 

Second Corporal Jeremiah O'Sliea; age, 36; enlisted August 20, 
1862; in hospital at muster-out. 

Third Corporal William R. Anderson; age, 22; enlisted August 21, 
1862; promoted to sergeant; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps 
February 11, 1864. 

Fourth Corporal Charles E. Bancroft; age, 22; enlisted August 
22, 1862; honorably discharged on surgeon's certificate March 19, 1865. 

Fifth Corporal Charles C. Carver; age, 21; enlisted August 23, 
1862; died of wounds received at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 
1862. 

*Sixth Corporal John Graham; age, 34; enlisted August 29, 1862. 
wounded July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; prisoner July i, 1863, at 
Gettysburg, Pa. ; promoted to sergeant. 

MUSICIAN. 

*Charles Benkert; age, 18; enlisted September i, 1862. 

PRIVATES. 

Joseph L. Ashbridge; age, 38; enlisted August 13, 1862; killed 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. 

Hugh Beatty; enlisted August 23, 1862; deserted September 5, 
1862. 

* William Branson; age, 37; enHsted September i, 1862; taken 
prisoner June 18, 1864, Petersburg, Va. 

William Brightman ; age, 21 ; enlisted August 29, 1862; in hospital 
at muster-out. 

*Theodore C. Brown; age, 19; enHsted September 4, 1862; 
wounded May 5, 1864, at Wilderness, Va. 

Thomas Costello; enlisted September 5, 1862; deserted September 
5, 1862. 

Garret Cummerford ; age, 43 ; enlisted August 22, 1862 ; honorably 
discharged November, 1862. 

Tristan Campbell; age, 20; enlisted August 30, 1862; killed July 
I, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. 

John T. Davis; age, 39; enlisted August 21, 1862; honorably dis- 
charged December 30, 1862. 

Benjamin F. Dungan; age, 21; enlisted September 4, 1862; hon- 
orably discharged February 4, 1863. 



* Mustered out with regiment Jvine 2, 1S65. 



284 APPENDIX. 

Cliarles Dick; age, 18; enlisted August 30, 1862; killed April i, 
1865, Five Forks, Va. 

'■'Samuel Frates; age, 18; enlisted September 9, 1862; wounded 
j\Iay 25, 1864. 

*Thomas Flaherty ; age, 30; enlisted August 24, 1864. 

Charles Fruchart; age, 42; enlisted September 3, 1862; honorably 
discharged September 25, 1863. 

Edward Farley; age, 24; enlisted August 15, 1862; died October 
I, 1862. 

John Fall; enlisted August 22, 1862; deserted September 5, 1862. 

Edward J. Farrel; enlisted August 30, 1862; deserted September 
5, 1862. 

Eugene Gallagher; enlisted August 29, 1862; deserted September 
5, 1862. 

Christian Ganzhorn; enlisted August 19, 1862; deserted September 
5, 1862. 

Hugh Graham ; age, 35 ; enlisted August 19, 1862 ; transferred to 
Veteran Reserve Corps Alarch 23, 1864. 

John R. Hampton; enlisted August 30, 1862; deserted September 
5, 1862. 

John D. Herbert; enlisted August 15, 1862; deserted September 
5, 1862. 

'''John Humes; age, 19; enlisted August 28, 1862, 

*Oscar Flopkinson; age, 23; enlisted August 21, 1862. 

William Hobart; age, 26; enlisted September i, 1862; honorably 
discharged June i, 1865. 

James Hamilton; age, 27; enlisted August 21, 1862; honorably 
discharged Alay 13, 1865. 

Edward Harker ; enlisted January 4, 1865 ; killed February 6, 1865, 
at Hatcher's Run, Va. 

Robert Johnstone; age, 28; enlisted August 13, 1862; wounded 
May 12, 1864; wounded April i, 1865, at Five Forks, Va. ; in hospital 
at muster-out. 

Edward King; age, 20; enlisted August 19, 1862; in hospital at 
muster-out. 

Walter Keisse ; age, 24; enlisted August 18, 1862; wounded De- 
cember 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; transferred to Veteran Re- 
serve Corps November 28, 1863. 

Charles Lion; enlisted September 11, 1862; deserted September 15, 
1862. 



* Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1865. 



APPENDIX. 285 

William Matthews; enlisted August 19, 1862; deserted September 
5, 1862. 

James Alerritt; enlisted September 4, 1862; deserted. 

Patrick Mulholland ; enlisted August 22, 1862 ; deserted September 
5, 1862. 

Andrew McMehime ; enlisted August 15, 1862; deserted September 

5, 1862. 

John McFarnell; enlisted August 22, 1862; deserted. 
Edward Mitchell; age, 21; enlisted August 28, 1862; discharged 
on surgeon's certificate March 5, 1863. 

*John Mitchell; age, 18; enlisted August 18, 1862. 

*John McGraw ; age, 27 ; enlisted August 20, 1862 ; wounded May 
5, 1864, at Wilderness, Va. 

Peter McDonough ; age, 21 ; enlisted September 4, 1862; died June 
5, 1864, of wounds received at Wilderness, Va. 

-John McFarland; age, 20; enlisted August 15, 1862; promoted 
to corporal March 19, 1865. 

^Mohn McConnell; age, 22; enlisted August 22, 1862; promoted 
to first sergeant February 3, 1865; promoted to first lieutenant May 
25, 1865. 

William Newby; age, 23; enlisted September i, 1862; wounded 
July I, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; discharged December 23, 1863. 

*Comly S. Robinson; age, 33; enlisted August 14, 1862. 

Frederick Rickmyer; age, 42; enlisted August 22, 1862; honorably 
discharged October 13, 1862. 

='=Charles Robinson; age, 30; enlisted August 11, 1862; promoted 
to commissary sergeant April 13, 1863. 

John A. Riley; enlisted August 15, 1862 ; deserted. 

Henry C. Shields ; enlisted August 23, 1862 ; deserted September 
5, 1862. 

William J. Sheehan ; enlisted August 19, 1862 ; deserted Septem- 
ber 19, 1862. 

*Louis Schmidt; age, 19; enlisted August 19, 1862; wounded 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. 

George A. Shaw ; age, 22 ; enlisted September 4, 1862 ; honorably 
discharged on surgeon's certificate November 14, 1863. 

John Sullivan; age, 19; enlisted September 4, 1862; transferred to 
United States Navy April 19, 1864. 

John L. Severn; age, 18; enlisted August 30, 1862; transferred to 
Veteran Reserve Corps May 29, 1865. 



* Mustered out with reg-iment June 2, 1S65. 



286 



APPENDIX. 



Jeremiah Traite; age, 19; enlisted August 28, 1862; wounded July 
I, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. ; died August 19, 1863. 

Robert L. Valentine; age, 32; enlisted August 30, 1862; trans- 
ferred to \^eteran Reserve Corps March 2, 1864. 

Charles F. White; age, 19; enlisted August 30, 1862; wounded 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; in hospital at muster-out. 

A\^infield White ; age, 18 ; enlisted September 3, 1862 ; wounded 
July I, 1863. at Gettysburg, Pa.; in hospital at muster-out. 

Fred'k Wolf; enlisted August 30, 1862 ; deserted September 5, 1862. 

COMPANY "H." 

Captain Samuel Wrigley ; enlisted September 12, 1862; resigned 
February 24, 1863. 

First Lieutenant Edward Gratz, Jr. ; age, 20 ; enlisted September 
5, 1862; honorably discharged May 18, 1863. 

Second Lieutenant Harrison Lambdin ; age, 22 ; enlisted August 
30, 1862; promoted to first lieutenant May 19, 1863; promoted to cap- 
tain ]\Iay 20, 1863; promoted to assistant adjutant-general U. S. A^ol- 
unteers ]\Iay 18, 1864, to brevet lieutenant-colonel May 18, 1865 ; 
mustered out September 19, 1865. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant Charles Barlow ; age, 23 ; enlisted August 8, 1862 ; 
taken prisoner July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; promoted to captain 
June Ti, 1864; resigned January 30, 1865. 

Second Sergeant John Collingworth ; age, 22; enlisted August 14. 
1862; honorably discharged February 15, 1863. 

Third Sergeant Samuel J. Finley ; age, 36 ; enlisted August 9. 
1862; honorably discharged July 2"], 1863, to receive a commission in 
Regular Army. 

*Fourth Sergeant Richard S. Shute ; age, 30 ; enlisted August 9, 
1862; wounded and prisoner July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; pro- 
moted to third sergeant February 23, 1863 ; promoted to first lieutenant 
June II, 1864; promoted to captain February i, 1865. 

Fifth Sergeant William Douglass; age, 28; enlisted August 16, 
1862; promoted to fourth sergeant February 23, 1863; taken prisoner 
July I, 1863, at Gettysburg. Pa.; taken prisoner October i, 1864. at 
Poplar Grove Church, \^a. ; killed by rebel guard at Salisbury, N. C. 
November 25. 1864. 

CORPORALS. 

*First Corporal Charles M. Wills ; age, 24 ; enlisted August 20, 



* Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1S6.5. 




THOMAS A. MORRISON. 



APPENDIX. 287 

1862; promoted to sergeant September 21, 1863; wounded May 10, 
1864; promoted to first sergeant September 22, 1864; taken prisoner 
October i, 1864, at Poplar Grove Church, Va. ; promoted to second 
Heutenant February i, 1865. 

Second Corporal Henry Engie; age, 45; enlisted August 4, 1862; 
prisoner July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; prisoner October i, 1864, at 
Poplar Grove Church, Va. ; died January 16, 1865, at Salisbury, N. C. 

Third Corporal Albert Miles; age, 35; enlisted August 23, 1862; 
honorably discharged for disability March 17, 1863. 

Fourth Corporal Robert McGill ; age, 42; enlisted September 3, 
1862; died September i, 1863. 

Fifth Corporal William Brown; age, 32; enlisted August 22, 1862; 
taken prisoner July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; transferred to Depart- 
ment Northwest September 20, 1864. 

PRIVATES. 

George Aldrich ; age, 24; enlisted August 15, 1862; prisoner July 
I, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. ; killed June 4, 1864, at Bethesda Church, Va. 

='=August Bahls; age, 24; enlisted August 19, 1862; prisoner July i, 
1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. ; wounded May 10, 1864, at Laurel Hill, Va. 

Andrew J. Bleaderheiser ; age, 26; enlisted August 21, 1862; died 
November 19, 1864. 

George A. Bradley; age, 44; enlisted August 9, 1862; honorably 
discharged March 19, 1863. 

James PI. Bradley; age, 24; enlisted August 13, 1862; prisoner 
July I, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. ; wounded June i, 1864, at Cold Harbor, 
Va. ; in hospital at muster-out. 

Wilmer A. Bradley; age, 27; enlisted August 9, 1862; prisoner 
July I, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; promoted to sergeant July 3, 1864; 
prisoner October i, 1864, at Poplar Grove Church, Va. ; honorably dis- 
charged May 31, 1865. 

John Buckby; age, 30; enlisted September 3, 1862; wounded and 
prisoner July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. ; deserted September 30, 1863. 

Jacob B. Cole; age, 44; enlisted August 8, 1862; honorably dis- 
charged March 19, 1863. 

Robert Cummings ; age, 34; enlisted August 13, 1862; wounded 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; honorably discharged Jan- 
uary 13, 1863. 

Albert Crider; age, 21; enlisted August 18, 1862; honorably dis- 
charged January 17, 1863. 

Eben Crosedale; age, 44; enlisted August 6, 1862; honorably dis- 
charged December 23, 1862. 

* Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1865. 



288 APPENDIX. 

Edwin Chaplin; enlisted August 20, 1862; deserted August 29, 
1862. 

Peter Donnelly; enlisted August 14, 1862; deserted August 29, 
1862. 

Francis Downey; enlisted August 3, 1862; deserted May 22, 1864. 

^''Joseph R. Davis; age, 19; enlisted August 20, 1862; prisoner 
July I, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; promoted to sergeant November i, 
1864; promoted to first lieutenant February i, 1865. 

Jacob J. Emery; age, 27; enlisted August 19, 1862; wounded July 
I, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. ; in hospital at muster-out. 

William Graham; age, 28; enlisted August 7, 1862; killed May 23, 
1864, at North Anna River, Va. 

*Daniel Henry; age, 33 ; enlisted September i, 1862. 

Cornelius Flagerty; enlisted August 28, 1862; deserted August 
29, 1862. 

Benjamin Jones ; enlisted August 23, 1862 ; deserted August 
29, 1862. 

*John Kay; age, ^t,; enlisted August 18, 1862. 

Abraham L. Klare; age, 34; enlisted August 19, 1862; wounded 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; promoted to corporal Feb- 
ruary, 1863; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps July 16, 1863. 

Edward J. Lawler ; age, 25 ; enlisted August 30, 1862 ; killed De- 
cember 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. 

Alfred C. Matthews; age, 18; enlisted August 29, 1862; wounded 
and taken prisoner December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; hon- 
orably discharged May 10, 1864. 

John McFadden ; age, 28; enlisted August 25, 1862 ; wounded July 
I, 1863, at Gettysburg. Pa. ; wounded April i, 1865, ^^ Five Forks, Va. ; 
died June 6, 1865. 

Jacob Poole; age, 24; enlisted August 30, 1862; prisoner July i, 
1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. ; wounded July 10, 1864, near Petersburg, Va. ; 
transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

William Royal; age, 28; enlisted August 25, 1862; wounded De- 
cember 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg. Va. ; honorably discharged for dis- 
ability July 23. T863. 

Hamilton Richert ; age, 25; enlisted August 18, 1862; honorably 
discharged for disability January 23, 1863. 

*Davis R. Shaw; age, 18; enlisted August 23. 1862. 

Tames A. Shaw; age, 20; enlisted August 23, 1862; died Julv 2, 
1863: 



* Mustered out with re&iment June 2, 1865. 



APPENDIX. 289 

William Shaw ; age, 43 ; enlisted August 6, 1862 ; honorably dis- 
charged December 25, 1863. 

Adam Wilkinson ; age, 28 ; enlisted August 6, 1862 ; wounded July 

I, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. ; in hospital at muster-out. 

Thomas Wood; age, 43; enlisted August 26, 1862; killed August 
15, 1864, at Petersburg, Va. 

COMPANY "I." 

Captain James Ashworth ; age, 26; enlisted August 22, 1862, at 
Philadelphia, Pa.; wounded July i, 1863, ^t Gettysburg, Pa.; commis- 
sioned major April 20, 1863 ! commissioned lieutenant-colonel December 

II, 1863; commissioned colonel January 10, 1864; honorably discharged 
for disability by special order February 10, 1864. 

First Lieutenant James Ruth; age, 30; enlisted August 22, 1862; 
commissioned captain April 20, 1863; wounded July i, 1863, at Gettys- 
burg; honorably discharged for disability February 10, 1864. 

Second Lieutenant John Durborrow ; age, 33 ; enlisted August 4, 
1862; discharged for disability June 21, 1863. 

SERGEANTS. 

*First Sergeant John ]\IcTaggart; age, 25; enlisted August 13, 
1862; taken prisoner July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. ; promoted to first 
lieutenant April 20, 1863 J promoted to captain February 11, 1864; taken 
prisoner October i, 1864, at Peeble's Farm, Va. 

Second Sergeant Reginald H. Cowpland; age, 21 ; enlisted August 
9, 1862; killed July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; acting sergeant-major 
of the regiment. 

Third Sergeant Charles F. Neuman ; age, 21 ; enlisted August 16, 
1862; died of disease June 7, 1863. 

*Fifth Sergeant Jacob Latch; age, 34; enlisted August 21, 1862; 
promoted to first sergeant; wounded May 13, 1864, at Sopttsylvania, Va. 

CORPORALS. 

First Corporal John Dodson; age, 37; enlisted August 13, 1862; 
honorably discharged for disability November 4, 1864. 

*Second Corporal Samuel Higginbottom ; age, 30 ; enlisted August 
14, 1862 ; promoted to sergeant. 

Third Color-Corporal James W. A. Bishop; age, 18; enlisted 
August 7, 1862; wounded December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; 
died January 13, 1863, at Richmond, \^a. 

* Mustered out with reg-iment June 2, 1S65. 



290 Al'l'ENDlX. 

Fourtli Corporal Albert Lintlcy ; ai^e, 22; enlisted August 15, 1862; 
killed December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg-. 

Fifth Corporal Joseph Wheelan ; age, 22 ; enlisted August 16, 1862 ; 
honorably discharged for disability I'^ebruary 19, 1863. 

Sixth Corporal William II. Wright; age, 21; enlisted August 15, 
1862; died of disease June 4, 1863, at Frankford, Pa. 

Seventh Corporal James Hilton ; age, 20; enlisted August 15, 1862 ; 
taken prisoner May 5, 1864, at Wilderness, Va. ; died October i, 1864, 
at Florence, S. C. 

'"Eighth Corporal Henry M. Covvpland; promoted to sergeant; 
prisoner at Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863 ; promoted to second lieutenant 
December i, 1863 ; promoted to first lieutenant February 11, 1864 ; taken 
prisoner at Poplar Grove Church October i, 1864. 

MUSICIAN. 

*Jr)hn E. Schlafer ; age, 18; enlisted August 18, 1862. 

TRIVATE.S. 

•"Howard Abrams ; age, 18; enlisted August 15, 1862; wounded 
May 2T^, 1864, at North Anna River, Va. 

Wm. D. Baldwin; age, 16; enlisted August 15, 1862; wounded 
February 6, 1865, ^t Dabney's Mill, Va. ; honorably discharged by 
special order May 31, 1865. 

William Bonsall ; enlisted August 16, 1862; discharged by general 
order July i, 1865. 

Alfred Borie ; age, 25; enlisted August 15, 1862; wounded July i, 
1863. at Gettysburg, Pa.; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps; hon- 
orably discharged by general order July 14, 1865. 

Isaac Bell; age, 18; enlisted August 16, 1862; w^ounded July i, 
1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; honorably discharged by general order ]^Iay 
26, 1865. 

*John Bromily : age, 22; enlisted .Vugust 14, 1862; taken prisoner 
October i, 1864, at Peeble's Farm, A'a. 

*Hcnry Barwis ; age, 22; enlisted August 12, 1862. 

*Edward D. Chipman ; age, 21; enlisted August 14, 1862; pro- 
moted to hospital steward August 22, 1862. 

Samuel Core; age, 29; enlisted August 14, 1862; wounded I\Iay 
5, 1864, at Wilderness, \^a. ; discharged by general order May 16, 1865. 

*John Cromie; age, 23; enlisted August 16, 1862: wounded July 
I, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; wounded May 5, 1864, at W^ilderness, Va. 



Mustered out witli regiment June 2, 1S65. 



APPENDIX. 291 

*William C. Cocker; age, 20; enlisted August 20, 1862; promoted 
to corporal ; wounded July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. 

*John Cunningham ; age, 23 ; enlisted August 14, 1862 ; taken pris- 
oner October i, 1864, at Peeble's Farm, Va. 

*Ralph R. Cunningham; age, 18; enlisted August 18, 1862; 
wounded May 12, 1864, at Spottsylvania. Va. ; taken prisoner October 
I, 1864, at Peeble's Farm, Va. 

Samuel Collins; age, 44; enlisted August 16, 1862; transferred to 
Veteran Reserve Corps September 14, 1863. 

Charles H. Cooper; age, 21 ; enlisted August 18, 1862; taken pris- 
oner October i, 1864, at Peeble's Farm, Va. ; died December 4, 1864, at 
Salisbury, N. C. 

Alfred Clymer; age, 19; enlisted August 18, 1862; promoted to 
color-sergeant; wounded June 5, 1864, at Bethesda Church, Va. ; died 
July 17, 1864. 

Henrv P. Dugan ; age, 25; enlisted August 15, 1862; wounded 
July I, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. ; in hospital at muster-out. 

*Francis Develin ; age, 21; enlisted August 14, 1862; taken pris- 
oner October i, 1864, at Peeble's Farm, Va. 

Charles Durney : age, 24; enlisted August 13, 1862; wounded July 
I, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. ; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps Feb- 
ruary 6, 1864. 

Charles Davis; age, 21; enlisted August 19, 1862; transferred to 
Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Patrick Develin; age, 24; enlisted April 4, 1864; transferred to 
Company "E," 191st Penna. Vols., June i, 1S65. 

Isaac Dyer; enlisted August 13, 1862; deserted June 27, 1863. 

*Linford Enoch; age, 18; enlisted August 19, 1862; wounded 
July I, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. 

Casper Fredericks; age, 19; enlisted xA.ugust 13, 1862; wounded 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; transferred to Veteran 
Reserve Corps November 5, 1863. 

*William P^ox ; age, 19 ; enlisted August 20, 1862. 

*Sanuiel Gibson; age, 26; enlisted August 15, 1862; wounded 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; wounded July i, 1863, at 
Gettysburg, Pa. ; promoted to corporal July 20, 1864. 

* Joseph Gregson ; age, 20 ; enlisted August 15, 1862 ; taken prisoner 
October i, 1864, at Peeble's Farm. Va. ; promoted sergeant February 
28, 1865. 

*Wm. H. Hamilton; age, 18; enlisted August 14, 1862. 



Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1865. 



292 APPENDIX. 

Jvobcrt W. Harper; age, 26; enlisted August 14, 1862; honorably 
discharged for disability October i, 1862. 

Edward D. Hamilton; age, 23; enlisted August 15, 1862; honor- 
ably discharged for disability January 7, 1864. 

Charles Hornsby; age, 23; enlisted August 15, 1862; honorably 
discharged for disability March 4, 1863. 

Joseph Johnson; age, 18; enlisted August 13, 1862; taken prisoner 
July I. 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; died September 12, 1863, at Annap- 
olis, Md. 

Robert Kay; age, 43; enlisted August 14, 1862; killed December 
13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. 

*James Lee; age, 21 ; enlisted August 15, 1862. 

John W. Lees; age, 19; enlisted August 12, 1862; died of disease 
December 6, 1862, at Brooks Station, Va. 

John Lafferty ; age, 20; enlisted April 4, 1865 ; transferred to Com- 
pany "E," 191st Penna. Vols., June i, 1865, at Washington, D. C. 

Thomas B. Lucas; age, 18; enlisted April 5, 1865; transferred to 
Company "E," 191st Penna. Vols., June i, 1865, at Washington, D. C. 

John Mann; enlisted August 16, 1862; discharged on surgeon's 
certificate November 27, 1863. 

*Ed\vard Marshall; age, 27; enlisted August 8, 1862. 

Simon Mills; age, 29; enlisted August 14, 1862; honorably dis- 
charged for disability March i, 1863. 

Edward iNTorin; age, 21 ; enlisted August 16, 1862; killed Decem- 
ber 13, 1862, at Eredericksburg, Va. 

David W. Morton; age, 33; enlisted August 18, 1862; discharged 
for disability May 15, 1865. 

*Malcolm Murray ; age, 19 ; enlisted August 20, 1862 ; promoted 
to sergeant Februar)'- 28, 1865. 

Peter McNally ; age, 24; enhsted August 20, 1862; killed July i, 
1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. 

Wharton Moody; age, 26; enlisted August 15, 1862; wounded 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; honorably discharged 
May 20, 1863. 

Patrick McNanlv ; enlisted August 14, 1862 ; deserted August 18, 
1863. 

George Miller ; enlisted August 9, 1862 ; deserted January 18, 1863. 

James Monaghan ; enlisted August 18, 1862; deserted August 31, 
1862. 

George Moore ; enlisted August 12. 1862 ; deserted August 22, 1862. 



* Mu.<5tered out with regiment June 2, 1S65. 




sergf:ant frank h. evans. 



APPENDIX. 293 

Joseph Mumbower; age, 44; enlisted August 19, 1862; honorably 
discharged for disability April i, 1863. 

Michael Mannel ; age, 41; enlisted August 19, 1862; wounded 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; honorably discharged May 

24, 1863. 

Patrick Maherin : age, 19 ; enlisted March 10, 1865 ; transferred to 
Company "E," 191st Penna. Vols., June i, 1865, at Washington, D. C. 

*James Ogden ; age, 35 ; enlisted August 18, 1862. 

Thomas O'Neill; age, 22; enlisted August 18, 1862; wounded 
December 13. 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; honorably discharged 
April 16, 1863. 

James Peirce, age, 25; enlisted August 14, 1862; killed June i, 
1864, at Bethesda Church, Va. 

^•'George Peirce; age, 21 ; enlisted August 13, 1862. 

*Thomas Peirce; age, 28; enlisted August 14, 1862. 

Robert Ray; age, 35 ; enlisted August 18, 1862 ; killed July i, 1863, 
at Gettysburg, Pa. 

William Rimer; age, 44; enlisted August 16, 1862; wounded De- 
cember 13. 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; honorably discharged June 
4, 1863. 

Edward Rother ; enlisted August 11, 1862; deserted August 22, 

1862. 

Wm. Russell; enlisted August 13, 1862; deserted August, 1863. 

John Skilton; enlisted August 13, 1862; deserted January, 1863. 

James J. Stackhouse ; age, 30; enlisted August 8, 1862; honorably 
discharged May 15, 1865. 

Thomas Simpson; age, 21; enlisted August 18, 1862; wounded 
December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg. Va. ; wounded July i, 1863, at 
Gettysburg, Pa. ; wounded May 5, 1864, at Wilderness, Va. ; wounded 
March 31, 1865, at South Side Railroad, Va. ; honorably discharged 
June 13, 1865. 

*Aaron Settle; age, 18; enlisted August 13, 1862; taken prisoner 
May 6, 1864, at Wilderness, Va. ; taken prisoner October i, 1864, at 
Peeble's Farm, Va. 

*James Stott; age, 21 ; enlisted August 13, 1862. 

William Scott; age, 43; enlisted August 16, 1862; transferred 
]\Iarch 12, 1864, to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Thomas Stott; age, 21; enlisted August 16. 1862; taken prisoner 
October i, 1864, at Peeble's Farm, Va. ; died December 5, 1864. at 
Salisbury, N. C. 

*John S. Settle; age, 22; enlisted August 19, 1862; wounded July 

* Mustered out with re^ment June 2, 1S65. 



294 Al'l'F.NDIX. 

I, 1863, at Gettysburg-, Pa.; wounded l""cl)ruar\- 6, 1865, at Uabncy's 
Mills, Va. 

*Ilenry L. Shock; age, 38; enlisted Aui^ust 19, 1862. 

Hugh Shields; age, 20; enlisted March 10, 1865; transferred to 
Company "E," 191st Penna. \'ols.. June i, 1865, at Washington, D. C. 

John Theile ; age, 30; enlisted August 7, 1862; wounded July i, 
1863, ^t Gettysburg, Pa. ; died July 12, 1863. 

*Edward F. Tibben ; age, 19; enlisted August 16, 1862; taken 
prisoner July i, 1863. ^^ Gettysburg, Pa.; wounded May 8, 1864, at 
Spottsylvania, \"a. 

John Taylor; age, 39; enlisted August 18, 1862; died of disease 
September 10, 1864, at Washington, D. C. 

William .V. Vannetta ; age, 21; enlisted August 18, 1862; killed 
December 13. 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. 

John T. Wood; age, 35; enlisted August 14, 1862; honorably dis- 
charged for disability January 14, 1863. 

*Alfred F. Wilkins ; age, 26; enlisted August 14, 1862; taken 
prisoner July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; taken prisoner ]\Iay 5, 1864, 
at Wilderness, Va. 

*Frank K. M. \Vardcll ; age, 17 ; enlisted August 15, 1862 ; wounded 
May 10, 1864, at Spottsylvania, Va. 

Jacob Wilkins; age, t8; enlisted August 15, 1862; wounded July 
I, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; honorably discharged January 13, 1865. 

*John B. Wilson; age, 23; enlisted August 18, 1862. 

* James Welsh ; age, 20 ; enlisted August 20. 1862. 

*Jacob Wettengill ; age, t8; enlisted August 15. 1862. 

John Williamson; enlisted August 18, 1862; deserted Se])tember 
20, 1862. 

COAIPANY "K." 

Captain Samuel .\rrison ; age, 32; enlisted September 4, 1862, at 
Philadelphia, Pa.; honorably discharged October 1, 1863. 

Plrst Lieutenant William W. Dorr ; age, 24 ; enlisted September 4, 
1862, at Philadelijhia, Pa.; promoted to captain October 5, 1863; killed 
May 10, 1864, at Laurel Flill, Va. 

Second Lieutenant Joshua Garsed ; age, 28 ; enlisted August 6, 
1862, at Philadeljihia, Pa. ; promoted to quartermaster h^ebruary 23, 
1863; resigned October 9, 1863. 

.'^I-IRCICAXT-S. 

P'irst Sergeant (Jeo. D. Levis; age, 35 ; enlisted .Vugust 12. 1862, at 
Philadelphia, Pa.; honorably discharged for disability March 4. 1863. 
* Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1865. 



APPENDIX. 295 

*Second Sergeant Jas. Allen; age, 28; enlisted August 6, 1862, at 
Philadelphia, Pa.; promoted to first lieutenant January i, 1864; pro- 
moted to captain July 19, 1864; prisoner October i, 1864. 

Third Sergeant Benj. J. Fleck; age, 40; enlisted August 22, 1862, 
at Philadelphia. Pa.; honorably discharged for disability January 19, 

1863. 

Fourth Sergeant Geo. W. Lauster ; age, 21; enlisted August 20, 
1862, at Philadelphia, Pa.; promoted to first lieutenant July 19, 1864; 
wounded at Five Forks, Va.. April i, 1865; honorably discharged June 

6, 1865. 

Fifth Sergeant John Lusby ; age, 29; enlisted August 21, 1862, at 
Philadelphia. Pa.; promoted to sergeant-major April 2-], 1863; died 
June 17, 1863. 

CORPORALS. 

First Corporal Orren AF Smith ; age. 27; enlisted August 18, 1862, 
at Philatlelphia, Pa. ; promoted to sergeant ; transferred to \'eteran 
Reserve Corps February 16, 1864; honorably discharged June 9, 1865. 

Second Corporal Chas. A. Winkworth ; age, 21; enlisted August 
18, 1862, at Philadelphia, Pa. ; promoted to sergeant ; wounded at North 
Anna River May 25, 1864; mustered out May 15, 1865. 

*Third Corporal John Catern ; age, 39; enlisted August 18, 1862, 

at Philadelphia, Pa. 

Fourth Corporal Warren L. Reynolds ; age, 27 ; enlisted August 7, 
1862, at Philadelphia. Pa. ; honorably discharged for disability March 
4, 1863. 

Fifth Corporal Vlfrcd Whitehead; age, 32; enlisted August 20, 
1862, at Philadelphia, Pa.; wounded December 13, 1862; prisoner at 
Fredericksburg, ^■a. ; died at Salisburg, N. C, January 30, 1865. 

Sixth Corporal Robt. Fithian ; age, 30; enlisted August 23, 1862, 
at Philadelphia, Pa.; honorably discharged for disability January 31, 

1863. 

Seventh Corporal James Sullivan; age, 34; enlisted August 19, 
1862, at Philadelphia, Pa.; wounded December 13, 1862, at Fredericks- 
burg, Va. ; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps October 12, 1863. 

Eighth Corporal William D. Spear : age, 27 ; enlisted August 22, 
T862, at Philadelphia, Pa. ; killed July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. 

MUSICIAN. 

Geo. Mathers ; age, 18 ; enlisted September 2, 1862 ; transferred to 
Veteran Reserve Corps July i, 1863. 



* Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1865. 



296 AITENDIX. 

PRIVATES. 

William Allen; age, 19; enlisted August 7, 1862, at Thiladelphia, 
Pa.; taken prisoner December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; died 
at Richmond, Va.., March 15, 1864. 

*William Applegate; age, 24; enlisted August 29, 1862, at Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

*Howard Adams; age, 2^; enlisted August 19, 1862, at Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

John Blackburn ; age, 21 ; enlisted August 6, 1862, at Philadelphia, 
Pa. ; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps December 3, 1863. 

Jas. Brown; age, 18; enlisted August 7, 1862, at Philadelphia, Pa. ; 
honorably discharged for disability December 3, 1864. 

Nathan J. Blackman ; age, 33 ; enlisted August 7, 1862, at Phila- 
delphia, Pa. ; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps December 3, 1863. 

James Bennett; age, 36; enlisted August 15, 1862, at Philadelphia, 
Pa.; honorably discharged for disability December 3, 1864. 

James Bolton ; age, 23 ; enlisted August 16, 1862, at Philadelphia, 
Pa. ; wounded and prisoner at Fredericksburg, Xa.., December 13, 1862 ; 
died at Richmond, Va., December 21, 1862. 

'•'Traverse Buckley; age, 42; enlisted August 22, 1862, at Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Jas. Burk; age, 20; enlisted August 29, 1862, at Philadelphia, Pa.; 
wounded and prisoner December 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; died 
December 27, 1862, at Richmond, Va. 

Daniel Connelly; enlisted August 21, 1862; deserted September 
I, 1862. 

Charles Cummings ; enlisted August 19. 1862 ; deserted August 
26, 1862. 

jMifflin D. Cornell; age, 18; enlisted August 7, 1862, at Phila- 
delphia, Pa. ; promoted to sergeant October 5. 1863. 

Chas. Carty; age, 25; enlisted August 13, 1862, at Philadelphia, 
Pa.; discharged IMarch 4, 1863, on surgeon's certificate. 

Alexr. B. Crossman ; age, 25 ; enlisted August 18, 1862, at Phila- 
delphia, Pa. ; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps April 20, 1863 ; 
mustered out June 28, 1865. 

George Degitz; age, 19; enlisted November 9. 1863. at Philadel- 
phia, Pa. ; transferred, date unknown. 

Jos. .\. Decatur; age, 18; enlisted August 28, 1862, at Philadelphia, 
Pa.; honorably discharged ATay 13, 1865. 

Thos. Dugan; age, 42; enlisted August 2T. 1862. at Philadelphia, 
Pa.; transferred to \'eteran Reserve Corps March 12, 1864. 
* Mustered out with regiment June 2. 1S6.^. 



APPENDIX. 297 

*Wm. E. Dunham; age, 24; enlisted August 22, 1862, at Philadel- 
phia, Pa. ; promoted to quartermaster-sergeant February 4, 1863. 

^Richard Eckersly; age, 27; enlisted August 11, 1862, at Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Elijah B. English; age, 20; enlisted August 21, 1862; wounded at 
Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862; transferred to Veteran Re- 
serve Corps, 1863. 

George L. Evans; age, 41 ; enlisted August 18, 1862, at Philadel- 
phia, Pa. ; honorably discharged for disability April 4, 1863. 

Henry C. Edgar ; age, 25 ; enlisted August 22, 1862, at Philadel- 
phia, Pa. ; honorably discharged for disability March 3, 1863. 

George Ellenberger ; enlisted August 21, 1862; deserted June 12, 
1863. 

John Giberson ; age, 19 ; enlisted August 9, 1862, at Philadelphia, 
Pa. ; died ]March 29, 1863. 

Jos. GiUibrand ; age, 42; enlisted August 18, 1862, at Philadelphia, 
Pa. ; honorably discharged February 16, 1863. 

Dennis Hayes ; age, 32 ; enlisted August 14, 1862, at Philadelphia, 
Pa. ; killed on railroad while returning to duty. 

*John Hilton ; age, 43 ; enlisted August 20, 1862, at Philadel- 
phia. Pa. 

Jacob H. Harding; enlisted August 15, 1862; deserted September 
I, 1862. 

Pearce Joice ; enlisted August 20, 1862 ; deserted September 5, 1862. 

Thomas Kirkwood ; age, 28; enlisted August 12, 1862, at Phila- 
delphia, Pa. ; died April 4, 1863. 

William Knox; age, 21 ; enlisted August 16, 1862, at Philadelphia, 
Pa. ; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps 1863. 

Joseph Kilpatrick; age, 23; enlisted August 18, 1862, at Philadel- 
phia, Pa. ; honorably discharged November 19, 1862. 

Henry Kohler ; age, 24; enlisted August 18, 1862, at Philadelphia, 
Pa. ; in hospital at muster-out. 

*Edward D. Knight; age, 35; enlisted August 18, 1862, at Phila- 
delphia, Pa. ; promoted to sergeant ; promoted to first sergeant May 
15, 1865. 

John Lockett ; enlisted August 18, 1862 ; deserted September 5, 1862. 

*William T. Logan; age, 19; enlisted August 20, 1862, at Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Thomas J. Leighton ; age, 21 ; enlisted xA.ugust 19, 1862, at Phila- 
delphia, Pa. ; honorably discharged in 1863. 

Robert G. Lindsay, Jr.; age, 30; enlisted August 18, 1862. at Phil- 



* Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1865. 



298 APPENDIX. 

adelphia. Pa.; proniotcd to corporal; wounded at I'ctersburg-, \a., Julv 
15, 1864; died July 16, 1864. 

James W. McDowell; age, 18; enlisted August 9, 1862, at Phila- 
delphia, Pa. ; honorably discharged for disability J'ebruary 9, 1863. 

*Williani T. AIcKahin; age, 28; enlisted August 6, 1862, at IMiila- 
delphia, I'a. 

*Henry AIcKeown; age, 31; enlisted August 22, 1862, at Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Robert Moffat; age, 21 ; enlisted August 15, 1862, at Philadelphia. 
Pa. ; promoted to sergeant October 5, 1863 ; wounded at Petersburg, 
\'a., Jul}' 15, 1864; in hospital at muster-out; honorably discharged 
June 15, 1865. 

Daniel Mullen: age, 19; enlisted xVugust 15, 1862, at Philadelphia, 
Pa. ; killed at Gettysburg July i, 1863. 

^Jonathan Moore; age, 23; enlisted August 18, 1862, at Philadel- 
phia, Pa. ; taken prisoner at Peeble's Farm, Va., October i, 1864. 

Edward K. Murphy; age, 18; enlisted August 22, 1862, at Phila- 
delphia, Pa. ; honorably discharged January 19, 1863. 

*John Martin; age, 23; enlisted August 22, 1862, at Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Abner 15. Miller; age, 25; enlisted August 18, 1862, at Philadel- 
phia, Pa. ; honorably discharged May 25, 1865. 

John Naily ; enlisted August 30, 1862; deserted September 5, 1862. 

James Nelson; age, 23; enlisted August 7, 1862, at Philadelphia. 
Pa. ; promoted to corporal ; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps March 
2, 1864. 

Samuel 15. Xorcross ; age, 19; enlisted September i, 1862, at Phila- 
delphia. Pa. ; promoted to corporal ; honorably discharged for disability 
December, 1863. 

Francis E. Rymcr ; age, 18; enlisted August 7, 1862, at Philadel- 
phia, Pa. ; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, 1863. 

Alfred Rodgers ; age, 27; enlisted August 18, 1862, Philadelphia, 
Pa. ; in hospital at muster-out. 

Thomas Roan; age, 32; enlisted August 20, 1862. at Philadelphia, 
Pa.; died February 13, 1863. 

"•■John Stufflet; age, 24; enlisted .August 22. 1862. at Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

John Scoltin ; enlisted August 18. 1862; deserted. 

*Benjamin Silvis ; age. 18; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Philadel- 
phia, Pa.; wounded and i>risoncr July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. 
* Mustered out with regiment June 2, 1865. 



APPENDIX. 299 

*John H. Snare ; age, 29 ; enlisted /\ugust 20, 1862. at Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

*Henry Stiles; age, 19; enlisted August 29, 1862, at Philadelphia, 
Pa. ; wounded and prisoner at Fredericksburg, A'a., December 13, 1862. 

*Samuel D. Scott; age, 22; enlisted August 18, 1862, at Phila- 
delphia, Pa. ; promoted to corporal ; promoted to sergeant. 

*Joseph R. Scott; age, 23; enlisted August 18, 1862, at Phila- 
delphia, T-^a. 

Thomas Stone; age, 25; enlisted August 7, 1862, at Philadelphia, 
Pa.; prisoner July i, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa.; died October 8, 1864, 
at Andersonville, Ga. 

'■^Henry Stone; age. 18; enlisted August 7, 1862, at Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

^Michael Shuster ; age, 32; enlisted August 18, 1862, at Philadel- 
phia, Pa. ; died November 4, 1864. 

*William Speer ; age, 19; enlisted August 21, 1862, at Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Benj. Thomas; age, 20; enlisted August 14. 1862, at Philadelphia, 
Pa. ; honorably discharged June 15, 1865. 

John G. Thorn; age, 19; enlisted August 20, 1862, at Philadelphia, 
Pa.; wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862; died Decem- 
ber 16, 1862. 

Thomas Toban ; age. 2-] ; enlisted August 28, 1862, at Philadelphia, 
f*a. ; transferred to N'eteran Reserve Corps February 6, 1865. 

Thomas Taylor ; age, yj ; enlisted x\ugust 22. 1862, at Philadelphia, 
Pa. ; honorably discharged for disability December 3, 1864. 

Tienry Wilcox; age, 18; enlisted August 8, 1862, at Philadelphia, 
Pa. ; transferred, date imknown. 

*Peter Wharton; age, 25; enlisted August 12, 1862, at Philadel- 
phia, I'a. 

Alfred F. Wonderly ; age, 19 ; enlisted August 30, 1862, at Phila- 
delphia, Pa. ; (lied May 10, 1863. 

David J. Wood; age, 21 ; enlisted August 18, 1862, at Philadelphia, 
Pa. ; honorably discharged June 3, 1865. 

Joseph Wilds ; age, 23 ; enlisted August 19, 1862, at Philadelphia, 
Pa. ; wounded at Dabney's Mills, \^a., February 6, 1865 ; in hospital at 
p.mstcr-out. 

Thomas Wilson ; enlisted August 23, 1862 ; deserted October 27, 
1862. 

David Worrell; age, 20; enlisted August 23, 1862, at Philadelphia, 
Pa. ; discharged May 16, 1865. 



* AFustered out with regiment June 2, 1865. 



Illustrations. 



Colonel Chapman Biddle Frontispiece 

Group of Committee on Regimental History 4-a 

Lieutenant-Colonel Elisha W. Davis 18-19 

Color-Sei'geant Ei'skine Hazard, Jr 24-25 

Major-General George G. Meade 28-29 

Lieutenant M. W. C. Barclay •*-""*"^ 

Lieutenant Joshua Garsed and his horse "Bill" 40-41 

Colonel Alexander Biddle 44-4o 

Relief Map of Gettysburg- Battlefield 48-49 

Map of Gettysburg and Vicinity 52-53 

Sergeant Samuel C. Miller ^'^'^^ 

Captain John M. Clapp ^°"^^ 

Color-Sergeant William G. Graham 66-67 

Captain William W. Dorr 'J^'lt 

General U. S. Grant 3^'!^ 

Color-Sergeant James B. Graham ''^''l 

Captain P. R. Gray ^^'H 

^ „ 94-95 

Calls 

First Lieutenant John M. Bingham ^^ 

Captain James Harrison Lambdin 11"' 

Gettysburg Battlefield Monuments 104-105, 12^-125 

Map of Gettysburg Battlefield (First Day) 126-12 , 

Colonel James S. Warner ■^'*" 

140-141 

Lieutenant George W. Plumer ^^'^ "■_ 

Color- Sergeant William Hardy 150-lol 

Adjutant John lungerich 

Lieutenant Richard A. Dempsey "^^^'jr-c 

Quartei-master Garsed's Headquarters "^-^"170 

Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas M. Hall 178-179 

First Sergeant Edward Scheerer 184-185 

Major-General Doubleday 90^90^ 

General Reynolds Ls'^^OO 

Captain James Ashworth '^"^ "' 

Major-General Warren " "'" 

Captain George E. Ridgway 99r^25 

Captain Charles F. Hulse oon^oi 

Captain Joshua L. Childs 938-''39 

Captain Samuel Arrison o,/oxr 

Color- Sergeant Clapper, First Sergeant McCoy and Corporal Dedier. 244-1.45 

Captain Joseph G. Rosengarten 956'^57 

Quartermaster Joshua Garsed 9fi4'9fi^ 

Major-Generals Wadsworth and Newton 9^9273 

Captain James H. Watson 980-''81 

Sergeant Alexander McDowell !^o<?"oo- 

_ , . 2oD-^o ( 

Thomas A. Morrison 2<^'>-''93 

Sergeant Frank H. Evans """' 



Contents. 



Principal Engag-cments in which 

the Regiment Participated.... 5 

Preface 6 

First Pennsylvania Artillery, 

Companies "I" and "A" 9 

Organization of Companies "A" 

and "F," 121st Penna. Vols 16 

Organization of the 121st Penna. 

Vols 18 

Camp "Chase" — First Marching 

Orders 21 

First Brigade, Third Division, 

First Corps 22 

Pennsylvania Reserves 23 

Frederick to Sharpsburg 23 

First March; its Effects — First 

Picket Duty 24 

Across the Potomac — Warrenton 25 
McClellan's Farewell — Strength of 

the Opposing Forces 26 

Fredricksburg Campaign 27 

Reorganization of the Army of 

the Potomac 27 

"White Oak Church 28 

Double-quick to the Rappahan- 
nock 28 

The Battlefield 29 

Across the Rappahannock 30 

Baptism of Fire — Stonewall Jack- 
son's Corps 31 

Meade's Advance 32 

Losses in the Engagement — A 

Line Officer's Account 34 

Colonel Biddle's Official Report.. 37 
A Deliverance — Burnside's "^lud 

March" 41 

Port Royal 42 

Chancellorsville 44 

Fitzhugh Woods 4.5 

White Oak Church 46 

Gettysburg 48 

Meade in Command of the Army 

of the Potomac 49 

Comrade Evans on the March to 

Gettysburg 50 



J' AGE 

On Picket near Fairfield 51 

First Day's Fight at Gettysburg 52 
General Heth's Statement of His 

Loss 53 

Werts' Account of the Engage- 
ment of July 1, 1863 54 

Engagement at Lutheran Semi- 
nary 55 

Back to Cemetery Ridge — Colonel 

Brown's Account 56 

Werts' Description 57 

Fox on the First Corps 57 

Major Biddle's Official Report of 

the Battle 58 

Berdan's Sharpshooters Feed the 

121st Penna. Vols 60 

Werts on the Artillery Duel of 

July 3 60 

Colonel Chapman Biddle's Official 

Report 61 

A Review- of the Campaign by 

Chapman Biddle 63 

Middleburg, Warrenton Junction 

to Rappahannock Station 65 

One Year in the Service 66 

Culpeper Court-house — Execu- 
tion of a Deserter 67 

Picketing along the Rapidan.... 68 
At Kelly's Ford — Back to Centre- 

ville 68 

Army Wagon Train 68 

Thoroughfare Gap — Bristoe Sta- 
tion 69 

Cedar Run "Camp" — A Female 

Secessionist 70 

A Hunt for Guerillas — Petition to 

General Lee 71 

A Gambler "Jugged" 72 

Paoli Mills — Resignation of Col. 

Chapman Biddle 73 

Culpeper — Winter Quarters — In- 
spection 74 

Resignation of Lieutenant-Colonel 

Alexander Biddle 75 

Transferred to Fifth Army Corps 75 



CONTENTS. 



Across the Rapidan 75 

Wilderness TG 

Brock Road 78 

Spottsylvanla — Laurel Hill 81 

North Anna 83 

Totopotomay — Bethesda Church.. 84 

Cold Harbor 85 

Petersburg 86 

Jerusalem Plank Road — Fort Hell 87 

Weldon Railroad 90 

Third Brigade, Third Division, 

Fifth Corps 91 

Poplar Grove Church 92 

Apple-jack Raid 94 

Hatcher's Run 95 

Boydton Plank Road 97 

Five Forks 97 

The Surrender 98 

■Dedication of Gettysburg Battle- 
field Monuments 105 

Captain Joseph G. Rosengarten's 

Address 106 

Walter L. C. Riddle's Address... 126 
Col. Alexander Biddle's Narrative 127 

Comments of Public Ledger 133 

Appendix 137 

Regimental Commanders 137 

Brigades in which the 121st 

Penna. Vols. Served 138 

Brigade Commanders 138 

Captain James Ashworth 139 

Jacob Benedict 140 

The Bingham Brothers 141 

Lieutenant George W. Brickley. . 142 

Lieutenant J. K. Byers 143 

Captain Joshua L. Childs 143 

Sergeant-Major Charges Colling- 

wood Connelly 144 

Lieutenant-Colonel Elisha W. 

Davis 145 

Captain William White Dorr. . . . 146 
Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas M. 

Hall 147 



S'AGE 

Sidney Heckard 149 

Captain Henry Harrison Herpst. 150 

J. H. Holman 150 

Captain Charles F. Hulse 151 

Chambers Lawrence 152 

Captain James Harrison Lambdin 152 

Corporal Reuben McConnell 153 

Alexander McDowell 154 

Sergeant Samuel C. Miller 154 

Hon. Thomas A. Morri.son 154 

Captain George E. Ridgway 155 

First Sergeant Edward Scheerer. 155 
First Sergeant William Strong.. 157 
Colonel James Spencer Warner. . 158 
One of the Three Hundred Fight- 
ing Regiments 159 

Revised List of Killed and Mor- 
tally Wounded 162 

Biddle's Brigade, July 1, 1863, at 

Gettysburg 166 

The Yankee Cheer and the Rebel 

Yell 171 

Our Color Bearers 172 

Narrative of Lieutenant Richard 

A. Dempsey 174 

Prison Life in Dixie 194 

Seriously Wounded at Gettysburg 197 
The First Day of the Battle of 
Gettysburg, by Colonel Chap- 
man Biddle 202 

Extract from Memoir of Chapman 

Biddle ; 236 

Roster— Field and Staff 247 

Company A 248 

Company B 254 

Company C 259 

Company D 264 

Company E 269 

Company F 274 

Company G .» 282 

Company H 286 

Company I 289 

Company K 294 



3 J906